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Whether he knocked

active work at the Bar.
Bethell down. as the Oriel tradition runs, or pulled

his nose outside the Vice-Chancellor's Court, or,
in a still more modified version, merely lunged
at him with an umbrella, I am not prepared to


The version in Cole's Funniest Song Book,' p. 257, is the same except that the second line is :

He died long ago, long ago.

That the song is some seventy years old or more is evidenced by Delane's 'Journal,' quoted at the first reference.

What sort of bread or cake is or was a thoe-cake? ROBERT PIERPOINT.

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Second verse :—
Uncle Ned he was married when he was berry young
To a yaller girl dey call Lucy Lee,

She died in tree week, by an alligator's tongue,

On de banks ob de old Tenessee.

There are five verses.

as follows:

Den lay down de shubble and de hoe,
Hang up de fiddle and de bow,
Dar's no more work for poor Uncle Ned,
He's gone where de good niggers go.

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E. C. WIENHOLT. 7 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, S.E.3. THE FIRST LORD WESTBURY (12 S. viii. 51).—My old friend the late J. B. Atlay in the section of his 'Victorian Chancellors' which treats of Lord Westbury (Richard Bethell) in commenting on his overbearing demeanour, writes as follows:

16 Long Acre, W.C.2.

TULCHAN BISHOPS (12 S. viii. 52).— Tulchan is a Gaelic term meaning "a little heap," then, a stuffed calf-skin placed under a cow's nose to induce her to give her milk, then, derisively, applied to the titular bishops in whose names the revenues of the Scottish sees were drawn by the lay barons, who thus had ane tulchen lyk as the kow had or scho wald gif milk, ane calfis skin stoppit with stra" (Lindesay, ante 1578), quoted in 'N.E.D.' J. T. F.

Winterton, Lincs.


Dar was an old nigger, and dey called him Uncle Ned at the time of the Reformation. So named But he's dead long, long ago.

He had no wool on de top of his head

On de place where de wool ought to grow.


Nominal bishops, not consecrated or even in priest's orders, who held office in Scotland

In accordance with the Concordat at Chorus after each Leith (February, 1572) and the General Assembly at Perth (August, 1572) bishoprics were in the gift of lay lords who appointed to the bishopric those who would take the smallest stipend, while they themselves enjoyed the full emoluments of the see. These were called, in ridicule, "tulchan bishops. Tulchans is the Gaelic name for calf-skins filled with straw which were placed before cows to induce them to yield their milk more readily. C. G. N.


as tulchan means a stuffed calf's skin set up
in sight of a cow to persuade her to give her
milk. See J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Sects,
Heresies,' &c., 1874, p. 543, and note.
W. A. B. C.


I. F. will find in the late Bishop Anthony Mitchel's Short History of the Church :-- in Scotland,' London, Rivingtons, 1911

"No one was immune, not the Court itself, nor

the solicitors who instructed him, least of all his("Oxford Church Text Books Series "), the juniors. One of these, Charles Neate, Fellow of information he requires on pp. 60 and 61. Oriel, and in after years member for the City of It appears that after the Reformation in Oxford, was goaded beyond endurance- Shut up, Scotland when, in 1560, Episcopacy was you fool!' are the words which are said by the banished, and the superintendent system late Thomas Mozley to have been addressed to him and retaliated in a fashion which all but lost him founded, there were two distinct parties in his gown, and did compel his disappearance from the Church of Scotland, one for Episcopacy,

the other strongly against it, having as its leader Andrew Melville. As the rich livings became vacant the Earl of Morton (afterwards Regent) overcame men's scruples by appointing superintendents or sham bishops and some of the clergy were tempted to accept these so called bishoprics for a very small endowment, the rest of the revenues being held by the greedy nobility. It is related that Earl Morton in talking to one Mr. John Douglas said: "Mr. John, listen; I shall get you raised to the archbishopric of St. Andrews, a part of the revenue shall be yours the rest mine. You understand? and so the deed was done. Mr. John had the title and part of the revenue, but the bulk of it went to the Earl. The example thus set was soon followed. A crop of (Tulchan) Bishops soon sprang up. They reply to "She's ironing"; and the third, to 'She's dead. Then the refrain changes


The second stanza repeats, changing the



got the droll name of Tulchans, a tulchan being a calf-skin stuffed full of straw set down before a cow that will not yield her J. CLARE HUDSON.


Woodhall Spa.

These were titular bishops in Scotland about the year 1572. As to their real status and the origin of their name see McCrie's Sketches of (Scottish) Church History,' vol. i. p. 96 (4th ed., Edin., 1846).

C. J. TOTTENHAM. Diocesan Library, Liverpool.

The briefest and most lucid explanation

of that term is in the Introduction to Car lyle's Letters of Oliver Cromwell.'

behind her. The other players form a line facing
the mother and, with hands joined, skip forward
and backward (eight steps each way) and how at
the words how is she to-day?' The mother makes
the appropriate motions to indicate washing, ironing,
white they all
etc. Whenever the players say
attempt to run away. The first one Jennia catches
of the mother. Then the game is repeated."
takes her place and Jennia herself takes the part


The first stanza and refrain are :

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We've come to see Miss Jennia Jones,
Miss Jennia Jones, Miss Jennia Jones,
We've come to see Miss Jennia Jones,
And how is she to-day? (She's washing.)


We're right glad to hear it,
To hear it, to hear it,

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glad to sorry," and the query "What shall we dress her in?"

Blue is

We're right glad to hear it,
And how is she to-day?

G. B. M. Several other correspondents thanked for replies.]

NOLA: CNOLLARE: PULSARE (12 S. vii. 502; viii. 37). It may be interesting, in connexion with H. C.'s important article under this heading, to note that in the early accounts of Queen's College, Oxford (1340–1480) ncla is never used for a bell. Campana is the regular word, tintinnabulum being used twice, both times for a small bell, in the expenses of the chapel, pro factura tintinnabuli iiijd and pro tintinnabulo iiijd? suggestion that nola may be a clapper, it is to be observed that under tintinnabulum Maigne d'Arnis gives tintinnabulum campane, as tudicula, battant, i.e., hammer or clapper. JOHN R. MAGRATH.





A WAKE GAME (12 S. vii. 405).—Under a very slightly different name, the Jenny In view of game was played twenty to forty years ago by children in the Carolinas and in Mississippi. People I have asked did not know of the game, however, in Texas or Wisconsin. I was much pleased to find a few months ago that it has been placed upon a phonograph record, along with similar song-games. "Miss Jennia Jones," slightly doctored, I think, from the form in which I knew it as a boy, is in the Third Bubble Book,' a printed book with records in pockets, prepared by the Columbia Graphophone Co., and published by Harper & Brothers. It is doubtless procurable in England as well as in America. And the tune is the same I was used to sing :"One player acts the part of the mother and stands so as to hide the other player, Jennia Jones,

for sailors, and will never do; red is for
firemen ; pink is for babies; but
is for angels, so that of course will do."





For the last line of the refrain, we sang "We'll call another day"; and instead of being "right glad," we were very glad. And we should not have known then what a wake" is, if we had been asked. R. H. GRIFFITH.


Queen's College. Oxford.


CHARTULARIES (12 S. vii. 330, 414; viii. 56).-In a handbook drawn up for the use of contributors to the Victoria County History' will be found a list of chartularies county by county. The chartularies referring to Beaulieu are Cottonian MS. Nero A. XII.; Duke of Portland, 1832; Harl. MSS. 6602, 6603. In Sim's 'Manual for the Genealogist' there is also a list of chartularies. It therefore seems that "a bibliography of

Through the interest of his father, Sir Winston Churchill, he was appointed pageof-honour to the Duke of York, and at an early age he manifested a decided inclination for the profession of arms, which did not escape the notice of the Duke, for he received a Commission at the age of sixteen.

existing monastic records "had already been published. As, however, these lists in the works referred to may not be accessible to members of local archæological societies I quite agree with MR. CRAWFORD that such lists should be printed in the Journals of these societies.

Editor Proceedings Hampshire Field Club.

BOTTLE-SLIDER (12 S. vii. 471, 516; viii. 37, 53). A somewhat similar contrivance to that noted by MR. BRADBURY existed in the old Combination Room at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, but if I remember rightly the coasters were leathern and the table semi-anonymous biographer writes:— circular in front of the fireplace. I have frequently admired the coasters (and the port) in undergraduate days when invited by Mr. Henry Latham (the beloved Ben of all Hall men) to go up after hall." Alas! the coasters must be nearly fifty years older. ARTHUR T. WINN.





We had at the Royal Artillery Mess, Woolwich, small wagons of silver on wheels, each to take two bottles round the table after mess when the cloth was removed. This was forty years ago, but probably they are still in use. B. C.

My grandmother had silver coasters, date, Queen Anne. Inherited by me are some silver-rimmed ones, the coaster itself being made of light-coloured polished wood, date, early 1700. Also I have some in papier mâché (?) coloured red and polished.

E. C. WIENHOLT. 7 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, S.E.3.

EDUCATION OF THE FIRST DUKE MARLBOROUGH (12 S. viii. 50). I have before me a copy of the 'Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough' by William Coxe, in a new edition by John Wade, and dated 1847. In chap. i. it is stated:

Lord Wolseley, in his Life of the Duke,. earmarks this divine as the Rev. R. Farrant, Rector of Musbury Parish, who tutored young Churchill for ten or twelve years. When his father went to Ireland in 1662 young John attended the Dublin City Free School, of which the Rev. Dr. W. Hill, Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, was Master. He was, however, only there about 1663, and John was sent to St. Paul's School, a year. for his father returned to London in of which Samuel Cromleholme was at that time head master. 1665, when the school was closed owing to He remained there till the Plague, and with it young Churchill's education appears to have terminated. I can find no allusion in any of the "histories OF to his having been educated in France. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK.


This being so, it would appear that he did not go, as suggested, to a school in France. LEES KNOWLES, Bt.

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Westwood, Pendlebury.

In a Life of John, Duke of Marlborough, "sold by John Baker in Pater Noster Row, 1713," which I happen to possess, the

"No care was omitted on the part of his tender parents for a liberal and gentle education, for he was no sooner out of the hands of the women but he was given into those of a sequestered clergyman. who made it his first concern to instil sound principles of religion into him, that the seeds of humane literature might take the deeper root, &c."

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York's household. As to his earlier boyhood Archdeacon Coxe tells us that :—

"He was brought up under the care of his father He was also instructed in the rudiments of knowledge by a neighbouring clergyman of great learning and piety." EDWARD BENSLY.

Much Hadham, Herts.

66 agree to fix the penalty upon the Overseers of this Parish if they relieve any poor person belonging to this parish without they constantly wear a Badge on the Right Arm marked Red Cloth with two large Black Letters PA without side of their Garments so that it may plainly appear such persons receive Alms from this Parish And that the Overseers at once get Cloth for that purpose."


'Church Services and Service-Books before the


POOR RELIEF BADGE (12 S. viii. 48).– The following appears in one of the Church-Reformation.' By the late Dr. B. Swete, S.P.C.K. wardens' Account Books at Aldeburgh, J. CLARE HUDSON. Monday, Feb. 23, 1773 :


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Liturgies. Primer, and Catechism set forth in the reign of King Edward V1.... 1844.' 8vo. 'Liturgies and Occasional Forms of Prayer set forth in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Edited by Wm. Keatinge Clay. 1847.' 8vo.

MR. EVERARD HAMILTON will no doubt find what he requires in the following works :

'Private Pravers put forth by authority in the reign of Q. Elizabeth'; the Primer' of 1559; the Orarium of 1560; the Preces privatæ' of 1564; the Book of Christian Prayers of 1578. With an appendix containing the Litany of 1544. by W.K. Clay. 1851. 8vo.



'Prymer a Prayer Book of Lay People in the Middle Ages.' Ed. H. Littlehales. Longmans, 1891-92.

Full detailed list of Parker Society issues may be seen in Lowndes' 'Bibliographer's Manual,' vol. xi.,


55-58. W. JAGGARD, Capt. Memorial Library, Stratford-on-Avon:

"Three Primers put forth in the Reign of Henry VIII." will meet MR. HAMILTON'S requirement, as regards the Book of Common Prayer. They were published in one volume at the Oxford University Press in 1834, and would perhaps be easily met with secondhand or be found for consultation in a public library or on clerical shelves.


'Old Service Books of the English Church.' By the Rev. Christopher Wordsworth and H. Littlehales. Methuen. 1904.



are :-

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER (12 S. viii. 49). CHURCHYAR ARDS (12 S. -What your inquirer needs will probably viii. 50).-The statute referred to by be found in the issues of the Parker Society, G. B. M. which required yew-trees to be 1847-55. This private Society was rather planted in churchyards for the supply of short-lived and long ago disbanded. Though bows is doubtless that passed in the reign its publications, all in funereal black cloth, of Richard III., in 1483, which according to have long been out of print, they may often Stow ordained a general planting of yew Later on in be met with cheaply in the antiquarian trees for the use of archers. bookshops. The three most likely volumes the time of Elizabeth it was enacted that they should be planted in churchyards in order to preserve and protect them from injury, and also to keep them out of the way of horses and cattle, in consequence of the poisonous property of the leaves. But there were other reasons assigned for the situation selected. One was the protection of the church from damage by storms; a poor reason if we consider the slowness of growth and the horizontal direction of the branches, both of which, as pointed out by writer in The Gentleman's Magazine a (1786, p. 941):


"prevent its rising high enough, even in a century, to shelter from storms a building of moderate height."

Woodhall Spa.

"TO OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE (12 S. viii. 29, 58). This appears as far back as Butler's 'Hudibras,' i. 3, 1368, published in 1663, but there having the meaning of talking about things about which one knows nothing. In a foot-note reference is made (in my copy, 1801) to Ray's Proverbs,' 2nd ed., p. 326. W. A. HUTCHISON.

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Moreover, as seldom more than cne or two yews of any size are to be seen in a churchyard, the amount of protection they can afford in time of storms must depend upon whether they happen to be standing

to windward or not.

Evelyn in his well-known 'Sylva,' says :"The best reason that can be given why the yew was planted in churchyards is that branches of it were often carried in procession on Palm Sunday instead of palms."

This view is justified by the words of a much earlier authority, namely Caxton.

In his 'Liber Festivalis,' 1483-oddly enough the date of the statute of Richard III. above mentioned—wherein the festivals of the Church are explained in four sermons, it is said with reference to Palm Sunday :"We take ewe (sic) instead of palm and olyve, and beren about in processyon, and soe is thys day


called Palm Sunday."

The last statute respecting the use of yew for bows is 13 Eliz. cap. 14 which directs that bow-staves shall be imported into England from the Continent, and fixes the price to be paid for them; e.g., bows meet for men's shooting, being outlandish yew of the best sort not over the price of 68. 8d.; of the second sort 3s. 4d. ; of a coarser sort

called livery bows 28.; and bows being English yew, 28.


In 1595 an Order in Council dated Oct. 2, directed that the bows of the train bands be exchanged for calivers and muskets. is believed that the last active service of the war-bow was in the conflict between Charles II. and his Scottish subjects, bowmen forming part of the forces commanded by Montrose.

G. B. M. should refer to 'The Yew-trees of Great Britain,' by the late Dr. John Lowe (Macmillan, 1897) in which he will find much to his purpose. J. E. HARTING.

but a glance at the books mentioned above, and to the Indexes of 'N. & Q.' will supply your correspondent with more than sufficient material to keep him guessing for some ARCHIBALD SPARKE. considerable time.

There is a popular belief that such a statute as that mentioned was passed, but I have never heard where it may be found. (1) It seems unlikely that bows should be in great request as late as 1474 when gunpowder was displacing the old artillery. (2) Moreover, the yew tree seems a most unsuitable tree for the purpose of making bows. (3) And as G. B. M. hints in his query, it is strange that trees should be grown for that purpose in churchyards.

In 1549 Tyndale's 'Prologues to the Pentateuch were inserted in Matthew's Bible, and before Exodus notes were printed Among on certain terms found in the text. others is the definition of a "Boothe




an house made of bowes (Doré's 'Old Bibles,' p. 119). It is more likely that yew trees were grown in churchyards to provide the congregations with "bowes in the processions on Palm Sunday. W. F. JOHN TIMBRELL. Coddington Rectory, Chester.

to carry

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Here Queen Victoria | returned thanks to | Almighty God for the sixtieth anniversary of her accession | June 22, A.D. 1897.

G. B. M. should consult the elaborate chapter on all this in Johnson's 'Byways in British Archæology.' Reference is made

When this was first cut on the stone pavement the inscription ran "sixtieth to an order of 1483 for the general planta-anniversary of her reign!" I remember tion of yews and another in Elizabeth's standing over it and reading with amazereign for plantation in churchyards, but the ment. The alteration was of course quickly author had found no such statutes or made. U. L. authority. He considers the yew an ancient sacred emblem which in later times helped to supply the village quota of bow-staves. R. S. B.

LIGHT AND DARK "A" HEADPIECE (12 S. viii. 52). The light and dark "A" shewn in headpieces of books of the sixteenth and seventeenth century plainly refer to the Lowe in 'The Yew-trees of Great Britain cypher mentioned in Cryptographiae ' and Ireland,' 1897, devotes a chapter to the (Gustavus Selenus, 1624), p. 17. They why and wherefore of planting yew trees in indicate a method of secret writing in which churchyards, and quctes from Giraldus some letters of the secret message are Cambrensis (1184) and dozens of other changed, but not all, and in which each authorities. Various statutes are exhaus-letter may be itself or its twin, i.e., may be tively given in Hazlitt's 'Dictionary of light (obvious) or dark (secret). This Faiths and Folklore,' vol. ii., which were method is suggested also in Du Bartas' enacted for various purposes incidental to Divine Weekes and Workes,' 1613, where a the subject. The consensus of opinion seems double circle (double O or cypher) is shewn to be that originally these trees were planted with letters round it, part light, part dark in churchyards as an emblem of the resur- Shakespeare's Sonnets are dedicated to rection owing to their perpetual verdure," M. R. W. H.," and that arrangement to

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