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CHURCH, n. chèrch [Gr. kuriakon, the Lord's housefrom kurios, the Lord; oikos, a house: AS. cyrice: Scot. kirk: Ger. kirche]: an edifice or a building consecrated or set apart for the worship of God; the collective body of Christians throughout the world; a certain number of Christians holding the same dogmas: V. to perform the office or returning thanks in church for women after childbirth. CHURCH ING, imp.: N. attending church to offer thanks, as a women after childbirth; usage from an early period, apparently borrowed from the Jewish law, Lev. xii. 6; im perative in the Greek and the Roman Church, and having ' a plan in the liturgy of the Prot. Episc. Church. CHURCHED, pp. chercht. CHURCH-ALE, a feast in commemoration of the dedication of a church, at which much ale was used. CHURCH-LIKE, a after the manner of a churchman, or becoming him. CHURCHMAN, n. an Episcopalian; a clergyman or member of an established church. CHURCH-MUSIC, music adapted for use in a church. CHURCH-SERVICE, religious service in a church. CHURCH-GOER, a regular attender at church. CHURCH MILITANT, the church on earth as warring against every form of evil. CHURCHWARDEN, n. wár dn (Eng. warden; F. gardien, one who has the ward or guard of a thing]: in Eng., and in the Prot. Episc. Chh. in the United States, an ecclesiastical officer, usually one of two in each parish, who, joined with the vestry, have charge of the church edifice, and of provisions for celebrating public worship, and of parochial interests generally: see CHUCH-RATES: PARISH: VESTRY. CHURCHYARD, n. a burial-ground beside the church: see BURIAL: CEMETERY. Note. The derivation of church from the Gr. is open to question, notwithstanding the high authorities in its favor. The word is found in the Teutonic and Celtic languages with the primary signification a circle of stones,' thus indicating the sites of the old heathen worship, on or near which Christian crosses and churches were erected in the earliest times. The more recent spellings, as well as the modern spelling, arose from the system of accommodation and corruption which prevailed before our language was fixed. In Scotch, clachan means a village in which there is a church or place of worship'-from Gael. clachan, a circle of stones. Under the influence of the Greek, together with priestly instruction, it was easy for such a word to assume the northern forms, Dan. kirke; Sw. kyrka, Icel. kirkja; Scot. kirk, and the softer AS. form cyrice.


CHURCH [see CHURCH (preceding, with its note at the end)]: word signifying either a place of Christian worship, or a collective body of Christian people. The earliest ecclesiastical structures of the Christians were copied or adapted not from the heathen or Jewish temple, as might have been anticipated, but from that peculiar combination of a hall of justice and a market-place to which the name basilica was given by the ancients: see APSE: BASILICA. The reason of this selection is found, probably not so much in the spirit of opposition which no doubt existed between Christians and heathens, as in the essentially different concep


tions which they formed of the character and objects of public worship The rites of heathendom were performed exclusively by the priest, the people remaining without the temple; and the temple itself, which was lighted only from the door, or by the few lamps which burned around the image of the god, was regarded not as an assemblyroom for worshippers but as the abode of the deity. The dark, mysterious character which thus belonged to it, rendered it equally unsuitable for the performance of liturgical services in which the people were to participate and for the delivery of those public addresses which from the beginning were employed as a means of Christian teaching and exhortation. To such purposes the prætor's court-room, with its surroundings, were readily adapted, by the few simple alterations described in the articles above referred to. But the basilica, as thus altered, was a mere utilitarian structure. It served the purposes of Christian worship, but there was nothing in its form which responded to the feelings of Christian worshippers or tended to awaken Christian sentiments. Now, the cross (q.v.) had been used by Christians from a very early period to indicate their allegiance to the author of their salvation and the object of their faith; and gradually it had become the distinctive emblem of Christianity. Nothing, then, could be more natural than that when it became desirable to give distinctively Christian characteristics to what hitherto had been a heathen structure, this should be effected by such a modification of its form as should convert it into a representation of this sacred emblem. Nor did this alteration lead to any very extensive change on the form of the C., as it had hitherto existed. The basilica frequently had side entrances, either in place of, or in addition to, that from the end. All that was requisite, then, to change its simple parallelogram into a cross, was, that at each side of the building these entrances, in place of direct communications with the exterior, should be converted into passages, or arms running out at right angles, and more or less prolonged, according as the object was to attain the form of a Greek or of a Latin cross (see CROSS). If the C. was to be in the form of a Greek cross the arms were made of the same length with the other two portions into which they divided the building; if the cross was to be a Latin one the portion of the building toward the west was made considerably longer than either of the others. In either case the arms running at right angles to the C., and directly opposite to each other, cut it across, and thus obtained the name of transepts.

The external form of the C. being thus indicated, the following were its internal arrangements, and the various adjuncts which in cathedrals and other of the larger churches frequently sprang up around it.

Over the point at which the arms or transepts intersect the body of the cross, a central tower or spire is very frequently erected. From this central tower. or, if the tower or towers are situated elsewhere, from this central point, the portion of the building projecting westward, to





Transept; S. T. =



where the Galilee or entrance chapel, or, in other instances, the great entrance-door is situated, is called the nave (from navis, a ship), while the portion eastward to where the altar, or high-altar, if there be several altars, is placed is called the choir. In the larger and more complete churches, the nave, frequently also the choir, are divided longitudinally by two rows of pillars into three portions, the portion at each side being generally somewhat narrower and less lofty than that in the centre. These side portions are called the isles of the nave, or of the choir as the case may be. In some churches, the aisles are continued along C=Choir; N.T.North the transepts, thus running round the South Transept; N. whole C.; in others, there are double aisles to the nave, or to both nave and choir, or even to nave, choir, and transept. Behind, or to the east of the choir, is situated the Ladye's Chapel, or Chapel of the Virgin, with sometimes a numbers of altars; and it is not unusual for side chapels to be placed at different points along the aisles. These usually contain the tombs of the founder, and of other benefactors to, or dignitaries connected with the church. The extent to which these adjuncts exist depends on the size and importance of the C., and they are scarcely ever alike in two churches, either in number, form or position. Vestries for the use of the priests and choristers are generally found in connection with the choir. Along the sides of the choir are arranged richly ornamented seats or stalls, usually of carved oak, surmounted with tracery, arches, and pinnacles; and among these seats, in the case of a bishop's church, the highest and most conspicuous is the so-called cathedra, or seat for the bishop, from which the cathedral takes its name. The larger English cathedral and abbey-churches have usually a chapter-house attached, of various forms, usually octagonal, and often one of the richest and most beautiful portions of the whole edifice. On the continent, chapter-houses are not so common, the chapter (q.v.) be ing usually held in the cathedral itself, or in one of chapels attached to it. Cloisters (q.v.) also are freque and not unusually the sides of those furthest removed from the C., or chapter-house, are inclosed by other bulding connected with the establishment, such as a library, and places of residence for some of the officials of the cathedral. It is here that, in Rom. Cath. churches, the hall, dormitories, and kitchens for the monks are commonly_placed. Beneath the C. there is frequently a Crypt (q.v.). In some cathedral churches, the crypt is in reality a second underground C. of great size and beauty. The baptistery (q.v.) is another adjunct to the C., though frequently forming a building altogether detached. Most of the parts of the C. above mentioned may be traced on the annexed groundplan of Durham Cathedral; see, also, plans of the cathedrals


of Salisbury and Amiens under GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. The position of the nave, choir, or chancel, aisles, and transepts are nearly invariable, but the other portions vary, and are scarcely alike in two churches.

Churches are of five classes- metropolitan, cathedral, collegiate, conventual, and parish churches-and of these the first are, generally speaking, the most, and the last the least, elaborate. In ordinary language, any building set apart for religious ordinances is called a church, though when of a minor kind it is more usually designated a chapel. After a long period of neglect and poverty of taste, the building of churches in a superior style, emulative of the older styles of architecture, has greatly revived, not only in the Church of England, but in the Church of Scotland and nearly all dissenting bodies in Great Britain. The same return to ancient styles is noticeable among nearly all denominations in the United States.

As applied to a collective body of Christian people, the word C. is the translation and equivalent of the Greek word ecclesia (Lat. ecclesia, Fr. église), used in the New Testament. This word, in classical usage, meant the assembly of the citizens called out or summoned; or sometimes a great gathering or throng of people, a company, a congregation. In the New Testament the word was applied by Christ and the apostles to those Christian disciples who in any city or village constituted a company in fellowship; also, collectively, to the whole body of Christ's disciples scattered throughout the world. It is common among Protestants to distinguish between the visible and the invisible C.-the invisible C. consisting of all those who are savingly or spiritually united to Christ, that is, of all his true disciples, the visible C. consisting of all who profess the religion of Jesus Christ. Roman Catholics do not in the same manner acknowledge the distinction between the visible and the invisible C., but regard a connection with the hierarchy, and consequent participation of ordinances, as establishing a connection with the true C. and with Christ. Protestants regard the C. as subsisting from age to age, in virtue of the authority of Christ, and through the faith of individual disciples which is wrought in them by the Holy Spirit and testified to by their confession of . Christ; Roman Catholics regard the apostolical succession of the hierarchy, and the regular administration of the sacraments, as essential to the continued existence of that Catholic or universal C. which Christ planted on the earth, and the existence of which he has promised to maintain throughout all ages. Protestants in general regard the C. of Rome and the Greek C. as forming part of the visible C. of Christ, but Roman Catholics are not accustomed to make a corresponding admission with respect to the Protestant churches. From the hierarchical principle of the C. of Rome and of the Greek C., results an employment of the term C. to designate the hierarchy alone, which is contrary to the principles of the Reformation, although a tendency to it may be observed in some Protestant churches. It has been usual for Protestants to designate


by the term C. the collective body of Christians in a particular country, distinguished by the name of that country; the greater number of Protestants (Episcopalians and Presbyterians) believing that such a portion of the universal C. may warrantably be associated under a common government; snd in countries where religious liberty exists, diversities of opinion on points of doctrine and C. government have given rise to the existence of separate Christian associations, distinguished by names generally indicative of some of the peculiarities which characterize them; but

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these, however much they may differ on many points, do not in general hesitate to recognize each other as belonging to the universal visible C. of Christ, while they retain in common the same great first principles of the Christian faith, and particularly the belief in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit-one God, the incarnation of the Son of God, the atonement by Jesus Christ, and the work of the Holy Spirit. The term C., however, is regarded by Independents or Congregationalists (q.v.) as strictly lim

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