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acquainted with the business. A man should hold the tree with one hand, and with the other straighten out the roots, placing them in the true and natural position, or in such a position as will induce them to grow readily. Then let another person, with a shovel, scatter into the hole the best of soil ; the man who is holding the tree, all the time working the same in among the roots with his hand, making sure that every crevice is well filled, and occasionally putting in his foot to press down the earth when the hole is nearly full, and, when quite full, giving the soil a good treading-down about the tree to hold it in its proper position.
Tree-planting should never be attempted unless the soil is dry enough to be easily sifted in among the roots. A good rule would be, that, when the soil is dry enough to be planted with field-crops, it would do to plant trees. If quite large trees are to be set out, more care should be exercised than with small ones in arranging the roots, filling in the earth, and pressing down the soil about the roots.
A better way by far, when very large trees are to be transplanted, is to do it in winter with balls of frozen earth about them. Large trees so transplanted will hardly find out the change, but continue to grow, and, if fruittrees, even bear fruit the same year they are moved ; but this should not be allowed to any considerable extent.
In order to perform this operation successfully, the tree to be moved should be dug about on the approach of freezing nights ; digging as far from the tree as desirable, according to the size of the same, and letting the earth freeze firmly, and at last digging completely under, so that all the roots will be severed, and the ball of earth frozen hard.
The place to which the tree is to be moved having been kept covered up with old hay, seaweed, or something else, to prevent the ground from freezing, a hole may be dug sufficiently large to admit the ball with a little space round it. Such trees can be transported from place to place by loading them on a stone drag or "float," and dragging them to the place where they arc to be set: if there is a light fall of snow, they will slip along all the better.
Place the tree in the hole at the proper depth; and fill up the spaces between the frozen ball and the sides of the hole, treading it down as firmly as possible. Then it will be necessary to support the tree in its place
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either by placing large stones about the roots, or by using ropes or wires to serve as "guys," running from part way up the tree down to stakes driven into the ground, that they may not be swayed by the wind. The transplanting of such large trees is quite expensive, and it is not advisable to resort to it generally.
It may be well to consider also the time of planting the various trees. Many contend that autumn is the better time to attend to this work ; while others are equally sanguine that spring is the only time when this work can be successfully performed, when all the genial influences of the season combine to bring forward the buds, leaves, and blossoms. Now, we think it may safely be said, that, wherever the winters are severe, the fallplanting of stone-fruit and evergreen-trees is not safe, unless, perhaps, the latter are set quite early, say in August or the first of September. Neither has it been found quite so profitable to plant grape-vines at this season of the year as in spring. Our experience does not lead us to favor planting small fruit-trees, bushes, grape-vines, or small ornamental trees and shrubs, with some exceptions, in the fall of the year.
But we have planted large pear, apple, and other deciduous trees, to great advantage. Trees, whether planted in fall or spring, will be greatly benefited the following summer, especially if it should prove a dry season, by a liberal mulching of hay, straw, leaves, or any thing of that kind that will retain the moisture. This should be raked away in the following autumn, for fear of damage to the trees from mice that may harbor in this loose material. The merest tyro for whom this article has been written, if he will follow the directions given, may plant his trees so as to insure fair success. The old experienced tree-planter may possibly have a better way of his own.
Propagating Daphne Cneorum. — This plant is best propagated by layering into small pots placed in the ground around the plants. Any disposable bushy shoots put in the soil up lo the leaves, and pegged securely about an inch below the surface, will succeed. It is not necessary to make a slit or cut; but that facilitates the rotting. Shoots layered in June will be well rooted by the autumn.
These lovely and popular flowers are true violets; they being all descended from the well-known heart's-ease, or lady's-delight, which is botanically known as Viola tricolor, — the three-colored violet.
This little flower is always a favorite; and though, in old gardens, it may increase to such an extent as to become a weed, if we adopt the apt definition that a "weed is a flower out of place," yet even in its abundance it is cherished, and from sunny nooks opens its cheery blossoms even in the inclement months of winter.
The heart's-ease will grow of itself, and care for itself, summer and winter, increase by self-sown seed, and bloom from January to December; but its high-born relative, the pansy, is by no means so easy of culture, and often defies every effort of the florist.
In the first place, our climate is against the successful culture of this flower. Our summers are too hot, and the flowers dwindle, and grow smaller: so only in spring and autumn do we get large pansies. The plants are impatient of drought, and are often dried up and lost in July and August.
Again: our winters are very severe upon the plants, which seldom survive alternate freezing and thawing. If, however, protected by snow, or a thin covering of litter, they often give good spring-bloom.
We are thus forced to grow our pansies in a frame; and we propose to tell our readers just how we do it. At any time from the first of July to the middle of August, having procured seed of the finest strain, sow it rather thinly, broadcast, in a frame, in good light but rather fine soil; cover it lightly; give a watering with a very fine rose from a water-pot; draw on the sash, and shade from the direct rays of the sun, giving also a little air if the frame becomes too hot.
In a few days, the young plants will make their appearance. Let them grow, giving water, light, and air as may be required, but being careful not to water too freely, as the plants are liable to damp off. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into another frame, into a fine rich, loamy soil, or into a moist sheltered bed in the flower-garden, setting the plants about six inches apart. Let them grow until the approach of very severe weather; then cover them with dry oak-leaves, and,
if in a frame, draw on the glass, cover it with an old mat, and let all remain until the middle of March (in New England, but earlier south of New York). Uncover the bed, taking out the oak-leaves, and the plants will be found in fine condition, and with gentle waterings, sun, and air, will soon start into growth. They will soon show bloom, and for six weeks will well repay the labor bestowed upon them.
If large plants are required, pinch out the end of the leading shoots, which will cause lateral branches to break. When the warm weatlier comes, the flowers will grow small, and will continue so through the summer; but in autumn they will again grow larger, though the late flowers are seldom equal to those produced in spring, either in color, size, form, or markings.
Water should only be given when the plants are dry. If the soil is kept too wet, the plants are liable to damp off; yet, as drought affects the plants badly, the soil should never become very dry.
Another method of growing pansies is to pot the young plants in small pots, and set them in a frame, filling coal-ashes between the pots. Treat as above directed; and, when desirable to force the plants, take them into the greenhouse.
We do not, however, recommend parlor or greenhouse culture: the pansy succeeds best in a frame or in the garden.
Seed cannot be relied upon for the propagation of varieties. Some of the dark kinds come true from seed; but it is an exception to the rule. Seed saved from a fine bed of pansies will, however, usually give very fine seedlings.
Fine varieties must be perpetuated by cuttings, which should be the sideshoots, taken off about two inches long, and set half their length in sandy loam, under a bell-glass. Shade from the direct sun and keep well watered until rooted. As soon as they begin to grow (which is a sign they are rooted), they should be carefully transplanted to the place where they are to bloom.
When plants get large and straggling, cut them down; and the young shoots which will come up make good cuttings.
The only enemies of the pansy are green fly and damp: fumigation with tobacco easily removes the former, and care in watering prevents the latter.
A pansy may be very large, showy, and well colored, and yet not be a florist's flower. The flowers which come up to the rules of perfection are