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various people; 4th, Treatises, on different subjects (such as Providence, the Priesthood, etc.); and 5th, Liturgies. Of these the most valuable as well as the most studied, are the Homilies, which are held to be superior to everything of the kind in ancient Christian literature.
The most correct Greek edition of C.'s works is that by Henry Savil (8 vols., Eton, 1613), and the most complete Greek and Latin edition is that by Montfaucon (13 vols., Paris, 1718-38; republished 1834-40). The best authority in regard to C. is Neander, who, besides treating of his life and labors in his Kirchengeschichte, published a life of this eminent father.
CHRYSOTYPE, kris'o-tip [Gr. chrysos, gold; typos, impression]: photographic process invented by Sir John Herschel, depending for its success on the reduction of a persalt of iron to the state of protosalt by the action of light, and the subsequent precipitation of metallic gold upon this protosalt of iron. The process is conducted as follows: Good paper is immersed in a solution of ammoniocitrate of iron of such a strength as to dry into a good yellow color, without any tinge of brown in it. It is then exposed to light under a negative until a faint impression is obtained. A neutral solution of chloride of gold is then brushed over the paper, when the picture immediately appears, and is rapidly developed to a purple tint. It should then be freely washed in several changes of water, fixed with a weak solution of iodide of potassium, again thoroughly washed, and dried. The action of the iodide of potassium is to convert any unaltered chloride of gold into a soluble double iodide of gold and potassium, thus rendering the picture permanent.
CHUB, n. chub [Sw. kubbug, chubby, fat: Sw. kubb; Icel. kubbr, a block, a log: comp. F. chevane-from mid. L. capito], (Leuciscus Cephalus): plump river-fish, of the family Cyprinide, of the same genus with the roach, dace, bleak, minnow, etc.: see LEUCISCUS. The color is bluish-black on the upper parts, passing into silvery white on the belly; the cheeks and gill-covers rich golden yellow. The C.
rarely attains a weight exceeding five lbs. It is plentiful in many rivers of England, and occurs in some of those of the s.w. of Scotland. In the rivers of Cumberland it bears the name of Skelly, supposed to have reference to the size of its scales; but the Schelly of Ullswater lake is the Gwyniad, and the C. is there called the Chevin. It is found in many rivers of the continent of Europe; being the Jentling or Bratfisch of the Danube, and the Jese of the Oder..
It spawns in April and May. It is not in great esteem for the table.
The C. rises well at a fly, and takes freely a variety of baits. The same baits and the same means of fishing may be employed as for the barbel and bream. The C. is very fond, moreover, of slugs, grasshoppers, cockchafers, and humble-bees. The latter two are to be used either naturally, by means of dibbing or dapping, or, being imitated, may be used artificially, and cast as a fly. The best flies for the C. are large red, black, and brown palmers, with the hackles laid on thickly. The best places to fly-fish for C. are close under over-hanging boughs at the sides of streams, or against piles, or other places where they can get some shelter, for the C.is somewhat shy and easily alarmed. He is a bold riser, and when he comes at a fly seldom fails to hook himself. When first hooked, he makes a great dash, but he very soon gives in. Of all the baits for bottom-fishing, he prefers greaves, cheese, and worms, and the fatter the bait the better he likes it. He will occasionally run at a minnow, and is often taken on a spinning bait. The C. after spawning in May comes into condition again by the end of June or early in July; bites best, and is in the best condition for bottom fishing, in Oct. and Nov. Some years ago, the scales of the C. were in much request, in common with those of the bleak, for artificial pearl
CHUBB, chub, THOMAS: 1679-1746; b. East Harnham, Wiltshire, England: rationalist writer on religious questions. He received but a meagre education in youth, and, after an apprenticeship to a leather glove and breeches maker in Salisbury, he became a tallow-chandler, in which business he continued to the end of his life. His first work, published 1715, was entitled Supremacy of God the Father Vindicated. Besides this, he wrote a multitude of treaties on other religious subjects. Among these may be mentioned: A Discourse on Reason, as a sufficient Guide in matters of Religion; On Sincerity; On Future Judgment and Eternal Punishment; Inquiry about Inspiration of the New Testament; and Doctrine of Vicarious Suffering and Intercession Refuted. This deistical writer shows some intellectual ability, and seems to aim at calmness and candor in argument, but lacked the learning and the training in logic to deal with the themes on which he wrote.
CHUBBY, a. chub'bi [Icel, kubbr, a stump: Sw. kubb, a stump, a short piece; kubbug, fat, plump]: short and thick; fat and plump. CHUB BINESS, n. bi-nes, the state or quality of being chubby. CHUB-FACED, a. -fäst, having a plump, round face.
CHUCK, v. chuk [F. choquer, to give a shock: Dut. schokken, to jolt; schok, a jolt: Wall. caker, to strike in the hand, to chatter: Turk. chakil, a pebble]: to give a slight blow under the chin so as to make the jaws snap; to throw or pitch a short distance; to strike gently: N. a slight blow, as under the chin; the part of a turning lathe for holding the material to be operated upon. CHUCK'ING, imp.
CHUCKED, рp. chukt. Eng. CHACK-STONE, Scot CHUCKIESTANE, a pebble. CHUCK-FARTHING, a toss farthing.
CHUCK, v. chuk [an imitative word: F. claquer, to clack, to chatter (see CLUCK)]; to make the noise of a hen when calling her chickens: N. the noise or call of a hen to keep her chickens together; in OE., a chicken-a word of endearment.
CHUCKLE, v. chúk kl [Icel. koka, or quoka, to swallow -from kok, or quok, the throat: Lith. kaklas, the neck: AS. geagl, the jaw, the chops: may be connected with either CHOKE, or CHUCK 2]: to laugh inwardly in triumph N. a broken, half suppressed laugh. CHUCK LING, imp. ADJ. a suppressed choking approaching to laugh, expressive of inward satisfaction. CHUCKLED, pp. chùk'-' kid. CHUCKLE-HEADED, a. stupid; thick-headed; noisy' and empty.
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, chuk' wilz-widō (Antrostomus Carolinensis): bird of the Goatsucker family (Caprimulgide), native of the southern parts of the United States. It has received its singular name from its note, which resembles these words or syllables articulated with great distinctness, and is repeated like that of the cuckoo, or of its own congener, the Whip-poor will (q.v.).
CHUCUITO, chó-kwè'tō, or CHUQUITO, chó-ke to: town of Bolivia, in the dept. of Puno, 100 m. e.n.e. of Arequipa, on the w. shore of Lake Titicaca, at the mouth of a stream flowing from the Andes. It was formerly of much greater size and importance than it is at present, having had, it is said, at the beginning of the 18th c.; the incredible number of 300,000 inhabitants. Pop. abt. 5,000. In the province of the same name, of which it is the capital, there are mines of silver and gold, and interesting antiquarian remains.
CHUFF, n. chuf [It. ciuffo, the snout of an animal: F. joufflu, chubby, fat-cheeked: AS. ceaflas, chaps, jaws]: a churlish, surly man; a coarse, fat-checked fellow. CHUFFY, a. chif fi, surly; churlish; coarse and blunt. CHUFFILY, ad. chuf fili, in a surly manner. OLD CHUFF, a surly
CHU-LAN: see CHLORANTHACEÆ.
CHUM, n. chum [a probable contraction of comrade, of chamber-fellow]: one who lodges in the same room; an intimate companion.
CHUMBUL, chum'bul or chum-búl': river rising in the Vindhyan Mountains, which form the s. limit of the basin of the Ganges. Its source at a height of 2,019 ft. above the sea, is in lat.22° 26' n., and long. 75° 45' e. During a generally n.e. course of 570 m. it receives many tributaries. on both sides, till, in lat. 26 30′ n., and long. 79 19 e., it enters the Jumna from the right, with such a volume of water, that, when itself flooded, it has been known to raise the united stream seven or eight ft. in twelve hours. The C. is remarkable, here and there, for the wildness of its current and its picturesqueness.
CHUMP, n. chump [an imitative word expressive of the
thick end of anything, as chunk and hump: Icel. kumbr, a log]: a thick, heavy piece of wood; a lump.
CHUNAM, n. cho-nam': Indian name for a very fine kind of quicklime made from calcined shells or from very pure limestone, and used for chewing with Betel (q.v.), and for plaster. Both recent and fossil shells are used for making C. Extensive beds of fossil shells employed for this purpose occur in the s. of India, particularly in low, marshy situations near the sea-coast. The shells used are in the first place very carefully cleaned; they are then calcined in kilns, with wood charcoal. When chunam is to be used for plaster, it is mixed with fine river-sand, and thoroughly beaten up with water. A little jaggery (coarse sugar) is also added. When very beautiful work is desired three coats of chunam are given to the wall, and the result is a plaster almost equal to marble in its polish and beauty. The third coat is applied in the form of a very fine paste, consisting of four parts of lime and one of fine white sand, beaten up with whites of eggs, sour-milk, and ghee (butter). After it has been rubbed on with a wooden rubber, the surface is washed with a cream of pure lime, and is rubbed with a polished piece of quartz or rock crystal. During this process, the wall is sprinkled with powder of pot-stone, and the rubbing is continued until the wall is quite dry, every trace of moisture being finally removed by a cloth. C. is an important article of trade in India.
CHUNARGURI, chùn-úr-gér', or CHUNAR, chăn'ár: fortified town on the right bank of the Ganges, 16 m. s.w. of Benares, and in the division of Benares, dist. of Mirzapore, lieut.governorship of the N. W. Provinces. The fortress, which occupies the summit of a sandstone rock, contains the commandant's house, the hospital, the prison, and an ancient palace, with a deeply-excavated well of not very good water. The river in front is navigable at all seasons for vessels of from 50 to 60 tons. Pop. (1891) 12,524.
CHUPATTEE, or CHAPATI, n. cho-pât'te [a Deccan word: in India, a thick, flat, baked disk of unleavened farinaceous paste; an unfermented cake, used as tokens by the disaffected previous to the Sepoy mutiny.
CHUPRA, or CHUPRAH, chup'ra: town of India, province of Behar, Bengal, on the n. bank of the Ganges, at the mouth of the Gogari, 35 m. n.w. of Patna, 330 m. n.w. of Calcutta. It extends a mile along the river, here navigable only in the rainy season, and is but a few feet above its bank. It has several mosques, pagodas, and churches; most of the dwellings are of mud, with tiled roofs. There is some trade in saltpetre, sugar, and cotton, and a military station near. Pop. (1881) 51,670; (1891) 57,352.
CHUQUISACA, cho-ke-sá ká, or SUCRE, so krá: largest city of the state of Bolivia; lat. 19° 20′ s., and long. 65° 30 It is on a table-land about 9,000 ft. above the sea, and has a pleasant climate. The town is well built, has a cathedral of great magnificence, a university, a college of arts and sciences, and a mining-school. C. was founded
1538 by Pedro Auzures, an officer of Pizarro, on the site of an old Peruvian town called Choque Chaka,' or 'Bridge of Gold,' the treasures of the Incas having passed through it on their way to Cuzco.' At one time, C. bore the name of La-Plata, on account of the rich silver mines in its vicinity. Pop. (1888) 20,000.
C. gives names to a territory containing 220,000 whites, besides many native Indians. It has five silver mines in operation, and in it are magnificent ruins of unknown origin. The second name is derived from the general who 1824, Dec., won, at Ayacucho, the last great battle for colonial independence. Pop. (1888) 123,347.
CHUR, chir (Fr. Coire, anc. Curia Rhetorum): town of Switzerland, cap. of the Grisons, in the valley of the Upper Rhine, in a fertile plain about 2,000 ft. above the sea, and surrounded by high mountains; 60 m. s. e. of Zurich; on the Plessur, about a mile from its junction with the Rhine. It is of importance as standing on the great road to Italy by the Splügen and Bernardin passes, and thus possessing considerable transit trade. C. stands on uneven ground, has narrow streets, and is divided into a high and low town. The bishop's palace, and the quarter around it, inhabited by the Roman Catholics, occupy the summit of an eminence, and are separated from the rest by walls and battlements, closed by double gates. In the same quarter stand the old cathedral, a round, arched, or Byzantine edifice, founded in the 8th c.; the Church of St. Lucius or the Dom, a curious example of early-pointed Gothic, including fragments of earlier buildings. It contains singular old carving, paintings, and statues, and also, it is said, the bones of St. Lucius, a British king. Behind the episcopal palace is a kind of ravine lined with vineyards. In the lower town also there are some very ancient buildings. Romansch is still spoken in the vicinity; a newspaper in this dialect is published in the town, and a considerable collection of Romansch literature is in the library of the cantonal schools. There are several new roads leading in different directions through the Grisons; and a railway connects the town with Zurich and other places. There are manufactures of zinc wares and cutting tools. Pop. (1888) 9,380, of whom above 2.000 are Roman Catholics.