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mansion-house; and that, in spite of her good resolutions, she was making comparisons. The old home, with its neatly-whitewashed exterior and green blinds, its modest piazza, and pillars intwined with vines and flowers, rose up before her, and put to shame this unsightly house, whose former owners seemed never to have heard of whitewash, or to have needed a protection from the sun.
"Never mind the looks of things," said my father in a comforting tone; for he evidently conjectured what was passing in her mind. "We'll soon make them all right."
Inside, however, things appeared rather more endurable; and the furniture had been set in order so far as was possible, while a bright fire was blazing away in the large kitchen-stove. My mother, being a sensible helpmeet, was disposed to make the best of every thing; and so we were all set to work unpacking, and fitting the carpets, and hanging up pictures, until, before night, affairs looked quite promising. Meantime, the rain prevented any further outside views; and my mother, who well knew the potency of a little whitewash, gave herself no further uneasiness about the before-mentioned shabby exterior: all she wanted was a little time to put a new face on the picture.
We New-Englanders know but little of New Jersey. History has informed us that its early settlers were of a totally different race from that which colonized the Eastern States. They came of nearly all the European nationalities, not one of them developing the thrift and perseverance of NewEnglanders; and, having never acquired the wealth which commerce and manufactures enabled New-Englanders to secure, education flagged, enterprise was sluggish, the arts were unknown, and that of architecture seems to have been altogether lost. Hence most of the old wooden farm-houses of half a century ago are very inconvenient and homely structures. It is only since the advent of railroads and steamboats that any improvement in the building of farm-houses has been apparent. Those great appliances of human comfort brought to the door of every farmer in Central New Jersey a cash market for all that he could produce. That cash enabled him to improve the productiveness of his land by purchasing manures; and, this double process being continued, his land has been brought up to the highest condition. But discovering that it was the regenerated land which paid him the profit, not the forlorn old house in which he lived, his profits went into additional land, while the old house remained unpainted and shabby as before. He might put up new barns, because they were necessary; but, according to his utilitarian philosophy, the old wooden homestead was good enough.
These unsightly houses are still abundant in New Jersey. Every stranger notices them, and is astonished at the absence of taste and skill displayed in their construction. Ambitious settlers are compelled to buy such, and build or alter for themselves. The march of architectural taste is gradually sweeping them away, either by pulling down or remodelling; and already the marks of a more cultivated taste are evident in the new structures built by the numerous New-England and Northern men who have recently come to settle here.
It was one of these time-worn shingle houses that my father had been compelled to purchase. The land was exactly what he wanted; and, to secure that, he was forced to take the house. But we adapted ourselves to its inconveniences without complaint, trusting that the future would enable us to improve it. II.
Asters In Pots. — About the middle of March, sow the seeds rather thinly in pans, and place these under a frame on a mild hot-bed, and near the glass. When up, keep the young plants near the glass, and afford plenty of air. When they are large enough to handle, prick them off in pans, return them to the frame, and, about the middle of May, take up with good balls, and pot in their blooming-pots, shading for a few days until established. Let the compost consist of the richest turfy loam which can be obtained, well-rotted manure, and sand in equal parts; and well drain the pots. Plunge in ashes in an open situation by the end of May, giving plenty of room. Syringe every evening; water when necessary; and liquid manure may be supplied alternately with pure water twice or thrice a week. Top-dressings of reduced manure are also good. A nine-inch pot is not too large for a plant.
THE PEMBERTON PEAR.
Dr. S. A. Shurtleff raised from the seed of Gansel's Bergamotte a prom ising young tree, which he transplanted from his garden on Pemberton Hill, Boston, to its present position in Boylston Street, Brookline, in the year 1838. It soon after fruited, bearing a pear possessing many of the characteristics of its ancestor. In 1847, a seedling from this came up, and in 1863, at the age of sixteen, bore its first fruit, which we. now figure as the Pemberton Pear.
Tree. — Purple bark, with dark-green leaves; a vigorous grower, with strong, upright shoots; scions and buds take readily, and grow rapidly; an abundant bearer.
Fruit. — Turbinate, of a bright-yellow color, with a deep-crimson cheek toward the sun; flesh melting and juicy, with a sprightly sweet flavor, of a delicate vinous character, somewhat gritty at core; medium size. Ripens about the 1st of September, and may be kept until the 20th.
The tree, with its brightly-colored fruit and handsome foliage, is quite ornamental in the garden.
This fruit has several times been exhibited at the Horticultural-Society Rooms as the General Banks.
So much has "been written upon this subject, that it seems almost or quite impossible to offer any thing that will prove of interest to the readers of this Journal. It is true, however, that there are some entering the field of horticulture every year who are novices in tree-planting, to whom even that which may appear quite simple to the experienced fruit-grower will be of great interest. If one is to plant an orchard, or even ornamental trees, he must know how to do it, if he would have them live and flourish. There is a great degree of ignorance on this subject, notwithstanding all that has been published; and even those who do know do not always pay sufficient regard to the conditions and requirements of trees and shrubs. It shall be our object to treat the subject of tree-planting so plainly, that any person of ordinary capacity may understand it sufficiently well to perform the work with a good cTegree of success.
One of the first conditions to the successful planting of trees is a good soil; and, without this, the best results cannot be expected. Presuming the soil to be favorable, then it should be trenched, or subsoiled, and, if needful, drained. If the former be clone, the soil is greatly deepened, giving the roots of the trees or plants ample opportunity to stretch themselves far and wide; though, to have them do well when planted on land that has been so treated, a large quantity of well-decomposed manure should be used, and either ploughed or dug in, because much poor subsoil is brought near the surface and mixed with the good. If the land has been so treated, the holes may be dug for the trees only large enough in diameter to conveniently allow all the roots to be straightened out, and deep enough to admit of their being planted a little deeper, say one or two inches, than they were in the nursery. It is quite important to observe this suggestion concerning the depth to which they should be planted; for trees too deeply set will either die completely, or struggle along for some years until they can throw out roots higher up, nearer the surface, after which they will usually begin to grow. Dwarf pear-trees budded higli are an exception to this rule; for as it is very desirable to get all the quince-wood below the surface, out of the way of the borers, it brings the roots quite low. In such a case, of the two evils choose the least, and plant deep; for the quince throws out roots very readily, and, in a season or two, will be furnished with a new set of roots at the proper depth.
When the ground is well prepared, and the holes dug of the proper depth, and the trees selected of the best size, the important work of planting begins. Fruit-trees two or three years old, and six or seven feet high, are the very best size to plant; though some, who wish to train them very carefully, prefer to take maiden trees, or those only one year from the bud; while still others would have very large ones. Whenever a tree is transplanted, and the roots are roughly cut with the spade, it is better to pare off smoothly the ends of all the large roots, that they may the more readily throw out little fibrous roots to support and nourish the tree. This cannot be so easily done when large trees are moved with a ball of frozen earth. Cut the root obliquely, as that will give a larger surface for the formation of rootlets. There is a difference of opinion among the best judges as to the expediency of heading in or cutting back the top of the tree when set . We have practised both ways with entire success; but we are of the opinion that it is best to shorten in the top of a tree when transplanted. This remark, of course, will not apply to evergreens, shrubs, or ornamental trees, to any great extent, but particularly to fruit-trees and grape-vines. Many of the roots having necessarily been lost in the removal of the tree, we would remove a part of the top to restore the equilibrium, to promote a more uniform and better growth, to strengthen the trees, and to render them less top-heavy, and, consequently, less liable to be blown about by the winds.
If the tree has been frequently transplanted, and is furnished with a great many fibrous roots, and is already of good shape, and not too tall, it may be better not to shorten in.
The work of planting should not be left to ignorant or careless workmen, but should either be performed by the owner or some trusty man well