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ENCYCLOPÆDIA PERTHENSIS;

OR

UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.

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FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
AND SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA PERTHENSIS.

Not only

SA X

SA X SAXONY, the name of two circles of the Gera fer are found beau:iful pearls. This ele&orate is

man empire, an electorate, and duchy. extremely well cultivated and inhabited, and in1. SAXONY, DUCHY OF, or the ELECTORAL cludes about 250 great and small towns, upwards Cilcze of Saxony, is bounded by the circles of of sooo villages, 196 royal manors, and near as Meiffen, Leipzig, and Thuringia, the principality many royal castles, besides, privaté estates, and of Anhalt, the marche of Brandenburg, and Luía. commanderies. The provincial diets confitt of 3 $32

. The principality of Anhalt lies across it, and classes. The first is composed of the prelates, the divides it into two parts. Its greatest length and counts, and lords, and the two universities of breadth is computed to about 40 miles; but though Leipfic and Wittenberg. To the ad belong the it is watered by the Elbe, the Black Elster, and the nobility in general, immediate or mediate, that is, Muide, it is not very fruitful, the foil for the most such as stand immediately under the fief-chancery part consisting of fand. It contains 24 towns, 3 or the aulic judicatories, and such as are immédia boroughs, betwixt 400

and soo villages, 164 noble ately under the jurisdiction of the amtman. The men's estates, 11 superintendencies, 3 inspections, 3d class is formed of the towns in general. The under one confiftory, and 11 prefecturates or dif- general provincial diets are ordinarily held every tries. The present duchy of Saxony is not to be fix years; but there are others, called fele&tion dietá, confound with the old; for the latter was of a convened commonly every two years. much greater extent, and contained in it those these diets, but those in most of the other states of large tracts, ancientlycalled Easphalia, Eugern, and Germany, are at present extremely_inGgnificant Welphalia, of which the electoral circle was no and unimportant, retaining little more than the part

, but was taken by Albert the Bear, margrave madow of their former power and privileges; yet of Salzwedel, from the Vendi. His fon Bernard even the petty princes, though they depend upon obtaining the dignity of duke of Saxony from the their more potent neighbours, and must be careemperor Frederic I. the title of duchy was given to ful not to give them any umbrage, are almost as this country; and the electoral dignity having been absolute in their respective territories as the grand afterwards annexed to the duchy, it acquired feignior bimself. As to religion, it was in this thereby also the name of the electoral circle. country, that the reformation took its rise in the 4. Saxony, ELECTORATE OF, or SAXONY PRO- 16th century, to which it hath ever since adhered, PER, consists of the duchy, No 1, the greatest part according to the doctrines of Luther. The two of the Margraviate of Meiffen, a part of the Vogt. late electors, when they embraced Popery, to qua. land, and the northern half of the landgravate of lify themselves to be elected kings of Poland, Thuringia

. The Lusatias also, and a part of the gave the most folemn assurances to their people country of Henneberg, belong to it, but are no that they would inviolably maintain the establish. part of this circle. The foil of the electoral do. ed religion and its profeffors in the full and free minions lying in this circle is in general exceeding enjoyment of all their ecclefiaftical rights, privie rich and fruitful, yielding corn, fruits, and pulfe leges, and prerogatives whatsoever, in regard to in abundance, together with hops, fax, hemp, churches, worlhip, ceremonies, ulages, univerfi. tobacco , aniseed, wild faffron, wood; and in some ties, schools

, benefices, incomes, profits, jurisdica places wood, wine, coals, porcelain clay, terra tions, and immunities. The electoral families still tigillata, fullers earth, fine shiver, various forts of continue Roman Catholics, though they have lost beautiful marble serpentine ftone, and almost all the crown of Poland, for wbich they at first em the diferent fpecies of precious

fones. Sulphur, braced Popery. As to ecclefiaftical matters, the alum, vitriol, free-ftone, falt springs, amber, turf, country is divided into parishes, and these again cinnabar

, quick filver, antimony, bilmuth, arsenic, into spiritual inspections and confiftories, all subor. cobaki, and other minerals, are found in it: like- dinate to the ecclefiaftical council and upper conwife valuable mines of filver, copper, tin, lead, fiftory of Dresden, in which city and Leipfic the and iron ; and abounds in many places with horn- Calvinifts and Roman Catholics enjoy the free exs ed cattle

, sheep, borfes, and venifon The prin- 'ercise of their religion. Learning flourishes in this cipal rivers are the eile, the Black Elter, the electorate : in which, besides the free schools and Mulle

; the Saale, the Unstrut, the White Elter, gymnasia in most of the chief towns, are the two and the Pleille. These rivers, as well as the lakes celebrated universities of Wittenberg and Leipzic, and rivulets, abound in fish; and in the White El. in the last of which are also societies for the liberal

A

YOL. XX. PART I

arts

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