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façade a pavilion 122 feet in height, with grand entrances designed in the manner of triumphal arches, the central archway being 40 ft. wide by 80 ft. high. The monotony of the façade with its long array of columns and arches was relieved by elaborate ornamentation, largely figures symbolic of the various arts and sciences. The building was covered by an arched roof of steel and glass, forty car loads of glass being used in its construction. Its height over the central hall was 287.6 ft., and it was supported by 22 steel trusses each weighing 300,000 pounds. There were 7,000,000 ft. of lumber in the floor, in laying which, 5 car loads of nails were used. Painting of the interior by means of spraying machines was begun Dec. 8, 1892, and completed in about six weeks, fifty tons of paint being used. The Manufactures and Liberal Arts building bore the distinction of being the largest building under roof in the world. It was three times larger than the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome, and four times larger than the Colosseum, and could comfortably seat 300,000 people. In this building as yet unfinished, the dedicatory exercises of the Fair were held Oct. 21, 1892.
The Administration building, before the east front of which the opening exercises were held May 1, 1893, was considered the gem of the Exposition palaces. The general design was in the style of the French renaissance. The structure covered an area of 260 ft. square, and consisted of four pavilions 84 by 84 ft. and 65 ft. high, standing at the four angles of this square, leaving recessed spaces 82 ft. wide at the centre of each façade, within which were the grand entrances to the building, each 50 ft. wide and 50 ft. high, deeply recessed and covered by semi-circular arched vaults richly coffered. In the rear
of these arches were the entrance doors, over which great screens of glass gave light to the central rotunda, which was surmounted by a dome 120 ft. in diameter and 220 ft. high. The exterior of the building was in three courses or stages. The first great stage was of the Doric order, 65 ft. high, surrounded by a lofty balustrade; and the three outer angles of each of the four pavilions were surmounted by groups of statuary, of heroic proportions, representing Charity, Truth, Strength, Abundance, Tradi tion, Liberty, Joy, Diligence, Education, Unity, Patriotism, and Theology. The second stage, of the same height as the first, was octagonal, consisting of an open colonnade 20 ft. in width, with columns 40 ft. high and 4 ft. in diameter, and of the Ionic order. The four façades were 84 ft. in length, and the four faces above the pavilions were surmounted by small domes. The eight angles of the octagon supported groups of statuary representing Commerce, Industry, Justice, Religion, War, Peace, Science, and Art. The third stage comprised the base of the dome, which was octagonal and 30 ft. high, above which the guilded dome itself rose in graceful lines, richly ornamented with molded ribs and sculptured panels. Electric lights studded these ribs, the base of the dome, and other parts of the building; and the illumination of this and other of the
buildings was a special feature of the Fair, inaugurated on the evening of May 8, 1893.
The Convent of La Rabida was an exact reproduction of the convent in Spain, where Columbus found shelter in time of trouble for himself and his boy, and where it is said he developed his theory of an undiscovered continent in the West. Here were found some of the most valuable and interesting relics of the Exposition, including a battered wooden cross about 10 ft. high, said to have been erected by Columbus on his arrival in America; a little worm-eaten door taken from the convent; an anchor lost from the flag-ship Santa Maria at La Natividad; and one of the four cannon which were on the Santa Maria.
Statuary largely constructed of staff and mostly of colossal size, was freely used for adornment of the various buildings and the park, many of the single pieces and groups even surpassing European masterpieces in originality of conception, symmetry, and grace. The principal groups on the Administration building have been already mentioned. The McMonnies fountain standing at the head of the basin immediately in front of the Administration building may be singled out as perhaps the most perfect work of art among the groups and figures of sculpture which adorned the grounds. In this fountain the ship of state was idealized by a triumphal barge-in the prow, a winged figure of Victory; at the helm, hoary Time; amidships on a massive pedestal, Columbia enthroned. The barge was surrounded by 8 sea horses and their riders. Eight female rowers stood leaning upon the oars, 4 on each side, representing Music, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Agriculture, Science, Industry, and Commerce. The proportions of the work were on a grand scale, the smallest figure being 12 ft. in height. On either side of this fountain were smaller fountains illuminated by electricity. At the west end of the basin, with the Peristyle for a background and facing the Administration building, stood the colossal statue of The Republic, the work of Mr. D. C. French. This statue was a draped female figure 65 ft. in height, with arms upraised, holding in her right hand a globe on which rested an eagle with outstretched wings, and in her left grasping a pole surmounted by a liberty cap. The head was encircled by a crown, the jewels in which were electric lights. The figure strikingly resembled the statue of Liberty in New York harbor, and, notwithstanding its size, was symmetrical and in perfect harmony with the beautiful buildings which surrounded the grand basin.
The faithful camera has presented to future generations more comprehensively than could any word painting the architectural magnificence of the wonderful White City in the zenith of its glory, with its grand vistas, its beautiful interiors, its countless exhibits of the best handiwork of upward of 50 civilized nations of the world; and the same camera has been used to portray the desolation wrought by fire and the elements during the winter which followed the close of the Exposition, October 30, 1893. On January