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Observations confirmed by authorities of Princes and Principalities, characterising an excellent Prince or Governor.

Every good and lawful principality is either elective, or successive. Of them, election seemeth the more ancient; but succession, in divers respects, the better. Minore discrimine sumitur princeps quam quæritur. Tac.

• The chief and only endeavour of every good prince ought to be, the commodity and security of the subjects; as, contrariwise, the tyrant seeketh his own private profit with the oppression of his people. Civium non servitus, sed tutela, tradita est. Sall.

To the perfection of every good prince, two things are necessarily required; viz. prudence, and virtue; the one to direct his doings, the other to govern his life. Rex eris, si rectè feceris. Hor.

The second care which appertaineth to a good prince is, to make his subjects like unto himself; for thereby he is not only honoured, but they also the better governed. Facile imperium in bonos. Plaut.

Subjects are made good by two means; viz. by constraint of law, and the prince's example: for in all estates, the people do imitate those conditions, whereunto they see the prince inclined. Quicquid faciunt principes, præcipere videantur. Quintil.

All virtues be required in a prince; but justice and clemency are most necessary: for justice is a habit of doing things justly as well to himself as others, and giving to every one so much as to him appertaineth. This is that virtue, that preserveth

concord among men, and whereof they be called good. Jus et æquitas vincula civitatum. Cic.

It is the quality of this virtue, also, to proceed equally and temperately. It informeth the prince not to surcharge the subjects with infinite laws for thereof proceedeth the impoverishment of the subjects, and the enriching of lawyers; a kind of men, which in ages more ancient did seem of no necessity. Sine causidicis satis felices olim fuére futuræque sunt urbes. Sall.


The next virtue required in princes is clemency, being an inclination of the mind to lenity and compassion, yet tempered with severity and judgement. This quality is fit for all great personages, but chiefly princes; because their occasion to use it is most. By it, also, the love of men is gained. Qui vult regnare, languidá regnet manu. Sen.

'After clemency, fidelity is expected in all good princes, which is a certain performance and observation of word and promise. This virtue seemeth to accompany justice, or is, as it were, the same; and, therefore, most fit for princes. Sanctissimum generis humani bonum.


As fidelity followeth justice, so doth modesty accompany clemency. Modesty is a temperature of reason, whereby the mind of man is so governed, as neither in action or opinion he over-deemeth of himself, or any thing that is his; a quality not common in fortunate folk, and most rare in princes! Superbia commune nobilitatis malum. Sall.

This virtue doth also moderate all external de monstrations of insolence, pride, and arrogance; and therefore necessary to be known of princes, and all others whom favour or fortune have advanced. Im


pone felicitati tuæ frænos; facilius illam reges.


'But as princes are to observe the bounds of modesty, so may they not forget the majesty appertaining to their supreme honour, being a certain reverend greatness due to princely virtue and royal state; a grace and gravity no less beseeming a prince, than virtue itself: for neither over-much familiarity, nor too great austerity, ought to be used by princes. Facilitas auctoritatem, severitas amorem minuit. Tac. To these virtues we may apply liberality, which doth not only adorn, but highly advance, the honour due to princes. Thereby, also, the good will of men is gained: for nothing is more fitting a prince's nature than bounty, the same being accompanied with judgement, and performed according to the laws of liberality. Perdere multi sciunt, donare nesciunt. Tac.

It seemeth also that prudence is not only fit, but also, among other virtues, necessary in a prince: for the daily use thereof is in all human actions required, and chiefly in matters of state and government. Prudentia imperantis propria et unica virtus. Arist.

The success of all worldly proceedings doth show, that prudence hath compassed the prosperous event of human actions, more than force of arms or other power. Mens una sapiens plurium vincit manus. Eurip.

Prudence is either natural, or received from others for whoso can counsel himself what is fit to be done, needeth not the advice of others; but they that want such perfection, and are nevertheless capable, and are willing to know what others inform, ought to be accounted wise enough. Laudatissimus

est, qui cuncta videbit; sed laudandus est is, qui paret rectè monenti. Hesiod.'

On Paradise.

-It appeareth to me by the testimony of the Scriptures, that Paradise was a place created by God, and a part of this our earth and habitable world, seated in the lower part of the region of Eden, afterward called Aram fluviorum or Mesopotamia, which taketh into it also a portion of Shinar and Armenia. This region standing in the most excellent temper of all others (to wit) 35 degrees from the equinoctial, and 55 from the north-pole: in which climate the most excellent wines, fruits, oil, grain of all sorts are to this day found in abundance. And there is nothing, that better proveth the excellency of this said soil and temper, than the abundant growing of the palmtrees without the care and labour of man. For wherein soever the earth, nature, and the sun can most vaunt that they have excelled, yet shall this plant be the greatest wonder of all their works: this tree alone giveth unto man whatsoever his life beggeth at nature's hand. And though it may be said, that these trees are found both in the East and WestIndies, which countries are also blessed with a perpetual spring and summer; yet lay down by those pleasures and benefits the fearful and dangerous thunders and lightnings, the horrible and frequent earthquakes, the dangerous diseases, the multitude of venomous beasts and worms with other inconveniences, and then there will be found no comparison be tween the one and the other.

'What other excellences this garden of Paradise had, before God (for man's ingratitude and cruelty) cursed the earth, we cannot judge: but I may safely think that, by how much Adam exceeded all living men in perfection, by being the immediate workmanship of God, by so much did that chosen and particular garden exceed all parts of the universal world, in which God had planted, (that is) made to grow, the trees of Life and of Knowledge; plants only proper, and becoming the Paradise and garden of so great a Lord.

The sum of all this is, that whereas the eyes of men in this Scripture have been dim-sighted (some of them finding Paradise beyond our known world; some, above the middle region of the air; some, elevated near the moon; others, as far south as the line, or as far north as the pole, &c.) I hope that the reader will be sufficiently satisfied, that these were but like castles in the air, and in men's fancies vainly imagined. For it was eastward in Eden (saith Moses) eastward in respect of Judæa, that God planted this garden, which Eden we find in the prophets where it was, and whereof the name in some part remaineth to this day. A river went out of Eden to water this garden, and from thence divided itself into four branches; and we find that both Tigris and Euphrates swimming through Eden do join in one, and afterward taking ways apart, do water Chus and Havilah, according to Moses: the true seats of Chus and his sons then being in the valley of Shinar, in which Nimrod built Babel. That Pison was Ganges, the Scripture, reason, and experience teach the contrary: for that, which was never joined, cannot be divided. Ganges, which inhabiteth

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