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for budding. Two stocks maybe budded with each seedling. These will make strong shoots in the following year, if the budding prove successful; and these, if left unpruned, will produce flowers in the following or third year. On their own roots, the seedlings will not flower until the fifth or sixth year.
Planting Cyclamens.—Plant the corms of Cyclamen Neapolitanum in June in pots, and they bloom in autumn; of C. coum in pots in July, and they will bloom in January and onwards; of C. Atkinsi at the same time, and they will bloom in winter and early spring; of C. persicum in August, and again in September, and they will flower from November to April, according to the temperature. Pot the varieties of C. Europium in spring, and they bloom in summer; and they are the sweetest of all. C. repandum, which blooms late in spring, should be potted in autumn.
Rhododendrons For Forcing. — The best of the early-flowering hybrid rhododendrons are Russellianum, crimson-scarlet; Wellsianum, bright scarlet; Stamfordianum, rosy scarlet; Caucasicum album, white-spotted; Nobleanum, in scarlet, rose, and light varieties; Perspicuum, white; Campanulatum hybridum, white; Altaclerense, scarlet; and Broughtonianum, rosy red. Varieties of R. Catawbiense: Everestianum, lilac, spotted and fringed; Glennyanum, whitish; Grandiflorum, bright deep rose; Roseum elegans, bright rose; Roseum superbum, deep rose; Purpureum elegans, purple; and Album elegans, waxywhite, green spots. Of the late-flowering hybrid scarlets: Victoria, dark plum; Blandyanum, deep crimson; Atrosanguineum, blood-red; Alarm, white, deeply edged with light scarlet; John Waterer, glowing crimson; Maculatum purpureum, purplish-rose, much spotted; Towardii, rosy lilac; William Downing, rich dark puce, intense blotch; Lefevreanum, purplish-crimson; Coriaceum, white; Brayanum, rosy scarlet, with lighter centre; and Hogarth, rosy crimson. Of the dwarf small-foliaged kinds: Ponticum odoratum and myrtifolium, and R. hirsutum, — all pretty, free-blooming, and sweet.
Tagetes Signata (Dwarf French Marigold') is the best yellow beddingplant.— This plant promises to be a rival to the yellow calceolaria, which it resembles in size and habit; but it is even a more abundant bloomer than that very popular flower. It makes an excellent edging to larger-growing plants; and, for a line in a ribbon border, is equally valuable. The individual flowers are small; but they are produced in such abundance as to clothe the plant completely over, and this not for a week or two, but for three or four months, ending with severe frost. It can be strongly recommended for all purposes except bouquet-making.
Dielytra Spectabilis Forcing. — Keep the plants in the greenhouse until after they have flowered, giving them a light and airy situation; and, when frosts are over, remove them to a warm, open situation out of doors; plunge the pots until July, and then remove them to a south aspect, and give no water except to prevent the foliage flagging. The plants will go to rest in good time ; and, from the time of the foliage decaying, they must be allowed at least six weeks' rest.
VOL. IL 14
To make them flower at Christmas, which is very early, they should be plunged in a hot-bed of 6o° or 65° in October, and be gradually withdrawn from it by the end of the month. This will make the roots active. The plants should then be placed in a house having a temperature of 50° from fire-heat; and in a fortnight increase the heat to 55° at night, allowing a rise of 5° on dull days, lo° on those which are cloudy with clear intervals, and from 15° to 20° on clear days. In these temperatures, with a moist atmosphere, gentle bedewing overhead, sufficient but not excessive waterings at the root, plenty of light, and abundance of air on favorable opportunities, your plants will flower by or soon after Christmas; but the bloom will not be nearly so good as on plants started at a later period. If the plants are in small pots, and require potting, do it immediately after flowering, using a compost of turfy loam two-thirds, leaf-mould one-third, and a free admixture of sand. Provide good drainage.
.ieschynanthus Splendens Culture. — It requires a compost of very fibrous brown peat two-thirds, and one-third very turfy loam broken with the hand; to this add one-sixth each of charcoal, broken from the size of a pea up to that of a hazel-nut, and silver sand, and thoroughly incorporate. Good drainage is essential, not less than one-fourth the depth of the pot. The plant should be trained as a bush, putting in stakes two or three feet in height; and, after the shoots reach that height, allow them to hang loose. Shoots will be produced plentifully from the bottom, and these must be staked; for the plant, so far from being a climber, is of pendent habit, looking extremely well as a basket-plant. Do not stop the shoots, nor cut away any of the old wood, except where dead; but, when the shoots reach the tops of the stakes, allow them to hang loosely as already stated. In spring, encourage growth by an increase of temperature, and a constantly moist atmosphere, being careful not to over-water, and yet afford a plentiful supply whilst the plants are making new growths: but, after the growths are made, keep rather dry at the root, and expose to light and air; for on the well ripening of the wood depends the flowering. In winter, the plant should be kept dry at the root, and have a dry atmosphere. A temperature of 50° in winter is ample, the soil and atmosphere being dry; and, when growing, a temperature of from 65° to 700 by night, and 85° to 90° by day with sun, is desirable. It blooms from the points of the shoots and the axils of the leaves at the upper part of the shoots.
Cutting In Orange-trees. — Orange-trees may safely be cut in to the old wood; but it is by far the safer plan to thin out the old wood, leaving the best situated of the young fresh growths of preceding years. From the thinning out of the old wood, more light and air will be admitted, and those left will grow the more vigorously for it. By placing them in a vinery at work after cutting in, or in a house having a temperature of 55° at night, and which is kept moist, they would push more surely and freely. Keep them in the same house until the growths have been made, when a lighter and more airy structure will be preferable. If you cut them into the old wood, plunging the pots in a hot-bed of 70° would help the trees to break: withdraw them from the bed by degrees after they have broken well; maintain a temperature of 55° at night, and a rather close, moist atmosphere; and syringe overhead twice daily.
Removing Leaves From Cuttings. — The propriety of allowing leaves to remain on cuttings, or removing a good portion of them, depends entirely on the treatment you are able to give them. Remove not a leaf, say some; and right enough too, if you can so arrange, that by a close atmosphere, shading from sun, you can keep these leaves from flagging, — in other words, force them to absorb rather more than they perspire: then, the more leaves on the cutting, the sooner will roots be formed, and the plant established. Remove most of the leaves, say others; and, if enough are left to keep on growth, the cutting will be longer in striking; but it will require less trouble in preventing flagging from extra evaporation. Generally, the medium mode is resorted to: a few leaves are removed from the base of the cutting, and some of the other larger leaves are shortened, the smaller allowed to remain to keep on the growth. In the case of calceolarias, we generally remove the two leaves at the bottom, or the joint at which we cut across, and leave the others mostly as they are. If the cuttings are made in the end of October, they suffer little from the evaporation of their juices; but, in making cuttings of similar plants in April, it is necessary to reduce the foliage, or shelter them.
Prospects Of The Fruit Crop In New England. — The cool weather and late season have proved very favorable for the fruit crop. No frosts have occurred to injure the blossoms or young fruit, and the frequent showers have not prevented the fruit from " setting well." The crop, especially of apples, was very short last year; and it was confidently hoped, that as the trees had enjoyed a long season of comparative rest, and as last season was so favorable to the growth of the trees, and formation of buds, the yield this year would be large. This will not, perhaps, be entirely true; though there is every appearance of a tolerably fair crop, except of the well-known Baldwin, which persists in bearing almost wholly in the even years. The Roxbury Russet, American Golden Russet, Rhode-Island Greening, Seaver Sweet, Hubbardston Nonesuch, and many others, have shown a good bloom; and, on the whole, the prospect is pretty good for a crop of this indispensable fruit. In some localities, the cankerworms still continue their ravages, destroying the fruit, and permanently injuring the tree.
The pears were nearly a month later than usual in blooming, as were all the fruits: but the weather was favorable, and the fruit " set well; " and the trees are full of small pears, giving promise of a very large crop. If nothing unusual occur to prevent, the yield of this fruit will far exceed any crop we have had for several years.
The cherries have advanced rapidly, and give promise of a fair crop. This fruit has not been plenty for three or four years, though it was better last year than for a few years previous: good cherries sold for a high price in Boston market, the very best bringing twelve dollars a bushel. This is not so healthful a fruit as some we cultivate; still it is relished by many. It is reasonable to suppose, from present appearances, that the markets will be well supplied this season.
Of plums, we can only say that there was a good bloom on the few trees that have withstood the black-knot; and there will, no doubt, be something of a crop. We can spare this fruit pretty well, there are so many that are better. It never was a healthful fruit for one to eat; and it costs more than it is worth to fight curculios and black-knot, in addition to other difficulties, in order to obtain it.
There never was a better show for peaches than there is this season: every tree, large and small, bloomed profusely; and the young peaches look exceedingly well. At this, every lover of good fruit must rejoice ; for none is more luscious and healthful. Those who have been discouraged about ever growing the peach again successfully are feeling better at the prospect this season, and have planted more trees. This is right; and the only way is to keep planting every season, and good results will follow.
Of currants, gooseberries, and raspberries, there will be no lack. The prospect for the two former is exceedingly fine. The bushes seem to have entirely recovered from the effects of the severe droughts we have had; and they really appear strong, vigorous, and fruitful, as in former times.
The blackberries withstood the winter well; and though it is too early yet to determine in regard to the fruit, yet there can be little doubt but that there will be a good supply of this berry.
The grapes are looking very well; though they are backward, like every thing else. Plenty of warm weather will bring them up, so that they will ripen probably as early as in years past. The Concords, Delawares, and Hartfords left up on the posts and trellises, came through the winter full as bright as other varieties that were covered. There will be more than enough young fruit, and the vineyardist will be obliged to thin it out to save his vines.
The strawberries never looked better than they do this year. They withstood the winter finely; and, the weather having been very favorable, the vines have grown strongly, and bloomed profusely. If strawberries are not cheap this year, It is fair to conclude that they never will be.
In addition to the above, we observe that there are appearances of a great crop of wild berries ; so that it would seem clear, from present appearances, that the markets are to be well supplied with fruit of all kinds this season. We hope it may be so; for nothing is more healthful or agreeable than good ripe fruit.
J. F. C. H.
The Small Fruits In Illinois. — Wilson's Albany,—the great Market Strawberry. — Picking and Shipping — The growing of the strawberry as a field crop has made rapid progress in this State, and is now reduced to a very simple process. This season, the market in all our villages and cities will be pretty well supplied, and at very reasonable prices.
Chicago is the great distributing point, and along the Illinois Central Railroad are the great fields of supply. A daily fruit-train of five cars runs from Jonesborough— a point forty miles north of Cairo — to Chicago. The cars are such as are used by the express-companies, and carry six tons, or two hundred bushels, of strawberries each; making, at this time, a thousand bushels daily. These do not all go from Jonesborough; for South Pass and Mallaud are the two largest points of shipment.
The strawberry season lasts from three to four weeks, and is followed by the raspberry, Early-May cherry, and the blackberry; these, in turn, by early apples and potatoes. If you will look over the map, you will see that this fruit-train passes over three hundred miles of latitude: hence you see, that, in a few days, the cargo here will be an assorted one. Now it is almost exclusively of the strawberry, with perhaps a few baskets of the gooseberry and the more' early cherries. As the season of ripening fruits makes its march northward, new stations add to the freight; while the later fruits fill up the places left vacant by those passing out of season. At Chicago, the strawberry is not in full bloom; while at this point they are half grown, and the raspberry is just beginning to open. By next week the train will contain more cars, and the freights will be fully assorted.
Chicago will raise strawberries until August, when the peach, apple, and pear will supply its place.
Alton has its fruit-train also, or rather will have it in a few days. Besides these trains, the express-companies carry a large amount of fruit. But this is not all; for, at all the landings on the Mississippi River, the steamboats do a large business. The result is, that the dwellers in the great lumber-forests of the Lake region, and the miners of copper, of iron, and of lead, can have these luxuries at a reasonable price.
The Wilson is the only market-berry, and, if properly picked, will keep nearly a week. In picking, two points are observed: First, To retain a part of the stem with the head: this is done by the picker nipping off the stem with the thumb and second finger-nail. Without this precaution, the fruit will begin to decay in a day or two. When the weather is hot, and the fruit has a long distance to go, it must be picked over to see that none is sent on which the stem is not retained. Second, To pick the berries that are just red, but not too deeply colored.
The box used for shipping holds a quart, dry measure; and is called the "Halleck Box," but is a different thing from the old Halleck Patent. Three forms of the box are made, but all of them so near the same thing, that there is no real practical difference. All claim to be patented; but it is not probable that any of the patents would be found very valuable in law, and it is probable that fruit-boxes will hereafter be sold at a reasonable price. They now cost, for the material ready to be put together, eight dollars per thousand. The boxes are square in form, and are put in crates of twenty-four or thirty-six quarts: the former is the best size to handle. The material for these crates costs, for twentyfour quarts, about fifteen cents; freight, nails, and making, five cents. One boy will put up about four hundred boxes in a day. They are put together with twoand-a-half-ounce tacks made of soft iron, so that they will clinch as they are driven through the thin stuff on an iron anvil of peculiar construction made for the purpose. Cherries and other small fruits are also shipped in these boxes and crates, with the exception of gooseberries, currants, and grapes. The two former go in barrels, and the latter in shallow boxes holding some seven pounds each.