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COLUMBIDÆ, kol-um'bi-de: family of birds, often comprehended under the general English names dove and pigeon, and forming the genus Columba [Lat. pigeon] of Linnæus. They are generally ranked among gallinaceous birds, but have points of resemblance to the order Insessores, and have by some naturalists been constituted into a distinct order, intermediate between these. They agree with the true gallinaceous birds in the character of their bill, and in the soft naked tumid membrane at the base of it, in which the nostrils are pierced; also in their rasorial (scraping) habits and blunt claws; but they differ very widely from them in their great powers of flight, which are not surpassed in any other family of birds; in having the hind-toe on the same level with the other toes; in having no connecting membrane at the base of the toes; in being not polygamous but pairing, and in the male taking part with the female in the care of the young; in their having generally only two young ones at a time, but breeding often in a year; in their double crop, an expansion of the gullet on both sides, in which they differ from all other birds; and in the secretion, at breeding time, of a milky fluid by the crop of both parents, as in the parrots, with which the food is saturated in order to fit it for the young, which, unlike those of the true gallinaceous birds, are at first very helpless. The figure represents the gullet and double crop of

[subsumed][merged small][graphic]

a pigeon-one side, a, exhibiting the usual appearance of the crop; and the other, b, showing its appearance at breeding-time when the glands are developed which secrete the milky fluid. The number of species of C. is very great, with so much resemblance that scientific classification has been found very difficult. They are found in all warm and temperate climates, but comparatively few are European. The Indian archipelago particularly abounds ir them. Many of the tropical species have a brilliancy of colors scarcely excelled in the humming-birds or sun-birds. The chaste beauty of the plumage is always pleasing, even when brilliancy is wanting. The voice is very similar in all the species, the cooing of some, however, being harsh, that of others soft and pleasant. Some species are migra



COLUMBINE, a kol um-bin [L. columba, a dove]: pertaining to a pigeon or dove; dove color: N. the heroine in a pantomime, mistress of harlequin. COL'UMBAR Y, n. -ber'i, a pigeon-house.

COLUMBINE, n. kolum-bin [OF. colombin, dove-like

Common Columbine

(A. vulgaris).

from L. columbinus, dove-like -from columba, a dove: may be only column, and binefrom AS. bindan; Icel. binda, to bind, as in woodbine], (Aquilegia): genus of plants of the nat. ord. Ranunculacea, having five colored sepals, which soon fall off, and five petals each terminating below in a horn-shaped spur or nectary. They are natives of the temperate and colder regions of the n. hemisphere. One, the Common C. (A. vulgaris), is found in woods and has long been a familiar inmate of flower-gardens. It is a perennial, generally three or four ft. high, with flowers, usually purple, of curious structure and considerable beauty. C. was formerly much esteemed for medicinal virtues which are now seldom heard of.

Some other species are very ornamental.

COLUMBO (root): see CALUMBA.

COLUMBRETES, kō-lóm-bra tes, or COLOMBRETES, kōlim bra-tes: group of small Spanish islands in the Mediterranean, 29 m. s.e. of Cape Oropesa, about lat. 39° 50' n., long. 0° 45' e. They were formerly a resort of pirates and privateers, but are now a military station. They are of volcanic origin, rise from the sea in rugged and broken masses, and are surrounded and separated from each other by deep water. The largest island, Santa Maria de C., has a good harbor, a hill called Monte Colibre, and many dwarf olives and other small trees; it yields crops of rye, maize, etc., but is infested with snakes.

COLUMBUS, ki-lum'bus: city, cap. of Muscogee co., Ga., on the left bank of the Chattahoochee river, 300 m. n. of its mouth in Appalachicola Bay; 292 m. w. of Savannah, 95 m. s.s.w of Atlanta, 84 m. w.s. w. of Macon. The Muscogee railroad leads e., the Girard railroad s. w. by a bridge connecting with Girard, Ala., directly opposite, and a branch rail oad n. to La Grange, the main line running from Mobile to Richmond. C. was laid out 1828, on the


site of a council town of the Cowetas, a Creek tribe. Within four m. above the city, the river descends 111 ft.; a dam 500 ft. long affords abundant water power to a number of cotton-factories, saw-mills, planing-mills, flouring mills, and machine-shops. C. is handsomely built, with wide streets and attractive suburbs: it has four banks, four newspapers, a good school system, and eight or ten churches. The Chattahoochee is navigable throughout the year for vessels of light draught, and from Nov. to June, inclusive, steamboats carry cotton on it.. C. is also a centre for other products, being surrounded by a rich agricultural region.. Pop. (1870) 7,401; (1880) 10,123, over 40 per cent. of whom were colored; (1890) 17,303.

COLUMBUS: capital of Bartholomew co., Ind., on the East Fork of White river, 41 m. s. by e. of Indianapolis by the Jeffersonville Madison and Indianapolis railroad, and about as far n.w. of Madison. A branch railroad connects it with Shelbyville and Cambridge, n.e. It has a bank, two newspapers, and several churches. Pop. (1870) 3,359; (1880) 4,813; (1890) 6,719.

COLUMBUS, ko-lum bus: city, cap. of Ohio and of Franklin co. It is built on a rich alluvial plain near the centre of the state, on the Scioto river, 110 m. n.e. of Cincinnati; lat. 39 57′ n.. long. 83 3 w. It was laid out 1812, the site being selected by commissioners appointed by the legislature 1810. Lots were sold 1812, June 18, and a bridge and saw-mill erected the next year. The Western Intelligencer was brought from Worthington, 1814; its title was changed, 1825, to the Ohio State Journal. The state officers removed from Chillicothe 1816, and the legislature met, Dec., in a state-house costing $83,000. About this time the Franklin bank was incorporated. Pres. Monroe passed through 1817. The Ohio canal was opened 1825. C. grew apace, was laid out in regular squares with broad streets, and incorporated as a city 1834. The Ohio Statesman, founded 1837, was the only paper from that time till 1853; S. S. Cox was long one of its editors. The Columbus and Xenia railroad opened travel to Cincinnati 1850. The Cleveland Columbus and Cincinnati railroad was finished 1851, the Central railroad to Zanesville 1852, and the Columbus Piqua and Indiana 1853. There is now abundant railway communication in every direction, with a large union depot. The area of the city, which had been confined to 1,100 acres, was enlarged, 1863, to 2,700, and by further annexation, 1871, to 6,752, or nearly 11 sq. m. High street, the chief business thoroughfare, is 100 ft. wide. Broad street, the finest avenue for residences, is 120 ft. wide and has four rows of shade-trees. At the intersection of these, in Capi tol square, occupying ten acres, stands the state-house, built of gray limestone in the Doric style, and covering two acres. It was 15 years in process of erection by convict labor, at a cost of $1,441,675, and was opened 1856, Jan. 1. It contains 53 rooms, and is surrounded by large colonnades and terraces, with four porticoes, whose columns are 36 ft. high. The height of the building is 61 ft., of the


cupola 158 ft., of the dome 120 ft. The rotunda is a mosaic of 4,957 pieces of marble from Vt. and Portugal; it contains Powell's painting of Perry's victory on Lake Erie, and other pictures and statues. The govt. building, for postoffice, U. S. courts, etc., stands opposite the state-house, and cost $500,000; the pension office is one of the largest in the country. The city hall is a fine stone edifice. The U. S. barracks were built 1864 for an arsenal at a cost of about $400,000, and turned 1875, Nov., into a station for receiving and organizing recruits. The state insane asylum, on a rising ground 3 m. w., was built of cut stone and brick at a cost of $2,000,000, will accommodate 1,300 patients, and has a farm of 300 acres. The idiot asylum has about 1.000 inmates and 50 instructors. The blind asylum cost $600,000, can house 1,000 persons, employs 70, and educates 300 pupils, at an annual expense of $50,000. The deaf and dumb asylum cost $800,000, and spends $80,000 yearly on about 500 pupils. The Ohio penitentiary, built 1833-35 by convict labor, at a cost of $800,000, holds 2,000 prisoners, and is considered a model institution; its annual expenses are $250,000. The Ohio State Univ., founded by act of congress, 1862, with a grant of 630,000 acres, has its buildings within the city limits, 3 m. n. of the state-house, with 40 acres of campus and 325 for farm uses; its property is now valued at $1,565,000; it has about 75 instructors and 800 pupils of both sexes. The Starling Medical College was founded with $35,000 by Lyne Starling, who died 1848. The Art Gallery, formed 1879, has instructed more than 1,600 pupils, and now has about 200. Capital Univ., organized 1856, is a Lutheran institution. There are several Rom. Cath. schools. The public schools have 34 buildings, accommodating 16,000 children. Among the finest of the church edifices are St. Joseph's Cathedral (Rom. Cath.) and Trinity (Episc), both Gothic. There are two parks in the city, and one outside. C. claims to be the richest city of its size in the United States. Its real estate was valued 1890 at $66,824,000. In 1886, its total investments amounted to $190,000,000, of which $35,000,000 were invested in railroads, $20,000,000 in the coal business, as much ir iron, $18,000,000 in incorporated manufacturing comp. nies, and $8,000,000 in individual manufacturing. The business of 1887 equalled nearly $60,000,000. Of this the eading interests were coal, iron, and buggies. Over 10,000 men are employed in mining, selling, and shipping coal, which now furnishes the chief industry of Ohio. More than 2,000,000 tons of coal were used in C. 1887, and 22 firms were occupied in supplying it. 67 firms deal in iron from the Hocking valley, of which some 200,000 tons are produced yearly, consuming about 400,000 tons of ore, 600,000 of coal, and 400,000 of limestone. The iron trade in 1887 reached nearly $4,000,000: it is claimed that iron can be produced more cheaply here than elsewhere. 1,500 men are occupied in handling over 80,000,000 ft. of lumber annually: of this more than 3,000,000 ft. are used for buggies, of which there are 18 manufacturers, employing about 2.500 men and 300 women; they use yearly also 3.000 tons


of iron, near 4,000,000 ft. of leather (or 7,000 hides), about 75,000 yds. of cloth, and 21,000 yds. of Brussels carpet. Over 20,000 carriages were sold 1887 for $3,000,000; capital invested $2,500,000. In 1890, C. had 34 iron foundries and machine-shops, including rolling-mills, manufactories of steel rails, and malleable and galvanized iron. There were 708 manufactories of all kinds with $16,000,000 capital. The board of trade has 1,500 members: its efforts, with the recent introduction of natural gas, have greatly diminished the nuisance of smoke from soft coal. The city has good police and fire depts., good sewerage, a water-supply from springs by a Holly engine, and a street-car system. There were (1888) 10 incorporated banks with an aggregate capital of $1.260,000, 7 private banks with capital not reported, and 2 savings associations with a capital of $100,000; 5 daily papers, and numerous weeklies and monthlies. The state library contains about 50,000 volumes. There are 79 churches: Meth. Episc. 16, Rom. Cath. 12, Lutheran 6, Congl. 9, Presb. 8, Bapt. 9, Prot. Episc. 5, Disciples 3, besides Friends (orthodox), Evangel. Assoc., Jewish, Ind. Prot. (German), German Evangel. Prot., African Meth. Episc., Seventh Day Advent., Unit. Presb., and Universalist. Pop. (1815) 700; (1820) 1,450; (1830) 2,437; (1840) 6,048; (1850) 17,882; (1860) 18,554; (1870) 31,274; (1880) 51,647; (1987) 74,215; (1890) 88,150. C. has been described by Jacob H. Studer (1873), and by Deshler Welch in Harper's Magazine for 1888, April.

COLUMBUS, ko-lum'bus, BARTOLOMMEO: abt. 14321514; b. Genoa; elder brother of Christopher. He was making charts at Lisbon 1470, and is supposed to have sailed to the Cape of Good Hope with Diaz. Sent to England by his brother, he gave Henry VII. a map of the world, but appears to have secured no help. Before his return Christopher had discovered America and set out on his second voyage: C. was honorably received at the Spanish court, and sent with three ships to Hispaniola, where his brother made him adelantado of the Indies. In this position he was confirmed, after sharing the discoverer's imprison ment, and made lord of Mona Island, near Santo Domingo, with 200 Indians as a body-guard. He acted well in his office, but was allowed little real power. He founded the town of Santo Domingo, 1496, and died there.

COLUMBUS, ko-lum'bus, CHRISTOPHER (Latinized form of Italian Colombo, and Spanish Colon): great navigator who added a new hemisphere to our globe: 1436 (or 46)-1506, May 20; b. probably at or near Genoa. Though virtually the greatest man of his era, there is little definite information about his family and his early life. It appears, however, that he was son of a wool-comber; that he attended for some little time the then great school of learning in Pavia, where he showed a taste for astronomy and cosmography; and that he early went to sea, and made several voyages in the Mediterranean. Settling in Lisbon 1470, he there married the daughter of an Italian named Palestrello, who had distinguished himself as a navigator in the Portu

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