Hand-books of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy: Hydrostatics and pneumatics

Cover
Benjamin Loewy, Thomas Olver Harding
C. Lockwood & Company, 1874
 

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Inhalt

Point of average depth
27
Geometrical representation of pressures
28
Centre of pressure
30
Actual pressure of water
31
Pressure on dam or embankment
33
Pressure at great depths
34
Bursting rocks
35
Liquids in communicating vessels
36
Experimental illustration
38
Different liquids in communicating vessels
39
Influence of the pressure of the atmosphere upon the equilibrium of liquids
40
Calculation of liquid pressure on surfaces
41
CHAPTER III
46
Levelling
49
Spirit level
50
Artesian wells
53
Method of finding magnitude of solids
54
Conditions under which solids sink or float
55
SECT PAGE 46 Experimental verification
56
The principle of Archimedes
58
Applications of the principle
59
Buoyancy of vessels and hollow solids
60
Influence of decomposition and external pressure upon animal bodies immersed
61
General conditions of equilibrium of immersed bodies
62
Equilibrium of floating bodies
64
Metacentre
65
Neutral equilibrium
66
Degrees of stability
67
CHAPTER V
69
Standards of specific gravity
70
Determination of the specific gravity of solids
72
Determination of the specific gravity of liquids
74
Specific gravity bottle
75
Principle of hydrometers
76
Sikess hydrometer
77
Nicholsons hydrometer
78
Scalehydrometers
79
Hydrometers of Baume Cartier and Beck
81
Hydrometers for special liquids alcoholometers sacharometers lactometers
82
Determination of the specific gravity of gases
86
French standard
87
English standard
88
Explanation of tables Tables of specific gravity
89
Examples on the calculation of specific gravities
95
CHAPTER VI
100
Cohesion
101
BECT PAGF 75 Measurement of adhesion and cohesion I02 76 Capillary phenomena
102
Laws of capillary attraction
105
Effects of molecular attractions
106
The rope pump
107
Capillary depression of mercury in glass tubes
108
Experimental proof of surface tension
109
Plateaus equilibrium figures
110
Formation of drops Professor Guthries experi ments i1 1
111
Cohesion figures
112
Diffusion of liquids
113
Crystalloids and colloids
115
Dialysis
116
Osmose
117
Experimental illustration
118
Endosmometer
119
BOOK II
123
Weight of gases
124
Compressibility of gases
125
Elasticity of gases
126
Resistance of air
127
CHAPTER VIII
128
Pascals experimentum crucis
130
The Magdeburg hemispheres
132
The barometer Provisions for correct observations
133
Waterbarometer
135
Different kinds of barometers
136
Use of the vernier
138
Travelling and marinebarometers
139
Siphonbarometers
140
The aneroidbarometer
142
i11 Method of measuring heights by the barometer
144
Method of estimating atmospheric pressure
148
Height of the atmosphere
150
Variations of the barometer Daily variation
151
Probable causes of the daily variations
152
Annual variation
153
Supposed connection between barometric changes and the weather
155
Mariottes law
156
Recent experiments on Mariottes law
159
CHAPTER IX
163
Airpump for ventilating mines
181
Air balloons Aeronautical experiments
182
135 A sketch of scientific ballooning since 1783
183
Use of coalgas for balloons
189
Aerial navigation
190
Precautions Parachutes
192
Aerial flight De Lucys observations
194
CHAPTER X
195
Diffusion of gases
200
Osmose of gases
202
BOOK III
204
Quantity of discharged liquid
206
The contracted vein
207
Theoretical and practical efflux Coefficient of con traction
208
Form of the issuing jet Experiments of Savart and Magnus
209
Discharge from a tubular orifice
210
SECT PAGH 152 Efflux through capillary tubes
211
Motion of liquids in pipes and channels
214
Resistances to motion of liquids
215
Valves
216
Clack valves
217
Ball valves 21S 160 Means of checking the velocity Throttlevalves ib 161 Velocity of a stream at different depths
218
Woltmanns steamgauge
219
Experiments of Humphreys and Abbott
222
Velocity of rivers
223
Absolute resistance
224
Form of least resistance
225
Screw propellers
227
CHAPTER XII
229
Velocity of compressed gas escaping from an orifice
230
Contracted gas vein
232
Movement of gas in pipes 176 Lateral pressure of gases in flowing
233
Phenomena of suction
234
CHAPTER XIII
235
Maintenance of levels in reservoirs The ballcock or selfacting feeder
236
Pronys float
238
Clepsydra or waterclock
239
SECT PAGE 182 Artesian wells
241
Ornamental waterworks
244
I84 Kites ib I85 The airgun
245
Safety tube
246
Manometers Steam and gas gauge
247
Gasometers
249
The divingbell
250
193 Action of bellows
251
Ventpeg Lid of teapot
252
Instruments for measuring velocity of moving air Anemometers
253
CHAPTER XIV
254
Method of estimating the useful effect
255
Relation between the power and useful effect
256
Method of raising water from wells ib 202 Lifting wheels
259
The lifting wheel of Laurence and Thomas
260
The tympan
262
The chainpump Dredging machines
263
Archimedes screw
265
The Dutch screw
268
The lifting pump ft 209 Double lifting pump worked by weight
269
Pneumatic machines for raising water
270
The forcing pump
274
213 The fireengine
278
Centrifugal pumps
279
Appolds centrifugal pump
281
2l6 Versailles waterworks
283
water
284
The Carcel lamp
286
The moderator lamp
291
Undershot wheels
293
Overshot wheels
296
Breast wheels
298
Poncelets wheel
299
Wheel driven by an indefinite current
300
Wheels with vertical axes
301
229
302
230
303
232
304
233
308
234
309
235 Fontaines tourbine
310
Waterengine
311
Doubleacting waterengine
316
239 The hydraulic ram
320
General principle of action of air in windmills
324
243 Blowing machines
325
Winnowing machine
327
On liquid pressure
332
On efflux of liquids and the work of hydraulic machines
349

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