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improvement has not been attempted, or that is incapable of receiving it, is a somewhat rare occurrence. Here, however, I ought to state, that my means of observation are limited, and, in the main, confined to such views as could be obtained from the windows of a quickly-passing carriage. In such parts of the island, as, from the nature of the soil, greater vigor of the climate, or other cause, the agricultural capability of the soil is less easy of development, the end arrived at in the more favored portions is attained by a still more highly improved system of husbandry: so that, go where one will, there appears everywhere fertility, and luxuriance of vegetation; and England may be described as one great garden.

Now, it seems to me that the beauty of the landscape in England depends very much upon this superior quality of its cultivation, and this natural or acquired fertility of its soil, with the luxuriance of vegetation that is a consequence of both, and to which also its moist and mild climate perhaps essentially contributes, by keeping both hills and valleys constantly clothed with a green, of whose vividness we in America have no counterpart, unless it be for a short time in the opening of the year. I cannot conceive of beauty as combined with barrenness and desolation. A barren, sandy desert is an abomination; and though a naked, lofty mountain may be grand, and a wild, rocky country picturesque, yet, without fertility and cultivation, such, to me, arc without beauty. In Swiss or Alpine scenery, with lofty mountains thousands of feet high, often sheer perpendicular rocks, on whose tops the snow nevtr melts, yet whose lower slopes are clothed with trees, and at whose bases lie fertile and highly-cultivated valleys, it is, as it seems to me, the luxuriance of vegetation and the cultivation that give to the scene its beauty, and that, with the grandeur of the mountains, produce a landscape of combined beauty and sublimity, that, without this fertility and cultivation, would lose its principal charm, but that with these, though without the mountains, would still have many attractions.

It is hardly safe or proper to draw any definite or fixed conclusion from a partial experience, and with limited means of observation ; but it seemed to me, that, for certain agricultural purposes (1 refer especially to making hay), comparatively little use is made of agricultural machines in England. How it may be with those for other purposes, I have no means of knowing. During a somewhat extended journey in the west and south of England in the height of the haying season, and while the farmers were everywhere busy in cutting and securing it, I saw but very few mowing-machines, — not more than half a dozen,—and still fewer hay-makers; while the scythe and hand-rake were in general use. In a country so ready and prompt to avail itself of the introduction of all discoveries and improvements as England is, this somewhat surprised me; and I can only account for it by supposing, that, comparatively, the hay-harvest is of less consequence, and the breadth of land devoted to grass of not much extent, so that the outlay for machines to cut it cannot be afforded; or else that the greater cheapness, than with us, of manual labor, makes the use of this more economical. What further I may have to say in reference to these or kindred subjects must be deferred to a subsequent opportunity, should such present itself. Joseph S. Cabot.

Paris, Franxe, Oct. 15, 1867.

. Mr. John S. Collins of Burlington County, N.J., writes us in relation to the Wilson Early Blackberry, and corrective of some points in Mr. Morris"s article in a previous number of the Journal. He excepts to the statement that the Wilson blossoms in advance of the Lawton; as with him, only ten miles away from Mr. Morris, the case is very different, having frequently noticed that they do not blossom any earlier. In fact, he generally finds the Lawton to be first in bloom. He says, " I generally see the Lawton blossoms first, sometimes causing me to think they (the Wilson) were going to be behind time that season ; but the blossoms came out nearly together, as does the fruit grow, the smallest berries being quite well grown by the time the first are ripe: hence the short time in which the crop can be gathered. It is questionable with me whether er.rly blossoming is a sure indication of earliness, as our latest varieties of apples blossom first. And the same may be said of strawberries. The Downer Prolific blossoms late, but ripens early: the Lady-finger blossoms early, but ripens late. Hence the great disparity in the value of the two varieties as a market-crop; as the last-named is generally cut off by late frosts, while the Downer is one of the most certain: and, for that reason, the Wilson Early is the more valuable on account of its blooming with other varieties."

Mr. Collins also states that the original plant was not transferred to a garden in which the Lawton had long been domesticated. He saw the mother-plant in the garden referred to, with no Lawton there; and the proprietor informed him that no Lawton nor any other variety of blackberry had ever been in the garden. The Wilson, thus standing alone, had always borne well. But Mr. Collins is now inclined to think it would have borne better had there been some other variety growing near, "As experience shows me, that, however well it may fruit when planted alone, the berries grow more uniformly large, and ripen nearer together, when set out close to Lawton or Kittatinny; which is little, if any, real disadvantage; because, if a person wishes to have ten acres of Wilson's Early to fruit, he would be likely to want at least a fourth of Kittatinny or Lawton to continue the use of pickers, boxes, &c. By planting every third or fourth row with the latter varieties, the plantation could be picked with little inconvenience; and as for getting plants out of a fruiting-plantation, it is poor policy, as are the plants in quality. Better devote a piece of ground to plants exclusively, where they could be dug with roots, or without endangering next season's fruit-crop; the plants for which should be cultivated, which cannot be done to advantage, and allow suckers to grow, too, between the rows."

Grapes In 1867.Some Of The Newer Varieties. — The Cynthiana (synonyme, Red River). — This grape is, perhaps, the most valuable of our native varieties for red wine. It is closely related to the Norton's Virginia, and, in fact, resembles it so closely in foliage, bunch, and berry, that it is only by carefully comparing the fruit, but more especially the wine, that even the best judges can distinguish the difference. I obtained it some nine years ago from Prince & Co. of Flushing, N.Y. It is said to be a native of Arkansas, found on Red River. It has fruited with me eight summers; has been uniformly healthy, hardy, and productive; and I am satisfied that it is well adapted to this latitude. Several spurious varieties have been sent out from Eastern nurseries under this name, against which the public should be on their guard. The true Cynthiana, as remarked before, resembles Norton's Virginia so closely in growth and foliage, that few will see the difference. The berry is a trifle larger, somewhat more juicy, not quite so astringent. It will make a dark-red wine of very delicate flavor; which will, on that account, please the wine connoisseur better than the Norton. It has not as much astringency; which latter quality makes the Norton's Virginia invaluable as a wine for medical purposes. Wine of the Cynthiana has been sent to Europe, and was there pronounced the finest red wine which they had yet tested. It is, no doubt, one of the most valuable and reliable grapes for our latitude. Specific gravity of the must by Ouhsles scale this saison, a hundred and twenty degrees.

Martha. — This bids fair to be one of the most valuable for white wine. Exceedingly hardy, healthy, and productive, it has all the good qualities of its parent, the Concord, though perhaps not as showy for market. Bunch medium, shouldered, moderately compact; berry medium, round, pale-yellow, with white bloom, translucent, thin skin; generally but two seeds in a berry; very sweet, juicy, somewhat foxy. It has fruited with me four seasons, and has shown no sign of disease as yet. Specific gravity of the must, ninety-two degrees,—just ten degrees more than the Concord. I have made some wine of it this season, and shall report on it in due time.

Maxatawney. — This has fruited only once herewith me, and was the best .white table-grape I had on my grounds. I am not certain, however, whether it has spirit enough for wine. It seems to be hardy, healthy, and productive; is a fine grower, and better in quality than Rebecca, while it will produce four times as much. Bunch medium, rather loose; berry medium, oblong or oval, golden yellow, with a slight pale-red tinge on the sunny side; translucent; very sweet and juicy. Specific gravity of the must, eighty-two degrees.

If these reports on varieties should prove interesting to your readers, they may be continued through future numbers. Of course, they have only a local character; and I wish to have them appear only as such. I should be glad to see similar reports from different sections of the country. If they come from strictly reliable sources, it would give the grape-growing public an idea what would suit their latitude best, and what they should try in their locality. Of over a hundred varieties I have tried, I have found only fifteen to twenty really desirable; and would like to save others some of the rather expensive experiments I have had to make. I have bought many a vine with a very fine name, which was said to combine all the excellences of the native and foreign varieties, at from three to five dollars each, which I have had to cast aside as worthless, after fostering it with the utmost care for several years. This has taught me to be very cautious in what I buy, and what to recommend. I recommend no variety {or general culture in our locality now unless it has fruited with me at least Jive seasons, and proved to be healthy, hardy, and of superior quality, either for wine or the table. Can we not get this practice generally introduced, instead of the sickening and exaggerated praises of varieties which have only fruited with their originator one or two seasons? George Husmann.

Hermann, Mo., Oct. 8, 1867.

The Minuter Fungi On Ripening Foliage. — At this season of the year, when the fall of the leaf is preceded by its rich and splendid tints, the curious eye can readily detect a number of minute specks, spots, and discolorations. which are due to the presence of fungi. The oak, the elm, the maple, are particularly liable to these; and almost, if not quite, all the leaves of deciduous plants are subject to the same conditions.

To attempt an explanation of their presence \voul3 be as futile as to attempt perpetual motion, especially under the present state of our knowledge of the occult operations in Nature. To find a remedy for the mildews on the grape and the gooseberry, for the spots of incipient decay on the apple and pear, or the bitter rot on some particular sorts of apple, might be desirable, but hardly possible. That they yield to sulphur, seems to merely indicate an affinity to certain skin-diseases in the human frame; and even this the more effectually when immediately and externally applied. By what possible way, soil, sulphurously prepared, can ward off the yellows in the peach or the "curl in the leaf," as has been averred, is not so evident. Yet some facts well authenticated of the success of such treatment is worth a great deal of theory. Whatever causes injury or ill health to a living plant seems to induce the presence of these minute forms; but from whence they immediately proceeded, or how they came, we have as yet no means of knowing. Their complicated and varied internal structure, vying with that of the highest organizations, indicate to the reflecting mind some design in the presence, and some use in their action. It belongs more particularly to the operative horticulturist to ward off their presence if possible. Under what conditions they appear, how they affect the plant they infest, and on what species each kind delights itself; how polymorphal their different aspects; how to classify and arrange them so as to be readily recognized, — these and kindred subjects, in which minute observation and common sense combined will be called into play, it is the province as well as the privilege of the naturalist to enjoy. Meanwhile, no one can be insensible to thei." economy in Nature; and the most pleasure, instruction, and profit we can get from them, it seems to me, decidedly all the better. To such a class of readers and thinkers, observers and lookers-about; to those more or less given to study into the wonders which lie around them, finding "sermons in stones, and books in the running brooks,"' — no fact connected with these lowest forms of vegetable existence will be trivial or nonsensical.

The relations in general aspect which one kind of life bears to some other are at once obvious. Circles of black dots on a grayish-white, scaly ground, and seen on our hardest granite rocks, indicate a lichen with its black fruitspecks. Similar concentric circles, with little papillae of black specks, show upon the apple-skin the presence of a fungus known as Dothidca or Asteroma pomigena. Another but similar species checkers the crimsoning leaf of the herb Robert Geranium, and adds much to its charms.

The yellow foliage of the dying clover will become flecked with irregular specks of vegetation due to some such cause; and every other leaf, perhaps, of many species of grasses, is adorned with longitudinal lines or chinks of the Puccinia graminis.

Beautiful stains appear earlier in the season on growing foliage, which mark the coming of some fungus, which, later, will hasten its decay, or add a grace to its perishing and ripened condition. Such may be seen on the foliage of the red garden-currant, on the leaves of several sorts of roses, and on the foliage of plants which borrow beauty from their approach. Singular abnormal growths, simulating these fungi, also die, and stain with rich pencillings and dashes of violet, crimson, purple, or golden tints, the leaves of the poplar, the hawthorn, the crab-apple, the quince, and the maple; some of these fantastic, and others more modest and simple.

No portion of the tissue escapes. Particular kinds affect only the midrib, others the angles of the veins, and others the broader and general surface. Even the petiole, or leaf-stalk, of some plant, bears its appropriate parasite; and the roots, and that portion of the trunk or stem buried beneath the soil, may sustain its subterranean funji. To suppose that these productions are the results of accident or of chance, or come immediately from defective cultivation, which preparation of the ground by empirical rules can obviate, does not appear to be according to reason or common sense; and marks a hasty conclusion in the premises, which an acquaintance with other facts would modify.

Jjhn L. Russell.

Apple-stocks.— One would think that enough trees had been raised to supply all the West; but I have lately seen a sight that would almost lead to the conclusion that orchards were yet unplanted, and every farm was to be supplied. I refer to a twenty-acre plantation of the seedling apple-trees, from seed sown this spring by Skinner and Wedgewood. It is on new prairie, about seven miles from their orchard at Marengo, — along distance to go back and forth; but it is found cheaper to go this distance, and have new, strong land, clear of weeds, than to fight weeds nearer home. The seeds were sown in rows about two feet apart, with a drill made specially for the purpose, and drawn by a horse. They have been hand-hoed, and cultivated with a single cultivator. They stand very thick in the rows; so crowded, that it would seem they would hardly have room for a healthy growth: but with strong, new ground/excellent cultivation, and a favorable season, they have made an astonishing growth, stocky, and of uniform height. Take the whole twenty acres of beautiful darkgreen, and I doubt whether the world has ever produced its equal.

I understand that the whole crop has been contracted by F. K. Phoenix of Bloomington, and it is estimated at two or two and a half millions. These, if planted in a row, two rods apart in the row, would reach half-way round the earth. When grafted, the number will be about doubled. Many think it a bad practice to make more than one tree from each seedling; insisting that the scion in root-grafting should be set upon the collar of the seedling-root. But, as long as seedlings are as scarce as they have been for a year or two, nursery-men will probably continue to use pieces of roots. To change the subject, let me give

A Hint about canning Fruit. — Many of the cans in use are sealed up with a preparation of wax and rosin, which accomplishes the work perfectly; but, as

VOL. IL 47

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