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quality, that everybody and their relations will go into the country next year and cultivate fruits, and subscribe for " The American Journal of Horticulture." Ridcewood, N.J. A. S. Fuller.

The Apple-borer (Saperda bivittata). — Few persons are fully aware of the injury done by this pest among the apple and quince trees, both in the orchard and nursery. In the older States they have become quite numerous, especially in sections where there are many old and neglected apple-trees in the mowing fields and pastures. It is a quiet, silent enemy, but yet one that has the power to, and often does, ruin young orchards. These borers are the larva? of a beetle called Saperda bivittata, which is found about among the apple and other trees during the month of June. It is active in the night-time, when it deposits its eggs on the bark near the ground. These eggs'soon hatch, and develop a fleshy, yellowish-white grub, with a small, brownish head. This grub, or worm, soon eats or cuts its way through the bark of the tree into the solid wood, working upwards, and pushing out its castings as it goes, which are scarcely discernible at first, but become more so as the grub increases in size. The beetle will sometimes lay its eggs in the crotch of a tree, or even under the rough bark, along the body of the tree, where the eggs hatch, and the grubs work into the tree. Sometimes they work downwards the first year into the roots of the tree, and the second year work upwards; and sometimes they work nearly round a tree, almost girdling it. Generally the second year, but sometimes not until the third year, they work upwards and outwards near the bark of the tree, and here undergo a change, and become a beetle, when they gnaw a round hole through the bark, and come out, to follow in the same course of the many generations that have preceded them. It is during the months of June and July that the eggs are laid; and the active operations of the insect are wholly in the night, keeping quiet by day. Apple-trees that have been cut down and examined show that the borer had completely riddled the tree for a foot up from the roots, which has often been the cause of the death of the tree. A great many young apple, quince, mountain-ash, thorn, and other trees, are injured or ruined by these insects, often being so completely girdled as to be blown off by the wind. It is, perhaps, one of the worst enemies that the orchardist has to encounter; and the inquiry naturally arises, "What can be done to abate the evil?" The most effectual way to prevent it is to keep the rough bark scraped off the apple-trees, that they may find no convenient place to deposit their eggs; and then, armed with a stout, sharp-pointed knife, and a flexible wire, examine the trees once every ten days or two weeks for a month or two after the beetles have laid their eggs, and occasionally all through the season, and with the point of the knife pick out the little grubs; and, where they have entered the wood too far for that, run the wire up the hole, and punch them to death. Some recommend plugging the hole; others, the use of camphor put into the holes; and still others recommend a gouge with w'.iich to dig tliem out: but this last is severe practice, trees often being injured as much from the too free use of this instrument as they would have been by the grubs. The knife and wire are the very best tools. The castings can readily be seen, especially if the examination be made after a spell of fair weather: several will frequently be found in the same tree. No good orchardist will neglect to apply some remedy against the ravages of this insect, which saps the life of the tree. Dwarf pear-trees, when not set low enough to cover the quince-stock, are liable and quite likely to be destroyed by the borer; for it seems to like quince-wood even better than the apple. It seldom attacks the pear; though it has been known to lay its eggs on this tree, which have hatched, the larvae entering the tree, but not seeming to flourish there. Some doubt if it be the same as the apple-borer, but a species of Algeria, jEgeria Pyri. This latter is not so great an evil as the apple-borer. Use every available means to destroy these insects if you would preserve your orchards from injury, or, in the case of apple-trees, from absolute destruction.

Peach-tree Borer {/Egeria exitiosa). — As but few peach-trees have been cultivated in New England for the past few years, little has been said or written on the subject of the peach-borer; though, if a careful examination were made into the facts, it would be found that this insect had much to do with the failure of this very valuable fruit. Now that the prospects of the peach are improving, and people are setting more trees, it becomes quite important that proper attention should be given to the subject, and every precaution taken to protect the trees that are now being or may hereafter be set.

In years past, the disease known as the yellows destroyed whole orchards, no doubt; but the failure of many trees has been charged to this disease that were actually attributable to borers. The eggs are laid by the insect in the form of a moth, much in the same way as by the apple-borer, on the trunk of a tree, near the roots. These eggs hatch; and the young borers penetrate the bark and wood, causing the tree to "gum out." The eggs are laid during several months, producing successive generations of borers, which remain in the tree until the following summer, when they emerge in the form of a moth, to carry on the work of destruction as preceding generations have done. The same borer is often found in the warts or excrescences that are seen on the cherry and other trees. Like the apple-borer, they frequently deposit their eggs in the branches of trees, the grubs working into the bark. In order fully to prevent the ravages of this insect, it becomes necessary to examine the trees carefully from time to time, all through the season, using a pointed knife, and picking out the worms of different sizes. This is a sure way to prevent harm. Some use wood-ashes, placing it about the base of the tree, heaping it up cone-like; others use birchbark or paper, wound around the tree from the ground upwards six to ten inches, which may be removed at the approacli of winter, when a careful examination should be made to see if any of the insects have made their way over or through the protector. A story is told of an old lady who leased a place some years ago, on which she set out some peach-trees, which grew and flourished for a while, but, after a time, gave evidence of disease; about which time she was notified by the landlord to quit the premises, which she was very loath to do. In her anger, it is said, she heated some water boiling hot, and poured it around many of the peach-trees; at the same time saying she would fix the trees, so that they would not do the owner of the property much good. The story goes on to say, that after she left the place, thinking she had killed the trees, those same trees grew and flourished, and bore fruit, as they had never done before, — the hot water having the effect to destroy the peach-borers, which were the only cause of the former decline of the trees. Though this story seems to be absurd, yet there can be little doubt that the entire destruction of the peach-borer in an orchard would often produce as great an improvement as was said to have taken place in the old woman's orchard. These borers seem to sap the very life of the tree; to poison the sap, and destroy its vitality. See to it that none are allowed to find a breeding-place to perpetuate the evil.


Princess Of Wales Pear. — This new pear was raised by the Rev. John Huyshe, of Clysthydon (Eng.), from a cross between Marie Louise and Gansel's Bergamot. "About the year 1830, Mr. Huyshe fertilized the former with the pollen of the latter, and from the fruit so produced he obtained three seeds; which being sown, in due time resulted in the three varieties now known as Huyshe's Prince of Wales, Victoria, and Princess of Wales, the last of which" forms the subject of our engraving.

"Princess of Wales is not one of the largest of these varieties, it being surpassed in this respect both by Prince of Wales and Victoria. Yet it is not a small fruit, but one of good average size, and measuring fully three inches long by two and a half inches broad. Its shape is variable, as may be seen by the cut annexed, in which one fruit is represented as rather more cylindrical than the other, and with 'a waist,' as Mr. Huyshe happily termed it. The skin is of a smooth lemon-color, mottled and traced all over with thin cinnamon-colored russet similar to that of Marie Louise. The eye is open, with erect, acute segments, and set in a rather shallow basin. The stalk is short and" stout, and inserted in a deepish cavity. The flesh is of a deep-yellow color, smooth-grained, very melting and juicy, richly flavored, and with a high aroma. The fruit is ripe in the end of November, and will keep on till Christmas; so that it is not one of those numerous varieties which are in use in early autumn when so many other kinds are ripe, but comes in at a time when good pears are really scarce and valuable." — Florist and Pomologist.

Tropjeolum Tricolorum. — Twenty years ago, this beautiful greenhouse climber was to be seen at the early summer exhibitions ; but now it is seldom or never shown, and it is rarely that one meets with a well-grown specimen of it even in private collections,— a circumstance which is not easily accounted for, as the plant is very readily increased, easily grown, very beautiful, and lasts a considerable time in flower. Its flowers show to great advantage under artificial light, which makes it invaluable for in-door decoration. I am rather partial to this pretty climber, and beg to offer a few remarks on its culture, in the hope that it may be again as extensively grown as its merits justly entitle it to be.

The tubers, when in a dormant state, should be kept in dry sand, and in z safe place, where mice (which are very fond of them) cannot get to them. In general, they begin to grow during the month of September. As soon as it is perceived that they are starting, they should be at once potted into pots of the size they are to flower in. Pots from eight to ten or twelve inches in diameter, according to the size of the tuber, will be sufficiently large. The pots should be well drained; and a little sphagnum should be placed over the potsherds, to prevent the soil from getting amongst them: a little rotten dung placed on this will be found beneficial. They will grow in almost any kind of light soil; but the following compost answers well: One-half turfy loam, one-fourth part fibrous peat, and one-fourth part rotten dung, well mixed together with a good sprinkling either of sand or bone-dust, the latter being preferable. The compost should be in a proper state when used, — neither too dry nor too wet, — and should be pressed tolerably firm in the pots. The roots should be planted in the centre of the pots, leaving the tops just above the soil.

The trellis on which to train the plants should be placed in the pot at once, and made so fast to a wire below the pot-rim that it will not move. This is a matter of some importance, as, if the trellis is not made firm, the least movement of it would, by a sudden jerk, break off the young shoots from the crown. Some attention must also be paid to properly attaching the young shoots to the trellis. The kind of trellis is a mere matter of taste. I have seen a great variety used; but I like the balloon-shape, or rather a modification of it, as well as any.

A few days after potting, a gentle watering from a rose water-pot should be given to settle the soil nicely around the tubers. The plants will not then require much watering until they begin to root into the soil and grow freely; and then, when water is given them, it should be in sufficient quantity to go through the entire mass of soil. During the autumn and winter months, they should be kept in the warmest part of the greenhouse, where the temperature during the winter should not be less than 50° by day, and not below 45° at night .

As the days lengthen, and they get more sun, towards spring they will grow rapidly, and will require almost daily attention in tying in the shoots: the plant should also be turned round every two or three days, especially when grown on balloon-shaped trellises, so that all may be well covered. Towards April, their flowers will begin to expand: a little clear manure-water will then be very beneficial to them two or three times a week. By the early part of May they will begin to be pretty full of flowers, and should be removed to the conservatory, where they will continue in great beauty for several weeks.

As soon as the flowers begin to fade, the plants should be removed to the warmest part of the greenhouse to mature their seeds properly. As the foliage and stems show signs of decay, water must be gradually withheld; and, when the stems are quite dead, the tubers must be taken out of the pots, and placed in dry sand until the following autumn. As seeds ripen freely, any quantity of plants can by this means be obtained. I have had them come up as freely as peas. I find the seeds germinate best when the pots are on the hot-water pipes in a pine-pit.

Gymnogramma Chrysophylla (the Golden Fern) Culture. — This plant requires a night temperature of not less than 55° in winter, and a moist atmosphere without the foliage being wetted. Old plants never do so well as those, which, from being very small, are liberally treated until they become specimens, after which they gradually decline. Take a small plant in, say, a four-and-a-halfinch pot; pot it at once into an eight-inch pot, draining the pot to one-fourth its depth, and using a compost of old cocoa-nut refuse one-half, turfy yellow loam one-fourth, and fibrous brown peat one-fourth, adding one-sixth of silver sand, the whole well mixed and broken with a spade, but not sifted. Pot rather deeply, but not so much so as to cover the crown. The plant should be set in the lightest part of the house, have room on all sides, and be not more than eighteen inches from the glass. The soil should be kept moist, but not wet, until the roots are working freely; and the temperature may range from 6o° to 65° by night. By day, it maybe 700 without sun, and from 8o° to 85° with it, shade being afforded from nine, A.m., to four, P.m., when the sky is clear; but, when cloudy, do not shade at all. No shade will be needed from October to April. The plant must always have the soil moist: but no water should be given until it is really needed; then afford a supply sufficient to show itself through the bottom of the pot. If the plant grow as well as we expect, it will need a shift by the end of July, or at latest by the third week in August, so that the pot may be filled with roots before winter, as it will be in six weeks after potting if a ten-inch pot be given. From this time, no more water should be given than is sufficient to prevent the soil becoming dry; and, if a sufficiently moist atmosphere be maintained, it will winter safely in a temperature of 6o° at night, and occasionally as low as 55°, or even 50°; but this degree must be seldom reached. In March, give a shift into

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