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school virtually continuous since 1767. The second in age is the law school or dept., established 1858. Chancellor Kent was the first prof. in this dept., and was succeeded by William Betts, LL.D. The third school, called the School of Mines, was established 1863, and placed under the charge of Prof. Charles A. Joy, who had previously been at the head of a school of chemistry. In it mining engineering, civil engineering, metallurgy, geology and natural history, analytical and applied chemistry, and architecture are now taught. A school of political science was opened 1880, and subsequently Melvil Dewey, chief librarian, established the School of Library Economy, which was afterward removed to the State Library. The formation of the library was begun 1754, and in time each dept. or school had its own collection. These were all grouped into one general library, 1883, for which a new building was errected; and the library now numbers nearly 90,000 volumes. The 100th anniversary of its charter under its present name was observed with much enthusiasm, 1887. Apr. 13. At that time it had 5 faculties, over 60 professors and instructors, and 1,600 students. Anxious to complete a continuous service of 25 years and conscious of growing debility, Pres. Barnard spent the winter 1887-8 in the south; but his infirmities so increased that he felt constrained to resign his office 1888, May 7. He survived his resignation less than a year, dying 1889, Apr. 27. On Oct. 7 following, Seth Low, LL.D., ex-mayor of Brooklyn, was chosen pres., and was installed 1890, Feb. 3.
One of the first official acts of Pres. Low was to arrange a plan of proper univ. organization. As a result there are now university faculties of law, medicine, mines, applied science, political science, philosophy, and pure science. Each has its special function and each sends two delegates to the univ. council, which has general supervision over the whole. The trustees adopted 1896, Feb. 3, a resolution formally changing the title of the corporation from 'Columbia College' to 'Columbia University.'
It became evident in 1891 that the growing needs of the college would necessitate enlargement of its facilities. Investigation resulted in the purchase, at a cost of $2,000,000, of a new site of about 18 acres in the upper part of Manhattan Island. It lies in the form of an unbroken rectangle on the crown of the island midway between Riverside and Morningside parks. Its boundaries are 116th and 120th streets, Amsterdam ave. and the Boulevard.
The change was made to the new buildings, 1897, Oct. Six buildings were ready for use at that time. The largest building is the University Hall, containing the gymnasium, baths, and power-house for the entire site. In the upper portion will be the academic theatre, seating 2,500 people, and the alumni memorial dining-hall, accommodating 600 persons.
The Library building is the gift of Pres. Low as a memorial to his father. Each department has its own working laboratory of books. It contains 230,000 vols., besides pamphlets and duplicates: and the collection is constantly growing. Other buildings are Schermerhorn Hall, used
for geology, mineralogy, botany, psychology, and zoology; Physics Building; Havemeyer Hall, used for metallurgy, chemistry, and architecture; and the Engineering Building.
West of the univ. grounds stands Barnard College. This was incorporated 1889, by the regents of the state of New York, as a college for women. It is an independent organization; but the courses of study are the same as at Columbia, and Columbia makes itself responsible for Barnard's students by conducting all examinations and granting degrees to graduates. In the senior and graduate years certain courses of Columbia are open to Barnard students. The Teachers' College is a professional school for the training of teachers, founded 1889. Since 1893 it has been in part under the supervision of C. U., which grants all degrees. The building faces the university grounds on the north.
In 1891, the College of Physicians and Surgeons became by authority of the state legislature a part of C. U. It occupies a group of buildings on Tenth ave. between 59th and 60th streets.
C. U. grants 25 university fellowships of $500 a year, and two of a larger sum, also 30 scholarships of $150 annually each, besides numerous prizes and medals. The average annual cost for a student is estimated from $380 to $900 and upward. This includes $150 for tuition. In the Schools of Medicine, Applied Science, and Pure Science, the fees are $200. In 1897, there were 289 professors and instructors and 2,386 students. The students of Barnard numbered 191. COLUMBIAD, ko-lum bi-ad: species of heavy cannon, combining qualities of the gun, howitzer, and mortar, invented by Col. Geo. Bomford (1780-1848), and used in the war of 1812, chiefly for U. S. coast defense. They were introduced with little change into the French service, and called Paixhan guns. The howitzer shell-gun, as remodelled 1844, received this name: the Rodman form was applied 1861 to the C. and other heavy guns.
COLUMBIAN, a. kō-lŭm'bì-ăn [from Columbus, the discoverer of Amer.]: pert. to the United States or to America. COLUM BITE, n. -bit, a mineral of a grayish or brownish-black color occurring in single crystals and in small crystalline masses, first discovered in Amer. COLUM'BIC, a. -bik, pertaining to or produced from the metal columbium. COLUM BIUM, bi-um, or TAN'TALUM (symbol Ta): rare metal found in the mineral tantalite, obtained from Bodenmais, in Bohemia, and from Sweden. It can be obtained as a black powder, which assumes a lustrous aspect when subjected to burnishing. It forms a series of compounds, of which only Columbic Acid (TaO,) is worthy of notice. COLUM BATE, n. -bat, a salt of columbic acid.
COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, commemorating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, was held from May 1 to October 30, 1893, at Jackson Park, which covers 633 acres on the lake front at Chicago, Ill. It was the fourteenth of the great World's Fairs, and the third held in the United States. There was but little interest taken by the United States in the first of these World's Fairs, which was held in London, England, in 1851, there being but 499 American exhibits, while the total number of visitors from the United States was only about 5,000. It was while attending this exhibition, however, that the plan of holding an international exhibition in New York city was determined upon, resulting in the World's Fair, which was opened by President Pierce in the Crystal Palace at New York, July 14, 1853. At this exhibition there were 4,100 exhibitors, more than half foreign. The building was two stories in height, the first story octagonal, the second in the form of a Greek cross, and surmounted by a dome 148 ft. high. Including the annex the building covered 263,000 square ft. Its cost and the expenses of the Fair aggregated $640,000 against total receipts of $340,000, showing a loss to stockholders of $300,000. The Centennial Exhibition held at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Penn., in 1876. was on a scale commensurate with the growth of the United States. There were 6 main buildings covering an area of 56 acres, and 30 foreign nations besides Great Britain and her colonies, were represented. The total admissions were 9,910,966, the largest attendance being on Pennsylvania day, 274,919. Total receipts, $3,813,724.49. The money for this World's Fair was raised by private subscription from all parts of the United States. The U. S. government appropriated $728,500 for a government exhibit, and congress granted a loan to the Centennial commission of $1,500,000, which was afterward repaid.
Wonderful as the World's Fair of 1876 seemed at the time, the Columbian Exposition of 1893, in many ways, was as great an advance as was the Centennial upon the exhibition in the Crystal Palace at New York in 1853.
The Grounds.-The marvellous and rapid growth of the wonderful White City was the development of a primary plan submitted in December, 1890, by Messrs. F. L. Olmsted & Co., who were appointed consulting landscape architects in August of that year. This plan contemplated small lakes, lagoons, and basins within the park, joined by canals, so laid out as to give each of the main buildings a water front easily reached from the lake. This plan not only added to the attractiveness of the park and comfort of visitors, who were enabled to reach almost any part of the grounds by means of electric launches or Venetian gondolas, but also had a practical side-the earth removed in the construction of these artificial waterways being utilized in elevating the grounds and establishing the proper grade. These waterways occupied 61 acres. Ground was broken in February, 1891, at which time
Jackson Park was mainly marshes and oak ridges. Grading and dredging was completed in July, 1891, at a cost of $495,000; and in the preparation of the grounds 1,500,000 cubic yards of material were handled.
On approaching the Exposition grounds, the most conspicuous object was the guilded dome of the Administration building the official headquarters of the Exposition, and the architectural gem of the Exposition palaces. It was situated near the south end of the grounds, and at the west of the so-called Central Court, about which were grouped five of the principal buildings. This Central Court was an open space about one-half mile in length, extending east and west across the park, the Terminal Railway station with its 35 tracks forming the west end. The Administration building stood next east of the Terninal station, and the west half of the court was occupied by a basin covering 10 acres, connected with Lake Michigan by a water gate, through a magnificent peristyle 600 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, and 60 ft. high, flanked on the north by Music Hall and on the south by the Casino. From the Casino a pier 2,300 ft. in length by 250 in width, extended out into the lake. Upon the pier was the moving sidewalk-a mechanical contrivance consisting of 2 endless walks side by side, moving in the same direction, one at the rate of 3 miles per hour, from which a person could step onto the other moving at 6 miles per hour. The portion of the park south of this open court was occupied by Machinery Hall, covering with its annexes about 18 acres; the Agricultural building and annexes, 13 acres; Live-stock pavilion and sheds, 434 acres; the Dairy, Anthropological. and Forestry buildings, besides many smaller structures. including the shrine of the Exposition-the Convent of La Rabida. Directly north of the Administration building were the Mines and Mining and the Electricity buildings, occupying about 54 acres each; and north of these, at about the centre of Jackson Park, connected with the basin by a canal, was the lagoon which, with its inclosed Wooded island, covered 39 acres. Between the canal and lagoon and the lake, north of the basin, stood the Manufactures and Liberal Arts building, the largest building in the world, occupying 304 acres. North of this were the United States Government building and the Forestry building; and upon a tract of about 100 acres, at the north end of the park, were located the various state and foreign buildings, grouped around the Gallery of Fine Arts, which, with its two annexes, covered 4 acres. Beginning at the Terminal station and going north on the west side of the lagoon, were located the Transportation building, occupying, with its annex, 144 acres; the Horticultural building and eight greenhouses, about 6 acres; and the Women's building, which was located at the north end of the lagoon and directly at the entrance to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of land 600 ft. wide and seven-eighths of a mile long, containing 80 acres, and connecting Jackson Park with Washington Park on the west. On each side of the central
walk which ran through the Midway were private concessions and exhibits, many of them made by foreign governments, to which admission fees were charged, and which, though having no connection with the Fair, formed one of its greatest attractions. Near the west approach stood the great Ferris wheel, 250 ft. in diameter and towering 270 ft. above the earth. The Ferris wheel cost $400,000, contained 1,700 tons of steel, and the axle upon which it turned weighed 70 tons. Its erection began the latter part of February, 1893, and it was formally opened for the use of the public the 21st of the following June. Thousands of people made the circuit in the spacious cars hung upon its periphery, 36 in number, and seating 40 people comfortably.
The Buildings.-The main buildings of the Fair covered a ground area of over 123 acres; state, foreign, and other buildings, upward of 200 in number, about 67 acres, making a grand total area of about 190 acres. In November, 1890, Mr. D. H. Burnham of Chicago was appointed chief of construction, by the committee on grounds and buildings, and at his suggestion the architects of the main buildings were chosen by direct appointment, three being selected from New York city, one from Boston, one from Kansas City, and five from Chicago, making a board of ten, which met in consultation at Chicago, in January, 1891. An exception was made in the case of the Woman's building, the architect of which, Miss Sophia G. Hayden, was chosen in a competition restricted to women. The names of the various architects occur in the statistical table of the main Exhibition buildings given below. Ground was broken for the first building erected, that of Mines and Mining, on July 2, 1891. The materials used in the construction of the Exposition buildings were iron, wood, glass, and staff. All of the Exposition buildings and many of the state buildings were covered with the latter, of which 30,000 tons were used. Staff is a composition of plaster, cement, and hemp or similar fibre; it is fire-proof, water-proof, and lighter than wood, and can be molded into any desired shape for ornamentation. Its natural tint is a grayish white, but it will take any color. The painting of the buildings was accomplished at a great saving of time and expense by means of spraying machines run by electric motors. It could be truly said of the White City that the first sight of it never proved disappointing, its buildings being more imposing, and its vistas more beautiful, than any imagination had pictured them. The Manufactures and Liberal Arts building was in the Corinthian style of architecture, and, in the point of being severely classical, excelled nearly all the other edifices. It was rectangular in form, 1,687 by 787 ft., with walls 66 ft. high. The interior was divided into a great central hall 380 by 1,280 ft., without a supporting pillar, surrounded by a nave 107 ft. wide, and outside of this a spacious colonnade. At the four corners of the building were pavilions 97 ft. in height, and at the centre of each