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5. T. Farmer Baily, Sunnyside, Ryde, afterwards Duke of Cleveland, and died June 17, 1807. See Burke's 'Peerage.'

I.W. (ermorial shield in a beaded oval surmounted by a foreign coronet, in red).

Perhaps the additional fact that Baily apparently also lived in the Isle of Wight may be of assistance to MR. CLEMENTS.

Sir Henry Berkeley, of Brewton, was knighted in 1585, and was Sheriff of Somerset in 1587. He

Farmer Baily purchased the estate of Hall Place in the parish of Leigh, Kent in 1821, and died in Oct. 1828. His only son and heir (by Amelia Perkins his wife who married secondly, Sept. 2, 1832 Wm. Smith of Sydenham) was Thos. Farmer Bailey of Hall Place. He was born Sept. 24, 1823, and married on Feb. 21, 1863 Gertrude Sarah, daughter of James Addison, and granddaughter of the Rev. James Addison, vicar of Thornton-cum-Allerthorpe, Yorks. He was a J.P., D.L., High Sheriff 1866 and Lord of the Manor of Leigh Hollanden. CHAS HALL CROUCH.

BOTTLE-SLIDER, COASTER (12 S. vii. 471, 516). If ST. SWITHIN had gone to the "mammoth mother," he might have found "coaster "fully explained, with quotations for c. 1887 and 1888. We have a pair that date from the time of William IV. or earlier. They appear to be papier mâché, varnished black, with grapes and vine leaves gilt


J. T. F.

NOLA (12 S. vii. 502).—See Glossary to Durham Account Rolls under "Knoll," and p. 601, "ad campanam vocatam le knoll (1397-8). The particular bell at Ripon described as "le knoll," also as "le blank knoll," required timber and carpenters' work, doubtless for the bell-frame, in 1379-80. See Memorials of Ripon (Surtees Soc.) iii. 99. The term nola appears to have been applied also to a clapper, as at Winchester in 1572-80. J. T. F.

Winterton, Lines.

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"married Margaret, daughter of William Leggon, of Staffordshire, esq., by whom he had three sons, viz., Sir Maurice, Sir Henry (from whom descended the Berkeleys of Yarlington, which branch is now extinct), and Sir Edward Berkeley." See Collinson's Somerset,' I. xxxvii.; iii. 280-1.

This second Sir Henry married Elizabeth, dau. of Henry Nevill of Billingbear, Berkshire.


PEACOCKS' FEATHERS (12 S. vi. 334; vii. 137, 277, 477).—In Baron von Haxthausen's "Transcaucasia,' trans. J. E. Taylor, London, 1854, pp. 260-61, the Yezidis are spoken of thus::

"Of the Holy Spirit they know nothing; they designate Christ as the Son of God, but do not recognise his divinity. They believe that Satan (Speitan) was the first-created, greatest, and most exalted of the arch-angeli; that the world was made by him at God's command, and that to him was entrusted its government; but that, for esteeming himself equal with God, he was banished from the Divine presence. Nevertheless he will be again received into favour and his kingdom (this world) restored On a certain day they offer to Satan thirty sheep; to him. they suffer no one to speak ill of Satan...... at Easter they sacrifice to Christ. but only a single sheep......Satan is called Melik Taous (King Peacock)."

Has not this heretical association of Satan and peacock been the cause of some Europeans' opinions that peacocks' feathers are unlucky? KUMAGUSU MINAKATA. Tanabe, Kii, Japan.

THE ORIGINAL WAR OFFICE (12 S. vii. 310, 354, 416, 435, 452).-Up to the present I have only been able to trace back the quotation given me by Professor Andrews to 1721; but hope for further success.

As his book (Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783, in the Public Record Office of Great Britain 1914') is not very accessible to some of your readers, I may perhaps quote (from vol. ii, 274) :


"The office of the Secretary at War must have been at first in or near the chambers of the Duke of Albemarle at the Cockpit. Lock is mentioned as having an office at the Guards House in 1676, and probably Blathwayt used Little Wallingford House for the same purpose. Clarke dated his letters from the Horse Guards in 1697. We learn that for a time the War Office was located on the south side of Pall Mall, in the old Ordnance Office, built for the Duke of Cumberland when captaineighteenth century, however, the Secretary at general. For the greater part of the early War, the deputy secretary and clerks the

Paymaster-General of the forces and the Com- in a London theatre, and married an Englishmissary-General of the Musters bad their quarters woman. Henry made his first appearance in a building on the east side of the street leading from Charing Cross to Westminster, about where the War Office is to-day. This building had a frontage on the street of 55 feet, but was only 46 feet wide at the rear, while the dimensions up one flight of stairs were only 31 feet before and behind. In 1751 the present building of the Horse Guards was begun and [it was] completed

in 1756, on the site of the old Guards House, the yard, and the stables, and thither the War Office was removed in the latter year."

The office of Secretary at War was abolished by Stat. 26 and 27 Vict. c. 12, to which the royal assent, was signified on May 4, Q. V.


HERALDIC (12 S. vi. 490).-I wish your correspondent had cited an instance or some instances of the occurrence of the blazon which is the cause of his query. I imagine it to be due to the canting device, the interlaced knot of the Lacy family, or to the double B twist of the Bourchiers.

as an English boy pianist, aged 12," at
Covent Garden Theatre in 1832. When in
his 17th year he married an English girl a
little older than himself. In 1851 he settled
in Brunswick, became a naturalized German
(citizen of the Duchy), married the widow of
a German musical publisher, and gave his
name to the still flourishing firm of Litolff
(London agent, Enoch, Great Marlborough
Street). Three years before the Franco-
German War, Henry Litolff settled in Paris,
married his third wife, the Comtesse de
Larochefoucauld, and died a Frenchman at
Bois le Combes (near Paris) in August, 1891.
36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W.


TERCENTENARY HANDLIST OF NEWSPAPERS (12 S. vii. 480).-A preliminary search in the Index of Titles to Section II. The Provincial Press shows that the Addenda for one county will amount to about 150, almost entirely belonging to the nineteenth century. The compiler's plan of admitting school magazines to his list, while excluding parish magazines, has been borne in mind.


ST. SWITHIN. WOOL-GATHERING (12 S. vii. 510).—In the early part of the nineteenth century when people were careful of everything, and not ashamed of small economies, poor women would go wool-gathering, that is, they would glean from hedgerows, &c., flakes or locks which the thorns had torn from the fleeces of sheep that had approached too near to pass untolled. When I was in the nursery a faithful shepherdess suggested THE HERMIT OF HERTFORDSHIRE (12 S. that her charges might pursue this occupa- | vii. 466, 516).-My mother remembers that, tion in our own paddock; but the prospect when staying with cousins at Hitchin in of "great cry and little wool was not found 1858, she was taken to see Lucas as one of particularly alluring. When sheep were the local attractions; and that, being at that washed there must have been pickings for time an adherent of Pussyfoot," she pious standers-by and when the shearing managed to evade drinking from a somewhat came coarse dag-locks would be a precious dirty bottle with which the hermit welcomed perquisite if the farmer did not keep them his visitors. A. R. BAYLEY. for himself. When at times" 'one's wits go a-wool-gathering," as they are supposed to do, it is imagined that they stray about to small profit as did the women who sought stuffing for cushions in the hedges.




[We are prepared to print any Addenda to the Handlist which our correspondents may care to send us in the last number for each month. They should reach us not later than one week before the

date of issue.]

"Now, THEN ! " (12 S. vii. 512; viii. 17). -Your correspondent MR. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT makes the inquiry whether the German Nun as an interjection is not used in a similar way to "Now, then." Possibly he has in his mind the combination Nun FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR IN ENGLAND also, but the more exact parallel would (12 S. vii. 469, 517).-An interesting volume be found in the two words Nanu. This could be written entitled Sons of French phrase has exactly the same meaning when Prisoners of War in England who Became spoken to children as the warning Now, Famous.' One of the most conspicuous is then," or "stop-it." It has a second meanHenry Litolff, the composer-pianist, born in ing, being an exclamation of surprise Nanu London in 1818. He was the son of a or "What can this be?"-a startled inquiry. French-Alsatian soldier taken prisoner in The first word na is frequently used as a the Peninsular War, who became a violinist | prefix, thus Naja, Nanu, Naso, also as the


expression of doubt, na, na, na. Is there certainly known," neither is there of the any connexion between this and the nah- motive for that death. Yet one wonders having the same pronunciation-so fre- why Nello did not find a corner to himself quently used in the West Riding of York-in 'Inf.' xii. amongst the "violenti contro shire and referred to by your correspondent, il prossimo.' Dante's retributive justice is HENRY W. BUSH. oftentimes curiously unbalanced.


J. T. F.?


J. B. McGOVERN. St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. OXENBRIDGE: MORTON (12 S. viii. 10).-If the Morton referred to is the son of Robert Morton and an ejected minister afterwards an M.D. there is a portrait of him in a full bottom wig and a gown of the R.C.P. engraved in line by W. Elder after B. Orchard D. A. H. MOSES.

JOHN WILSON, BOOKSELLER, HIS CATALOGUE (12 S. v. 237, 277, 297; vi. 21).— above It may interest contributors at references to know that in The Bookworm, iv. 336 (1891), are thirteen lines commencing: Give me nook and a book,

And let the proud world spin round, giving William Freeland as the author. W. B. H.

DANTEIANA, 'PURG.' v. 130-136 (12 S. vi. 226).-Stendhal, as quoted by MR. T. PERCY ARMSTRONG at this reference, provides a charitable, and therefore acceptable, version of the story of the unfortunate Pia de 'Tolomei. But why did Dante place her in the Purgatorio' amongst the "Neghittosi morti violentemente " (as Scartazzini terms those in this canto), or, as Lombardi calls them "negligenti che tardando il pentimento, sopraggiunti da morte violenta, si pentirono, e furono salvi "? Of what had she to repent ? Not assuredly of Nello's mere suspicions of her infidelity nor of his taciturnity. Clearly Dante, in consigning her to purgatorial sufferings must have shared the then common belief in her lapse from fidelity to her husband, and have had some knowledge of her repentence as of her violent death. Lombardi quotes Volpi as holding that :



Pia, moglie di M. Nello della Pietra, la quale, come fu creduto, trovata dal marito in adulterio, fu da lui condotta in Maremma e quivi uccisa," but Lombardi's 'Nuovo Editore' adds :

"Il Postill. del Cod. Caet. con molta da grazia la storia, che sembra la più genuina di questa donna, in tal guisa Ista fuit la Pia nobilis Domina de Tholomeis de Senis, et uxor Domini Nelli de Petra de Panoteschis in Maritima, quæ cum staret ad fenestram per æstatem, maritus ejus misit unum famulum, qui cæpit eam per crura, et projecit deorsum, propter suspectum, quem habuit de ipsa, et ex hoc ortum est magnum odium inter illas domos.'"'

Seeing that opinions differ so widely as to the guilt or innocence of Pia (Landini, L'Ottimo and Commente, Volpi, and Buti for the former, with the Anonimo Fiorentino, Benvenuti, &c., for the latter view), and in doubt as to Dante's bias, I am constrained to hold that, to quote Mr. H. F. Tozer's words, as "of the manner of her death nothing is

Notes on Books.

The Place-Names of Northumberland and Durham.
By Allen Mawer. (Cambridge University

Press, 11. net.)


THIS volume is worthy of its place in the Cambridge Archæological and Ethnological Series. carries forward a tradition of study now well established, and the author claims to have developed this tradition in one or two respects on new and fruitful lines. In the first place he virtually confines himself to names for which we have documentary evidence dating before 1500, making a clear distinction between documented and undocumented names. Next, he lays great stress on the importance of topographical conditions and has rejected explanations which do not harmonize with those conditions, even if etymologically satisfactory. This principle is undoubtedly sound. We are glad, too, to note his interest in sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century spellings, with their suggestion of peculiarities in local pronunciation.

The great mass of names in Northumberland' and Durham are of Anglian origin, and Mr. Mawer notes that no special frequency of Celtic names is to be observed on the north-western or western border whence the survival of a Celtic He observes, however, with justice that names, population in the hill-country might be deduced. readily assigned to English and plausibly explained may, after all, be etymological perversions of Celtic forms-instancing the old English forms for York and Salisbury which could (and assuredly would) have been explained quite wrongly but for the Roman version of the' original Celtic having been preserved. Several examples occur in which folk-etymology may well be suspected-almost detected-as Hexham, Gateshead and Auckland-which are well discussed here.

of -ing-names is dealt with in a good note, wherein The interesting question of the interpretation Mr. Mawer accepts Prof. Moorman's dictum that the ordinary O.E. -ing-name (as distinct from -inga- and inges-names) is simply a compound of a genitive, -ing- being the possessive element therein. This is certainly the only view that covers all the facts and Mr. Mawer is able to

bring forward among others a new and clinching example where an -ing- form is equated with a possessive. Birch has a seventh-century charter dealing with a grant of land at Wieghelmestun, and this name appears in an endorsement of the tenth or early eleventh century as nunc wigelmignctun [sic].

The Alphabet of names is preceded by a full bibliography and followed by a useful alphabet of the elements used as the second part of placenames; one of personal names used as the first part; a scheme of phonology and an appendix on change of suffixes.




The Story of Our Mutual Friend.' Transcribed into Phonetic Notation from the Work of Charles Dickens. By C. M. Rice. (Cambridge, Heffer, 5s. net.) IN his Notes on Pronunciation' the transcriber tells us that the pronunciation employed is generally that of an educated Southern Englishman. However, according to the notation employed, the word all" is to be pronounced "orl" and that at once raises difficulties, for we are prepared to deny that the "educated Southern Englishman does so pronounce "all." Again in the phrase "all that is to be told" the same symbol represents the vowel sounds in "that and "to." Only a very poor and slovenly speech would make them so; and the same may be said about a speech which renders "er" at the end of a word by exactly the same sound as the vowel in "the."


The principle upon which this phonetic notation works seems to be that of noting any vowel as sounded at its weakest.

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The slight nuance of its true quality which (1) is usually to be heard in cultivated speech even when rapid, and (2) becomes quite perceptible in slow or emphatic speech, is ignored, and if this notation ever prevailed would be lost. Thus the word "consolation" has the neutral vowel symbol for the second o" but who can pronounce the word with even a slight retarding and keep that vowel neutral? The passage in which it occurs is an utterance of Mortimer's at the Veneering's dinner-party (he is speaking languidly," too) and it may perhaps be argued But spelling that the spelling is conversational. of such over-refinement drives one into the opposite direction, making one wish that, if vowels are no longer etymological, they might be eliminated from spelling as far as possible. At any rate, if this phonetic method is seriously to be tried it ougnt to be standardized-for ordinary writing--by the pronunciation of approved and carefully chosen speakers. It would then, we believe, be found best always to note the characteristic sound of a vowel even when, in rapid speech, it tends to be slurred and nearly lostas in the example above. The sound can be weakened to suit the fashion; but if written as merely neutral cannot so easily recover its true quality. We confess ourselves inclined to doubt the value of such transcripts as this, and even to think them undesirable.

WE are informed by the Oxford University Press that the Early English Text Society has appointed Mr. Humphrey Milford to be the sole publisher for the Society as from the beginning of this year.



By the death of Prebendary Cecil Deedes we have lost one of our most valued correspondents. Those whose studies have led them to any occupation with medieval MSS. will need no indication of the greatness of the loss, for Prebendary Deedes was widely known as an authority in that field. Librarian for some time of Chichester Cathedral, he edited for the Sussex Record Society the Registers of Bishop Praty and Bishop Rede, and for the Canterbury and York Society the Muniments of the Bishopric of Winchester and the Register of John de Pontissara, besides much other work of a kindred character. It is no doubt as a scholar and ecclesiastical historian that his name will be best remembered, both by readers of N. & Q.'-who owe him much curious information-and by the general public. But his activities were by no means limited to scholarship. He had worked as a priest at Oxford (curate of SS. Philip and James and Chaplain of Christ Church; vicar of St. Mary Magdalene); in S. Africa (organizing secretary of Central African Mission and Canon of Maritzburg), and in Essex (Rector of Wickham St. Paul's, Halstead, Essex), before coming to Sussex, the county with which he is most closely associated. He was Prebendary of Chichester ("Hova Ecclesia," 1902-3; "Exceit," 1903), and Rector of St. Martin and St. Olave in that city, after some thirteen years' work at Brighton as Curate of Brighton in charge of St. Stephens.

Cecil Deedes was born in 1843-son of the Rev. Lewis Deedes, Rector of Bramfield, Herts-and was unmarried. He had recently resigned the living he held in Chichester and gone to live at Frensham where his death took place.

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