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the following December. In 1592 he was again in Paris, but afterwards was papal envoy in Scotland in 1598, and then went to Antwerp, from which place he came to the English College at Douay July 3, 1599. Returning to Antwerp, he revisited Douay June 17, 1603, and left to take up work on the English Mission for the first time, June 20, 1603. From England he returned to Antwerp, where he died before September 1625, leaving various house property in Antwerp to Douay College, on condition that the College should educate one of his kin on the rents thereof, such kinsman to be nominated by his brother William, of Somerton in Oxfordshire, or his nephew Thomas, one of the sons of the said William, by Elizabeth, dau. of co-heir of William More of Hadham, Oxon. The rents being insufficient, Robert Tempest's nephew and executor, Henry Clifford, covenanted to supplement them out of his own pocket. Henry Clifford had married Robert's niece Catherine, daughter of his brother Thomas.*




(c) The third Robert Tempest, grandson of the first, and nephew of the second, was the second son of Michael Tempest, by Dorothy, daughter of Sir Edward Dymoke of Scrivelsby. He was in Rome in 1580, and arrived at the English College, Rheims, a schola Augensi Aug. 16, 1584. He was again at Rome in 1585 when he entered the English College, but returned to Rheims Oct. 23, 1589, and left for Paris on a visit to his uncle Robert Jan. 15, 1590. While there he experienced a famine, in which he and his uncle were only too thankful to feed on the flesh of asses, mules, and horses. He returned to Rheims Aug. 21 and began to lecture on logic Aug. 30, 1590. He received minor orders Apr. 12, the subdiaconate Apr. 13, and the diaconate June 8 or 9, 1591, all at Soissons, and was ordained priest in the chapel of St. Cross in Rheims Cathedral the following Sept. 21. It is not known when he took the degree of S.T.D. which he did before 1599, but it would seem to have been either at Rome or Paris. In July 1599 he was lecturer on moral theology in the English College at Douay. In 1600 he went Antwerp to say goodbye to his uncle, returning to Douay on June 12, and on July 15 of the same year he set out for


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England.* He was captured in 1612 and imprisoned, but after two years he was released on bail and according to Cardinal Gasquet (Hist. of Eng. Coll. Kome,' p. 155) "allowed to live with his brother-in-law in Hampshire on parole. In 1624 he became a Jesuit, and died in Hampshire July 13 1640." Who this brother-in-law was I have been unable to find out. Foley (Records Eng. Prov. S.J., vii. 766) says that he was born in 1563 and professed of the four vows March, 1636.

Robert's elder brother William passed through Rheims on his way to Verdun,. where he was to be educated by the Jesuits,. and stayed at the English College from May 2 to 12, 1582. On July 8, 1585 he was again received at the College coming from England, and finally on his way from Paris to England he was again the guest of the College from Mar. 25, 1590 to Apr. 23, 1591.† Another brother (the 4th son of Michael), Edward, arrived at Rheims June 1, 1586, was confirmed by Cardinal de Guise, Dec. 18 following, and left for Rome Mar. 27, 1590. There, Cardinal Gasquet writes (op. cit.,. pp. 157-8), he


was ordained Mar. 19, 1594, but did not go to England until 1597. Two years later he already a prisoner in the Clink, London, as appears from a list of prisoners in that year, and from that prison on Jan. 15, 1590. from a letter written to the Archpriest Blackwell He had been captured ten days before by the apostate Sacheverell" (as to whom see N. & Q.' 11 S. viii. 405).

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Nicholas Tempest, a cousin of the third Robert, being the elder son of his uncle Thomas, and brother of Catherine Clifford mentioned above, arrived at Rheims Apr. 28, 1584 and again Nov. 8, 1590. He left for Namur July 10, 1591 and returned Sept. 12, 1591. He again returned from Douay Feb. 13, 1593, and left on May 4 following to take up a military career, "nostri vitæ generis pertaesus militatum abiit D. Nicolaus Tempest, scholastica theologiæ studiosus." He died s.p. before 1643, and was buried at? Carrow. If, as seems certain, he took service with the King of Spain, Carrow probably means Corunna (Sp. La Coruña).§

*Cal. S.P. For.,' 1580; Hamilton, op cit., ii. 136; Knox, op cit., pp. 15, 32, 201, 227, 232, 233, 236, 239, 240, 241, 374; Cath. Rec. Soc. x. pp. 7, 22, 26.

† Knox, op. cit., pp. 187, 207, 229, 239.
Knox, op cit., pp. 210, 214, 229.

§ Knox op cit., pp. 201, 237, 240, 241, 249, 250; Surtees, 'Durham,' ii. 327 sqq.

This originally sinister branch of the Yorkshire Tempests certainly suffered as much as the parent tree for the Catholic





RICHARD SHAKESPEARE'S NEIGHBOURS. 1. Sir Thomas Hargreave, Vicar of Snitter field. WHILE John Shakespeare was taking his place among seniors and contemporaries in Stratford, his father held a position of some esteem among neighbours at Snitterfield. When Thomas Hargreave, vicar from 1541 to 1557, died, Richard Shakespeare and four other parishioners were called upon to make the inventory of his goods and chattels. The Vicar's income was chiefly derived from his glebe land. He was an energetic farmer with a kinswoman, Ellen Hargreave the elder, to keep house for him. He made his will on Apr. 27, 1557, with bequests to his housekeeper and other relatives in the district a brother William, a sister Joan (wife of John Seylton of Desford), James Hargreave of Minworth; Anthony Hargreave, who had a son Thomas; and John Hargreave of Sutton (Southam), who had sons Anthony and John. The last named was probably the John Hargreave who was tenant with Richard Shakespeare and John Henley of Master Robert Arden's property in Snitterfield and near neighbour to Richard Shakespeare. Thomas Hargreave remembered also his servants and god-children, and left malt and peas to be distributed among the "poor where need is," likewise "beef and bacon as much as is in the house. He bequeathed his soul "to God Almighty and our Blessed Lady and all the Holy Company of Heaven," and his body "to be buried in the church of Snitterfield afore my seat in the chancel.' Towards the re-casting of the bell he left 10s. Residuary legatees and executors were Anthony Fletcher, Vicar of Tachebrooke and our friend Edward Alcock of Wotton Wawen, who were to dispose of what was left for the good of his soul at their discretion. Master Thomas Robins of Northbrooke and his son-in-law, Master Edward Grant, he appointed supervisors.


Walter Nicholson, William Perks and William Round, made a personal survey of the vicarage and farm. They noted the table, benches, tressels, ambrey (cupboard), and seven painted-cloths in the hall; bedding, linen and coffer in the parlour above the hall (of the value of 31. 2s. 3d.); six bedsteads in the chambers; utensils in the mill-house and kitchen; corn winnowed in the house, and corn growing in the field-12 acres of wheat, 17 of rye and maslin, 8 of barley and dredge, 12 of oats and 19 of peas, 68 acres altogether; 4 oxen (77.), a little ambling: nag (26s. 8d.), and an old lame mare (58.); a wain and a cart, 2 old tumbrels, 3 ploughs, totalis 341. 10s. 2d. 1 pair of harrows and other things: summa

On Wednesday, May 5, Richard Shakespeare, in the company of Richard Maids,

2. Widow Townsend of the Wold. More than one family lived at the Wold in the parish of Snitterfield. Among them were the Townsends-John and his wife Margaret, and their two sons, William and Thomas, and two daughters, Mary and Joan. John Townsend was a freeholder, known to Master Robert Arden. He witnessed the release of John Palmer's tenement, adjoining Richard Shakespeare's farm, to MasterTM Arden on Oct. 1, 1529. When he made his will on Oct. 10, 1546, he left his freehold to his wife for life and to dispose of at death as she thought best. He expressed the wish that she and Thomas should occupy two parts of the farm jointly, and William he third part. Among the three he distributed his corn and crop, carts, beasts and horses and other things, reserving a cow for his daughter Joan and a nose-calf for her son. This Joan was Mistress Waterman of Stratford, wife of Thomas Dickson alias Waterman, glover and whittawer in Bridge Street, and future Alderman, and her son was young Thomas, the future husband of Phillipa Burbage and landlord of the Swan. John Townsend's other daughter (apparently Mary) was married to John Staunton of Longbridge, near Warwick, and the mother of children. One of her later born, or perhaps a grand-child, was Judith Staunton, who became the wife of William Shakespeare's friend, Hamlet Sadler. After Judith and Hamlet Sadler the Poet named his twin children on Candlemas day, 1585.

Widow Townsend survived her husband ten or twelve years. With her sons, of whom Thomas married and had a Thomas, she lived on the freehold farm at





the Wold, taking an active share in the old home in Snitterfield, stood godfather; work. We see her in her "old coat on and when eight years later, on Sept. 4, 1586, week-days, with her head in a kerchief, John Townsend's son Henry was baptized among her bees and milk-pails, grinding in Snitterfield Church, John Shakespeare's malt and making cheese, and busy in the brother, Henry Shakespeare of Ingon, was kitchen, aided by her servant and kins- sponsor. woman, Alice Townsend, who after her death, we gather, married her son, William. Thomas ploughed the fields with his team of oxen; or followed the " ox-harrow with seventeen tines (or teeth) of iron. On Sunday she went to church, where her husband was buried, in a hat or cap, wearing her beads and a silver ring, in a gown of velvet, a black kirtle and a red petticoat over-bodied with red russels (fox-skins), and a harnessed girdle of silver. She made her will on June 1, 1558, bequeathing the farm to Thomas, with "all the wood lying against the elms at the chamber end," and a cow and a few household things, and all the remainder of her possessions, except some personal gifts, to William. Mistress Waterman obtained her mother's cap; 'Thomas' wife had the "harnessed girdle of silver," and the rest of the Sunday garments; a god-daughter, Margaret Phillips, daughter of William Phillips of Stratford (and cousin of the other Margaret Philiips, daughter of Mistress Waterman, now wife of Edward Walford of Evenlode) inherited the silver ring, and Alice Townsend, the prospective wife, as it appears, of William, a cow, a pair of sheets, a twilly (or coverlet), a caldron, two pewter dishes, a pair of tache-hooks and two "partlets." Mary Staunton's children received a memorial groat apiece, while her husband had the appointment of supervisor to the will. Thomas' right to seven gold pieces (two angels and five crowns), given to him one day by his mother in the barn, is acknowledged by William.


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On Oct. 10, 1558, the inventory of Widow Townsend's goods was made by Thomas Palmer, Thomas Mayowe, and William Bett (or Bott), another resident on the Wold.

Was it through the Townsends that young John Shakespeare was apprenticed to a glover and whittawer in Stratford ? And did he enter the service of Joan Townsend's husband, Thomas Dickson alias Waterman, and become a member of her household? When a nephew of Joan and a grandson of Widow Townsend named John, son probably of Thomas Townsend, had a son Edward baptized on July 13, 1578, Edward Cornwall, brother-in-law of John Shakespeare, living in John Shakespeare's

3. Roger Lyncecombe.

Another link between Snitterfield and Stratford was Roger Lyncecombe. He was a yeoman of Snitterfield with a small shop in Henley Street, Stratford, near the home of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. His farm at Snitterfield was by the Lammas Close. He had land also at Yardley, which he purchased and bequeathed to his son Thomas. We get a glimpse of him in the year 1538 as overseer of the will of a Stratford man, William Facey, who also had land at Yardley. He had two sons, John and the aforesaid Thomas, and three daughters, one married to Thomas Warner of Wellesburn, the second to Henry Bowton cf Pillardington, and the third, Agnes, who was not married in his lifetime. On Jan. 14, 1557, he was appointed overseer to the will of a Snitterfield neighbour, William Bracy, whose goods he helped to appraise on Feb. 7 following. An item in this will throws light on the "second best bed " in William Shakespeare's will sixty years later. William Bracy said :

"My wife Margery shall have to her use all my household stuff except one bed, the second-best, the which I give and bequeath to John my son with three pair of sheets."

He evidently wished his wife to retain the best bed, and his son to have the secondbest after his death. As evidently Shakespeare wanted his wife to keep her bed, which was the second-best at New Place, when his daughter and her husband, Doctor Hall, came into the house on his decease.

On June 24, 1557, Roger Lyncecombe was made overseer of the will of another Snitterfield friend, Thomas Harding. He signed his own will on Aug. 13, 1558, and Richard Shakespeare helped to value his goods on Apr. 21, 1559. The widow maintained the connection with Stratford, where on June 22, 1560, her daughter Agnes married the young usher at the Grammar School, successor to old Dalam and assistant to Master William Smart, William Gilbert alias Higgës (pronounced Hidges). They perhaps lived in a house in Rother Market, for which widow Lyncecombe paid rent until her death in 1570. William Gilbert alias Higgës lived

in Stratford (with a short break when he resided at Wotton Wawen) as usher, scrivener, clock-keeper, assistant-minister or in some other capacity for over half a century, and must have been a very familiar figure to William Shakespeare.

EDGAR I. FRIPP. (To be continued.)




Boadicea.-Westminster Bridge, inscrip

William IV. Statues over gateway, Royal (See 10 S. xi., xii.: 11 S. i.-xii.: 12 S. i.-vi. Bank of England (Cheese). Busts in GoldVictualling Yard, Cremill, Plymouth, and


smiths' Hall (Chantrey), Vauxhall Gardens (sold for 10s. in 1844) and on staircase of the Tower armoury.


Boadicea (Boudicca) | Queen of the Iceni l who died A.D. 61 | after leading her people | against the Roman invader. This Statue by Thomas Thornycroft | was presented to London

by his son | Sir John Isaac Thornycroft, C.E. |
and placed here by the London County Council |
A.D. 1902. Regions Cæsar never knew | Thy
posterity shall sway. I
Parliament Hill, Essex Naturalist, viii., 1894,
p. 248.

Elizabeth, dau. of Charles I.-Newport Church, I.O.W. Monument by Marochetti, erected by Queen Victoria.

Linen Trade of Ireland | to commemorate | His-
Majesty's gracious visit to the Linen Hall
on the 23rd of August 1821. | T. Kirk fecit
R. H. A. | 182L. [sic] | DUBLIN.


In entrance hall, Royal Dublin Society,
statue by William Behnes, completed by
C. Panormo, inscription on front of pedestal;
Bust in Goldsmith's Hall, London.
Caroline. Statues at Queen's College,-

This tablet is placed here by command of | Her Majesty Queen Victoria in memory of her grandmother | Her Majesty Queen Charlotte | consort of His Majesty King George III. There is also a bust of Charlotte by Percy Fitzgerald in the room.

George IV.-Kingstown Harbour, Dublin. -Obelisk surmounted by a crown marking the spot where the king ran down the slope to his barge. Royal Dublin Society (on staircase) statue with inscription ;—

This Statue of | His Majesty George IV. I was erected by the Merchants engaged in the

Charles II.-Old Southwark Town Hall (12 S. v. 260)., underneath the statue was en inscription: "Combustum an. 1676. Reedificatum Annis 1685 et 1686." Removed from the watch-house to the garden of Mr. Edmonds at Walworth (Gent. Mag., 1840, pt. i., p. 359). Offered for sale by & Kensington dealer in 1915, who found it in a field at Hayes, Middlesex (John o' London's Houses of Parliament, two statues in Weekly, Sept. 4, 1920). Stocks' Market Victoria Tower, one within the porch and (12 S. v. 260).-Sloane MS. 655, f. 42b. the other immediately above the entrance, Charlotte.--Kew Palace (Queen's bed-in Prince's Chamber (north wall) marble room). Brass plate over fireplace with statue by J. Gibson. See also 'Return of inscription ;Outdoor Memorials in London,' issued by L.C.C., 1910, pp. 51-53. Maidstone, Kent, statue at top of High Street, by John. Thomas, with inscription ;


Victoria. Buckingham Palace, the National Memorial was prepared on Primrose Hill the large temporary wooden erection near the gymnasium being put upfor the purpose; see 'The Regent's Park and Primrose Hill' (Webster), p. 90. Entrancehall, St. Thomas's Hospital, white marble statue in state robes, by M. Noble, the gift of Sir John Musgrove, Bart., President,. 1873. Junior Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, white marble statue in state robes, by [Sir] Thomas Brock, with inscription ;

This statue in commemoration of the Diamond1 Jubilee was subscribed for by members of the

Club, and was unveiled on 5th February, 1902, by the Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., Prime Minister.

St. Paul's Cathedral, in front of steps, inscription ;—

Here Queen Victoria | returned thanks to | Almighty God for the sixtieth anniversary | of her accession, | June 22, A.D. 1897. |

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1908, by the Lord Lieutenant (Lord Aberdeen). Kingstown, Dublin, on the jetty are two stones, forming part of the harbour wall boundary, recording the first and last visits of the queen, the inscriptions are ;

V.R. 1849.
V.R. 1900.

From the above list the words in italics in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, Duke of Cornwall, were omitted, the consequence

Medical Examination Hall, Strand (12 S. being that the addresses prepared in iii. 15). accordance with the original instruction contain an absolute misstatement. His Royal Highness is not "Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in the Peerage of England. He is "Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England," and 'Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in the Peerage of the United Kingdom."





Particulars are desired of the Victoria memorials at Newport, I.O.W., and in the grounds of Woodlands (Luttrelstown), Dublin (obelisk). J. ARDAGH. 27 Hartismere Road, Walham Green, S.W.6.

"The Prince of Wales has observed [that some discussion has taken place regarding the omission of the title of Duke of Cornwall' from the list of titles prefixed to the addresses presented to him here. His Royal Highness very much regrets that - owing to some error in the original communication forwarded to this country on the matter, the title of Duke of Cornwall,' of which he is very proud, has not appeared in the addresses hitherto received by him. He directs me, therefore, to ask you to have the proper list of titles, which I attach, circulated to all concerned."

Kingdom, Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, and Baron of Renfrew in the Peerage of Scotland, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland, K.G., 3.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., G.M.B.E., and M.C.

THE PRINCE OF WALES IN. AUSTRALIA: THE TITLE DUKE OF CORNWALL.-In connection with the visit of the Prince of Wales to Australia there is an incident relating to his titles which should be put on record in 'N. & Q.' An official instruction was issued as to the manner in which His Royal Highness was to be described in addresses presented to him, and in the addresses prepared before his arrival the direction was followed. In these there is no mention of the "Duke of Cornwall." In fact in certain quarters where greater knowledge should have existed it was asserted that the Prince was not the Duke of Cornwall. When His Royal Highness reached Victoria Sir Langdon Bonython, K.C.M.G., a well-known Cornishman, directed attention to the omission by a letter in the Melbourne Argus. He emphasized the points that the "Duke of Cornwall is not a mere title, but very much more than that, and that "the eldest son of the King is Duke of Cornwall," being made Prince of Wales. Correspondence followed with the result that the Prime Minister of Australia received from Lieut.Col. Grigg (Secretary to the Prince of Wales) a communication in which he said :



The following is the list referred to :-
His Royal Highness Edward Albert Christian
George Andrew Patrick David, Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester in the Peerage of the United

PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK.-Sir Richard C. Jebb, M.P., Regius Professor of Greek (1902), writes in chap. xvi. of the 'Cambridge Modern History,' vol. i. p. 581, headed ‘The Classical Renaissance' :

"Mention is due here to the important part which both these eminent men [Sir John Cheke and excited and divided the humanists of that age. The Sir Thomas Smith bore in a controversy which teachers from whom the Scholars of the Renaissance learned Greek pronounced that language as Greeks do at the present day. In 1528 Erasmus published at Basel his dialogue De recta Latini Grecique Sermonis Pronuntiatione. His protest was chiefly directed against the modern Greek iotasism: i.e.. the pronunciation of several different vowels and diphthongs with the same sound, that of the Italian

He rightly maintained that the ancients must have given to each of these vowels and diphthongs a distinctive sound; and he urged that it was both irrational and inconvenient not to do so. He also objected to the modern Greek mode of pronouncing certain consonants. His reformed pronunciation came to be known as the 'Erasmian'; while that used by modern Greeks was called, the Reuchlinian,' had upheld it. because Reuchlin (whom Melanchthon followed) About 1585, Thomas Smith and John Cheke-then young men of about twentyexamined the question for themselves, and came to the conclusion that Erasmus was right. Thereupon in his Greek lectures-though cautiously at first; Smith began to use the Erasmian pronunciation Cheke and others supported him; and the reform Gardiner, the Chancellor of the University, issued was soon generally accepted. But in 1542, Bishop mode. Ascham has described, not without humour, a decree, enjoining a return to the Reuchlinian the discontent which this edict evoked. After Elizabeth's accession, the Erasmian' method was




Arising out of this passage I should be glad to know: (1) Do the words "as Greeks do at the present day mean in 1528-35 or in 1902 ? The phrasing is somewhat obscure. (2) If in the former, what was the

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