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action acts affinity alcohol alloy ammonia anhydride animals atoms becomes bismuth burns calcic calcium called carbonic acid chemical chlorine closed coal color combined combustion common compounds consists contains converted copper crystals dissolves distillation earth easily elements exposed fermentation Figure fire flame furnace gases gives glass gold heat hydric hydrogen important iron known lead less light lime liquid manufacture mass matter means melted mercury metal mixed mixture molecules muriatic acid nature nitrate nitric acid nitrogen obtained occurs ordinary organic oxide oxygen passes phosphorus plants platinum potassic pounds prepared presence properties pure quantity readily remarkable rise rocks salt seen silver small quantity soda sodic solid soluble solution starch substances sugar sulphate sulphide sulphuric acid surface symbol takes temperature tube unites vapor vegetable weight wood zinc
Seite 67 - (muriatic acid) is evolved, and escapes through a flue with the products of combustion into towers, or scrubbers, filled with coke or bricks moistened with a stream, of water ; the acid vapors are thus condensed, while the smoke and heated air pass up the chimney. The reaction is as follows
Seite 149 - the atomic weights of their elements. Suppose, for instance, that we do not know the molecular weight of water, but do know that a molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, and that the atom of hydrogen weighs i and the atom of oxygen 16. The molecular weight of water must then be
Seite 67 - of a large covered iron pan, placed in the centre of the furnace, and heated by a fire placed underneath ; and two roasters, or reverberatory furnaces, placed one at each side, on the hearths of which the salt is completely decomposed. The charge of half a ton of salt is first placed in the iron pan, and the
Seite 62 - and may be distilled at a white heat, in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Antimony undergoes no alteration in the air at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly oxidizes if exposed to air when melted ; and if heated more strongly, it takes fire, and burns with a white flame, giving off
Seite 51 - largely used in the form of sheets, and is employed as a protecting covering for iron. The sheets of iron are plunged into melted zinc, covered with sal-ammoniac, which keeps the surface of the zinc free from oxide, and allows the two metals to unite. Iron thus coated with zinc is said to be galvanized.
Seite 52 - The salt may be obtained in the pure state by precipitating a cold solution of the nitrate with an alkaline carbonate, when it falls down as a white powder. For preparing the salt in quantity, two plans are employed : the one similar in principle to that described for the "pure salt ; and the other
Seite 48 - early times, as it occurs native in the metallic state, and is moreover easily reduced from its ores. Metallic copper is found in enormous quantity near Lake Superior, in North America, and other localities. The following ores are the most important: (i) a compound of copper, sulphur, and iron, known as copper pyrites, Cu 2
Seite 67 - After the mixture of salt and acid has been heated for some time in the iron pan, and has become solid, it is raked out upon the hearths of the roasters, where the flame and heated air of the fire complete the decomposition into sodic sulphate and
Seite 134 - the gas is not completely burnt, and carbon is separated in the solid state ; and it is this carbon heated white-hot which renders the flame luminous. In the outer zone the supply of oxygen is greater ; all the carbon is at once burnt to carbonic acid, and the flame here becomes non-luminous.
Seite 143 - Bread-making. — The making of bread in the ordinary way, by means of leaven or yeast, is an example of alcoholic fermentation. When the grain of wheat is ground in a mill, and then sifted, it is separated into two parts, the bran and the flour. The bran is the outside harder part of the grain, Which