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tempted man. This systematic cha- necessarily abandoned or profligate. racter of the abandoned prevents the He may be, in matters of sensual interm from being applied to solitary dulgence, abstemivus, and in matters acts :

of expenditure even penurious. But “Nor let her tempt that deep, nor make the

as the abandoned man sins against shore

sobriety and self-control, so the unWhere our abandoned youth she sees principled man against justice and Shipwrecked in luxury, and lost in ease." integrity. The abandoned man injures

Prior. himself primarily, and others only REPROBATE (Lat. reprobatus, tried indirectly; the unprincipled man is and rejected) expresses that character ready to erect his own interests on in which a course of self-abandon

the ruins of the interests of others. ment to vice results; one cast away

The term unprincipled has a twofold without hope of recovery, the very

meaning, first, wanting in good prin. desire and recognition of good being “çiple, or marked by an absence of it; lost; all repentance cast off, the

in which sense it is applicable to acts, bitter becoming sweet and the light plans, or proceedings, as well as to darkness, by a confirmed blunting of persons; and secondly, not acting on the moral perception. This state

good principle, or the acting on its the abandoned has not of necessity contrary, towards others, in which it reached :

is applicable to persons only. The * Reprghite silver shall men call them be

first employment appears in the folcause the Lord hath rejected them.”Bible.

lowing, for the word is not of ancient

standing in the language :The PROFLIGATE man (Lat. profli. “ Others betake themselves to State affairs gare, to dash away or down) is he

with souls so unprincipled in virtue and true who has thrown away, and becomes generous breeding, that flattery, and courtmore and more ready to throw away, ships, and tyrannous aphorisms appear to all that the good and wise desire to them the highest points of wisdom.”-Milton. retain: as principle, honour, virtue, The second in the following: possessions. Hence it follows that

“ Whilst the monarchies subsisted, this unthe very poor or obscure man, though

principled cession was what the influence of he might be abandoned, and even

the elder branch of the House of Bourbon reprobate, could not be profligate. never dared to attempt on the younger."For profligacy is a characteristic vice Burke. of the great, the powerful, and the rich. We speak of a profligate monarch,

DEPRAVED is a term which points

to external circumstances, or nobleman, court, ministry, aristocracy; of a corrupt or demoralized,

tinued practices, which have gradually but not profligate peasantry. Pro

perverted the nature (pravus, bad, disfligacy is characterized by shameless

torted, crooked). Depravity is per, ness and defiant disregard of morals.

version of the standard of right; and The old physical use of the term

the term is employed not only of has disappeared, as in Bishop Hall's

morals but of manners, taste, and the Letter to the Pope:

arts, and even of depraved humours

of the body, which phrase illustrates " Is it for thee to excite Christian princes, the radical meaning of the term, as already too much gorged with blood, to the

corruptly departing from the state of profligation and fearful slaughter of their

wholesome function. own subjects ?”

“ When reason and understanding are deThe modern use of it appears in the prared, and as far corrupted as the very following:

passions of the heart—when then the blind

leads the blind- what else can we expect, but ** Hitherto it has been thought the highest

that both fall into the ditch?"---Sherlock. pitch of profligacy to own, instead of concealing, crimes, and to take pride in them, in- By the constant keeping of evil comstead of being ashamed of them.”Poling

pany a man's taste and character will broke.

of recessity become depraved. There The UNPRINCIPLED man is not is danger that he may become un



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principled in his dealings; that he position. The proud man is humbled, may abandon himself to allurements the conceited humiliated. The case and temptations; that he may go on

is a little different with the noun to exhibit an open profligacy of con- humiliation, which is sometimes emduct; and finally sink into the con- ployed as an independent noun instead dition of a reprobate, whom conscience of employing as a noun the participle ceases to encourage or to warn. humbling. In the phrase " a day of

fasting and humiliation,” the term ABASE. HUMBLE. DEGRADE.

conveys the idea of external selfDISGRACE. DEBASE. HUMILIATE.

humbling. DISHONOUR.

To DISGRACE is to deprive of re

spect (Lat. gratia, favour). He who There was a time when the word

disgraces himself deprives himself of ABASE (Fr. abaisser, bas, low) was used the respect of others. Disgrace is to in a purely physical sense, as by the feeling of respect what dishonour Shakespeare:

is to its outward tokens. Hence disAnd will she yet abase her eyes on me?" grace is rather in a man's self, dis

honour depends rather on others; so To abase is, now, to bring low, or lower, in such a way as

that while conscience may excite in son lowered shall be deeply conscious of

us a feeling of disgrace, we can have the lowering But this is not of

none of dishonour except it be innecessity on account of heinous guilt

flicted upon us by others. Yet in the

term disgrace there seems to be a or conduct disgraceful. That of which the person abased is primarily con

blending of the two ideas of the Latin scious is unworthiness in reference to

gratia and the English grace, namely,

internal comeliness and external fathe estimation of others or his own.

vour. The minister who is capri. It may even be meritorious to abase or humble oneself. (Of these two

ciously dismissed by his sovereign is abase is the stronger term.) This

said to be disgraced. Yet it is plain

that he is so in no other sense than never could be said of degrade or disgrace. The penitent man humbles

as being merely thrown out of favour, himself, the contrite man abases him

while, as regards his own character, self. In either case a conquest is

he is rather dishonoured than dis. gained over pride, or arrogance, or

graced. The general who is taken self-will.

captive after a gallant resistance

never could be disgraced, though he “ He that exalteth himself shall be abased,

might by an ungenerous victor be and he that humbleth himself shall be ex

dishonoured or insulted. alted.”- Bible.

“It was not meet for us to see the king's To HUMBLE (Lat. humilis, humble,

dishonour."-Bible. humus, the ground, connected with the Greek xauai, on the ground);

We have exemplifications in the two commonly bears reference to some

following of the twofold idea of grace, former condition of exaltation or

from which the double aspect of disestimate of self, as the proud man may be humbled by reverses of for- * And with sharp quips joy'd others to detune. When a man is so humbled face, that his state becomes externally Thinking that their disgracing did him manifest, or is reflected in the con


Spenser. dition and circumstances of the person “ He that walketh uprightly is secure as humbled, he may further be said to to his honour and credit ; he is sure not to be humiliated, that is, brought both

come off' disprucefully either at home, in his to a sense and a condition of humility.

own apprehensions, or abroad, in the estima

tions of men."--Barrou. So strong a part does this external element play in the word, that one DEGRADE bears reference to some who is only self-conceited may be standard or level, moral or social, bumiliated by being thrown suddenly beneath which the person degraded, into an undignified and ludicrous or who degrades himself, is supposed

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to have fallen (de, down, and gradus, a step); nor is the term confined to persons. In this point it differs from disgrace, which is applicable to persons, and not to things. So we might say :

“ Art is degraded when it is only regarded as a trade.”

* The lifting of a man's self up in his own opinion has had the credit in former ages to be thought the lowest degradation that human nature could well sink itself to.”Locke.

To DEBASE is to deteriorate or make base the intrinsic nature in regard to worth, dignity, or purity, and is only employed of material value in the case of coiu.

* The coin which was adulterated and debased in the times and troubles of Stephen."


“ Even reason itself, which, if we have any original faculties, is surely one of them, is subject to the same law of habit, as the means of improvement or of debasement.- Beattie.


To be ABASHED (Old Fr. esbahir, connected with the English bay, to gape or stand at bay as a wild beast) is to be under the influence of shame, and therefore will vary according to the degree and character of the shame felt. The over-modest are abashed in the presence of superiors, the guilty at the detection of vice or misconduct. Abase stands to the reason and the judgment as abash stands to the feelings. The former implies a sentence of unworthiness passed against oneself, the latter shows itself in the downward look, the blushing cheek, or the confused manner, and may even be the pure effect of natural modesty. “ But when he Venus viewed without dis

Her shining neck beheld and radiant eyes,
Awed and abashed, he turned his head aside,
Attempting with his robe his face to hide."

Congrere. To be CONFUSED (Lat. confundere, confusie, to pour together, or confound) denotes a state in which the faculties get more or less beyond control, when the speech falters, and thoughts lose their consistency,

though practical power is to a certain degree retained. Confused and sadly she at length replied.”

Pope. To be CONFOUNDED, though another form of the same verb, is a far stronger word, denoting an utter in. ability to exercise, to any practical purpose,

of thought and speech; the reason being overpowered by the shock of argument, or testimony, or detection. To confuse is in itself a milder term than confound. Things are confused when they are in a state of promiscuous disorder. They are confounded when their very iden. tity is lost, and they are undistinguished or indistinguishable from one another. “ So spake the Son of God, and Satan stood Awhile as mute, confounded what to say."



Of these the simplest and most widely applicable, and therefore the least specifically characteristic is LESSEN (A. S. lössa, masc., lasse, fem., less), meaning, to make, or to grow, less, as in force, bulk, number, quantity, or value.

“St. Paul chose to magnify his office when all men conspired to lessen it.”—Atterbury.

DIMINISH (Lat. diminuere, minus, less) is the exact Latin equivalent of the Saxon lessen, but is commonly substituted for lessen in the intransi. tive sense.

The receding object diminishes rather than lessens.

“I will diminish them that they shall no more rule over the nations." Bible.

ABATE (Fr. abattre, to beat down) refers to force only, the idea of which is always latent if not explicit. A storm, pain, mental emotion or excitement, the vigour of youth, abates. Of old the word had a strong active force in a physical application; as to abate, that is, beat down, the walls of a castle. This active force is still preserved, but not in its physical application.

The term has grown milder. We speak of abating pride, zeal, expectation, hope, ardour, a demand or claim, and, in legal lan.

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ABATEMENT. ( 6 ) ABETTOR. guage, of abating a writ, a nuisance, thing which strikes common obseror a tax.

The word is employed vation as unlike what it is familiar with singular force in the follow- with in similar cases. Of these the ing passage from Paley's Moral two first are terms adopted by modern Philosophy":

physical science, to the types and “ The greatest tyrants have been those productions of which they apply. whose titles were the most unquestioned.

Eccentric and exceptional are apWhenever the opinion of right becomes too plicable to other matters. The former predominant and superstitious, it is abated by term was astronomical before it bebreaking the custom."

came moral or descriptive. An ecDECREASE (Lat. de, down, and cres

centric body is one which moves in a cere, to grow) differs from dininish circle which, though coinciding in in denoting a more sustained and whole or in part with another in area gradual process. We might speak

or volume, has not the same centre; of an instantaneous diminution, but hence deviating from ordinary mehardly of an instantaneous decrease.

thods, or usual appearance or prac; To decrease is gradually to lessen or

tice; irregular, odd. It is opposed diminish. Yet we use the term de

to concentric. The primary and crease in some cases to express more

secondary ideas appear combined in strongly the idea of diminution by

the following: inherent force, or from an internal “For had I power like that which bends the cause, as distinguished from external

spheres and more palpable influences, at least To music never heard by mortal ears, when speaking of physical matter or Where in her system sits the central sun objects; as the cold decreases through And drags reluctant planets into tune, the spring of the year. Property is

So would I bridle thy eccentric soul, diminished by extravagance. To de

In reason's sober orbit bid it roll."

Whitehead on Churchill. crease is relative; to diminish is absolute or positive. It is more com- EXCEPTIONAL is taken from the monly applied to size and quantity, French exceptionnel, and not found in diminish to number.

the older English literature. “He must increase, I must decrease."

ERRATIC (errare, to wander) differs Bible.

slightly from eccentric when spoken

of human conduct, to which it is conABATEMENT. See DEDUCTION. fined (while eccentric may be emABBEY. See CONVENT.

ployed of the personal appearance), in

denoting want of moral self-control, ABBREVIATE. See A BRIDGE. which shows itself in the sudden ABDICATE. See RESIGN.

doing of eccentric things. The ec

centric character is inoffensive and ABERRANT, ABNORMAL. Ec- simply odd; there is danger that the CENTRIC. EXCEPTIONAL. ERRATIC. erratic person may involve himself or

others in mischief. This force has ABERRANT (Lat. aberrare, to wander away) denotes that which has

been acquired in recent times. unaccountably deviated from the uni. “ The season of the year is now come in form mode or law of operation and

which the theatres are shut and the cardproduction. ABNORMAL (ab, and tables forsaken, the regions of luxury are for norma, a rule), that which exhibits a awhile unpeopled, and pleasure leads out her

votaries to groves and gardens, to still scenes type or form dissimilar to the ordinary. ECCENTRIC (ex and centrum, a

and erratic gratifications."—Rambler. centre ; Gr. κέντρον, from κεντέω,

ABERRATION. See MADNESS. to prick, the point round which the circle is described) denotes that which ABETTOR. ACCESSARY. Acis a departure (or analogous to it)

COMPLICE. from movement in a natural orbit. EXCEPTIONAL (Lat. excipere, exceptus, An ABETTOR (probably having for to except) is applied generally to any. its root the sound bet, an old cry, in






ABHOR. hounding dogs on to game) is one " And thou, the curs'd accomplice of his who in any way promotes the execu.

treason, tion of a scheme without taking a Declare thy message and expect thy doom.” direct part in it. If he do so, he becomes, according to circumstances,

ABHOR. DETEST. ABOMINATE. something more than an abettor.

LOATHE. He is an ACCESSARY (Lat. accessarius, accedere, to approach, join oneself

Of these the plainest is LOATHE to) if he assists directly, but in an

(A. S. lâdhian, to hate), which is also extraneous capacity. An ACCOMPLICE

the most purely physical, being in

the first place employed to express (ad and complicare, to fold together), if he is intimately bound up in the

nausea or physical disgust. The sick project and responsibility of the

man loathes his food. When employed scheme as a prime mover.

It is in

of moral objects, it is so by a strong this that in treason there are no

metaphor or analogy :way abettors, the law not allowing the

“A wicked man is loathsome, and cometh supposition of indirect agency in the

to shame. The word translated loathsome case, but regarding it as necessarily

properly denotes such kind of persons to be direct. Advice, promises, rewards, as nauseous and offensive to the judgments or even the observance of silence, of others as the most loathsome unsavoury and a forbearing to oppose, may con.

things are to their tastes and smells."stitute an abettor ; but no one can be Bishop Wilkins. negatively an accessary or

To ABOMINATE (Lat. abominor, abo. plice. Generally speaking, it may be said that abettors urge and promote;

minatus, ab, from, and omen) is lite. accessaries aid


rally to discard or protest against, as plices design and execute.

ominous or foul; a close association

existing between the physically foul In law, an "accessary before the

Abominate fact” is one who procures, counsels,

and the morally evil. or commands another to commit a

occupies a place midway between

loathe, which is strongly physical, felony.

accessary after the

and detest, which, as we shall see, is fact is one who, knowing of the

emphatically moral; and in either felony, assists, comforts, or conceals the felon. It deserves to be remarked

case denotes that kind of strong dis

like which would excite protest and that these terms are by usage almost

avoidance. ABHOR (Lat. abhorrere, to universally restricted to bad or unlaw

shudder at) differs from abominate ful deeds and causes, although Woolaston, in his “ Religion of Nature,'

in being more expressive of strong speaks of “abetting the cause of

involuntary recoil, while abominate truth."

is more reflective and voluntary. The older use of Shakespeare is

The person who abominates would still the common one :-

destroy, or remove; the person who

abhors would shrink from, and avoid. “ And you that do abet him in this kind Cherish rebellion, and are rebels all.”

That very action for which the swine is

abominated and looked upon as an unclean "An accessory is he who is not the chief

and impure creature, namely, wallowing in actor in the offence, nor present at its per

the mire, is designed by Nature for a very formance, but in some way concerned therein,

good end and use, not only to cool his body, either before or after the fact committed."

but also to suffocate and destroy noisome and Blickstone.'

importunate insects.” Ray,

*** Wisdom of Dryden, in the following passage, uses

God." the term in the sense of a partner in Abhor that which is evil, cleave to that guilt:


good.”Bible. " Link'd hand in hand the accomplice and the

Where the recoiling of abhorrence is dame

illustrated by its opposite idea, that Their way exploring to the chamber came.

of voluntary adherence. The ordinary use is that of Johnson DETEST (Lat. detestari, testis, a in the following:

witness) denotes a purely sponta


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