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Marquis de la Rouarie, with the sanction and approval of the two brothers of Louis XVI. The agents of the marquis entered into communications with Jean Cottereauwell known for the reckless audacity of his characterand other smugglers; but they were arrested, and the carrying out of the insurrection devolved upon the latter. The Chouanerie, as the insurrection was called, at first disgraced itself, both by drunken license and by cruelty. After several successful exploits of the guerrilla sort, Jean Cottereau perished in an engagement, 1794, Jul. 28, near the wood of Misdon, the theatre of his first efforts. Before this, however, other and more illustrious leaders had appeared in Brittany to direct the movement, chief of whom were Georges Cadoudal (q.v.) and Charette. Through their endeavors it was more widely extended, and for a time seemed to imperil the security of France, but was suppressed toward the close of 1799. Petty spurts of insurrection, however, broke out till about 1803, when the Chouanerie ceased for awhile. In 1814-5, it again made its appearance on both banks of the Loire; and after the July revolution, was once more excited by the Duchess of Berry on behalf of the Duke of Bordeaux, but crushed by the energetic measures of M. Thiers.

CHOUGH, n. chif [AS. ceó; Dut. kauwe; Dan. kaa; F. choucas; Sp. chova], (Fregilus): genus of birds of the crow family (Corvida), but approaching to the characters and appearance of the starlings (Sturnida). The length of the bill has induced some naturalists, among whom was

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Cuvier, to place them beside the hoopoes, but this is now generally regarded as an error; they agree with crows in having their nostrils covered with stiff bristles directed forward, and in their habits. The beak is longer than the


head, strong, arched, and pointed, and of reddish color. The tail is slightly rounded. The only European species is the common Č., called sometimes the Cornish C., or red-legged crow (F. graculus), a widely distributed but very local bird, inhabiting the Swiss Alps, the high mountains of Spain, of Greece, of India, and of Persia, the s. of Siberia, the n. of Africa, and parts of the British seacoasts; but almost exclusively confined to situations where there are high cliffs. In these it usually makes its nest; sometimes, however, in ruined towers. Its long hooked claws enable it to cling easily to a rough rock, but it seems unwilling even to set its feet on turf. It lives in societies like the rook. It feeds on insects, berries, grubs, and grain. It is easily tamed, becomes very familiar and forward, and exhibits in the highest degree the curiosity, the pilfering disposition, and the delight in brilliant or glittering objects, which characterize others of the crow family. -Other species of C. are known, natives of Australia, Java, etc Some naturalists unite the chocards and the choughs into one genus.

CHOULES, chōlz, JOHN OVERTON, D.D.: 1801, Feb. 5 -1856, Jan. 5; b. Bristol, England. He studied theol. in the Bapt. College at Bristol, came to America 1824, taught at Red Hook, N. Y., 1825–27, and was ordained pastor of the Second Bapt. Church at Newport, 1827, Sep. He held similar charges at New Bedford, Mass., 1833-37; Buffalo, 1837-41; New York, 1841-43; Jamaica Plain near Boston, 1843-47, and again at Newport from 1847. During most of this time he had pupils; he was successful as a teacher, gifted socially, and intimate with Webster and other eminent men. He edited Neal's History of the Puritans and other books, completed Smith's History of Missions (2 vols, N. Y, 1932) and Hinton's History of the United States (2 vols., 1853), and wrote Young Americans Abroad (1852) and Cruise of the Steam Yacht North Star (1854), on which he had accompanied Cornelius Vanderbilt to Europe. He died in New York.

CHOUSE, v. chows [Turk. chiaous, or chiaus, an interpreter-from one of them in 1609 attached to the Turkish embassy in England swindling the Turkish merchants out of £4,000]: to cheat; to defraud; to swindle: N. a cheat; one cheated. CHOUSING, imp. CHOUSED, pp. chowzd.

CHOUTEAU, shi-to', AUGUSTE: 1739-1829, Feb. 24; b. New Orleans: founder of St. Louis. The director-gen. of La. commissioned Laclède to establish the fur trade in the region w. of the Mississippi. C. joined the expedition and was placed in command of the boat. Leaving New Orleans 1763, Aug., he reached St. Genevieve in Nov., and went 61 m. farther, selecting for the chief trading-station a point which he named St. Louis. Here operations were begun under his charge 1764, Feb. 15, and here he remained during his long life.

CHOUTEAU, PIERRE: 1749-1849, July 9; b. New Orleans. As a boy he accompanied his brother Auguste up the Mississippi and was associated in his subsequent


activities, outliving him 20 years. Their name, wrote Nicollet 1842, is still a passport that commands safety and hospitality among all the Indian nations north and west.'

CHOUTEAU, PIERRE, JR.: 1789, Jan. 19-1865, Sep. 8; b. St. Louis: son of Pierre C. At the age of 15 he was a clerk for his uncle and father, but soon began business for himself. About 1806 he visited Dubuque in canoes, to trade with the Sacs and Foxes. Later he followed the Indians in their migrations to the sites of Kansas City, St. Joseph, and Council Bluffs, and even to the mouth of the Yellowstone and Fort Benton, as well as up the Mississippi to St. Paul He and others purchased, 1834, the interest of John Jacob Astor in the American Fur Co.: the company established under his name, 1839, controlled the fur irade east of the Rocky Mts., and reached s. w. to Santa Fé, and n. to the Falls of St. Anthony. C. helped frame the first constitution of Mo. 1819. He lived long in New York, looking after his immense business interests, but died in St. Louis.

CHOW CHOW, n. chow-chow: a Chinese sweetmeat; a kind of mixed pickles.

CHOWDER, n. chow'der [F. chaudière, a mess, a potful: comp. Scot. chow, or chair, a mouthful for chewing]: fresh fish boiled with biscuit, pork, onions, etc.; applied to any mixed savory stew: V. to make a chowder of.

CHOWKEYDAR, n. chowk-i-dár [Hind. chaukidûr, a watchman-from chauk, a police-office]: in India, a watchman of house property or of land.

CHOWS, n. chorz, or CHEWS, n. chốz [OF. chou, general name for coal]: in Scot., coals of medium size, as distinct from dross and large.


CHRESTIEN (or CHRETIEN) DE TROYES, krā-teăng' deh triá': b. at Troyes in Champagne, 11th c. :French poet. He is supposed to have been attached to the court of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders (1168-91); but nothing is known of his life, though he was highly esteemed in his own age and for some time afterward." He wrote Irec et Enide, Clizés, or Cliget, Le Chevalier au Lion, Guillaume d'Angleterre, Le Chevalier de la Charette, and Perceval le Gallois. These give C. the highest rank among early French romancers; four of them have been printed. At least two deal with the Arthurian legends, and the first supplied material to Lord Tennyson. Two others, Tristan and Le Chevalier de l'Epée, are lost. C. also wrote songs and imitations of Ovid: many other romances are doubtfully attributed to him.

CHRESTOMATHY, krěs-tom'a-thi [lit., that which is useful to learn]: book of extracts with notes, to assist in acquiring a language. The practice of thus collecting marked passages seems to have begun with the Greeks. The term is especially, but not exclusively, applied to works in the Hebrew language.


CHRISM, n krizm [OF. chresme, the sacred oil-from Gr. chrisma ointment. F. chrisme consecrated oil]: consecrated oil; unction. name given to the oil consecrated on Holy Thursday, in the Rom Cath. and Greek Churches, by the bishop, and used in baptism, conLrmation, orders, and extreme unction. There are two kinds of C.--the one, a mixture of oil and balsam, is used in baptism, confrmation, and orders; the other, merely plain oil, is used in extreme unction. CHRISMAL, a. kriz mil, pertaining to chrism. CHRIS MATORY, n. -mú-ter-i, a vessel for chrism. CHRISOM, or CHRISOME, n. kriz um, white vesture laid by the priest on the child in former times at baptism, to signify its innocence. It was generally presented by the mother as an offering to the church, but if the child died before the mother was 'churched' again, it was used as a shroud. By a common abuse of words C. came to be applied to the child itself. A C. child is a child in a C. cloth. As late as Jeremy Taylor (Holy Dying, c i., s. 2), we have the following: Every morning creeps out of a dark cloud, leaving behind it an ignorance and silence deep as midnight, and undiscerned as are the phantasms that make a chrisome child to smile.' CHRISMATION, n. -ma'shun, the act of applying the chrism or consecrated oil.

CHRIST, n. krist [Gr. christos, anointed]: the Anointed; the Messiah. CHRISTEN, V. krisn [lit., to make a Christian]: to baptize and name in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. CHRISTENING, imp. krist ning: N. the act of baptizing and naming; initiation into the Christian religion; a term often used as equivalent to baptism (q.v.). It is disliked by some, as favoring the doctrine of baptismal regeneration: being, if taken literally, expressive of the notion that a person is made a Christian in baptism. But, like many other terms, it is frequently used without any doctrinal reference. CHRISTENED, pp. kris nd. CHRISTENDOM, kris n-dim, the countries inhabited by those professing to believe in the Christian religion. CHRISTIAN, n. krist yin [AS. cristen, a Christian - from cristen, Christ: L. christanus, a Christian]: a disciple of Christ; a believer in Christ. ADJ. pertaining to Christ, his doctrines, or his church. CHRISTIANITY, krist-y in'i ti, or kris ti-ún'i-ti, the religion of Christians, its doctrines and precepts. CHRIST IANIZE, V. krist yin-iz, to convert to Christianity. CHRIST IANI ZING, imp CHRIST IANIZED, pp. izd. CHRISTIANIZA TION, n. -īzā shin, the act of converting to Christianity. CHRISTIANISM, n, kristyin-izm, a word used in contradis tinction to Christianity to denote outward or affected Christianity, the state of being wholly destitute of the living power of the Christian's faith. CHRIST LESs, a. without the true knowledge or spirit of Christ. CHRISTOLOGY, n. kris tili-ji [Christ, and Gr. logos, a discourse]: a discourse or treatise on Christ.

CHRIST, THE: title of our Savior (see JESUS), now in general use almost as a name or as part of his name. It corresponds exactly in meaning and use with the Hebrew word MESSIAH (q.v.); so that this title given to Jesus of


Nazareth, is an acknowledgment of him as the Divine Savior long promised to the house of Jacob and to the human race. As prophets, priests, and kings were anointed on being called to their several offices (1 Kings i. 34, 39; 1 Sam. xvi 13; Exod. xxix. 7), so the Savior was anointed as at once prophet, priest, and king; the Holy Spirit, often represented under this figure, being poured forth from the Father without measure upon him to qualify his human nature for all that belonged to his mediatorial office and work.

The whole system of Christianity depends on the doctrine of the PERSON OF CHRIST; not on the accurate adjustment of that doctrine in a scheme of universal philosophy or psychology, to which adjustment nothing more than an approximation is possible to the human mind; but on the adequate presentation of the fact of the union of God and man in Christ's Person. An essential difference necessarily exists on almost every point between the systems of doctrine maintained by those who do and by those who do not acknowledge the fact of this union. Some of the early heretics maintained an opinion, which has long ceased to have any supporters, that the body of C. was not a real body, but a mere visionary appearance: see DOCETÆ and GNOSTICS. The opposite extreme is that of Socinians, by whom C. is regarded as a mere man; while Arians (q.v.) regard him as in his pre-existence-i e., before his incarnation-the highest of all created beings. Against these views, the doctrine which has been generally received in the church accords with the definition set forth by the council of Chalcedon (q.v.) that Christ is God and man in two distinct natures and one person.' This doctrine, of course, bears intimate relation to that of the TRINITY (q.v.) which, if reduced to its strictly biblical terms, is the doctrine of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit-one God (For a general view of this subject, see Prof. Schaff's art. 'Christology,' in Schaff-Herzog Encyc. of Relig. Knowledge.) The proof of the whole doctrine of Christ's Person may almost be said to consist in a proof of the proper divinity of C., his real humanity, although equally impor tant, being no longer disputed. And this proof is found, not so much in particular texts which directly assert the divinity of C.-although such texts are important-as in the multitude of texts which imply it, and admit of no reasonable or natural explanation apart from it; and in showing that certain doctrines are most plainly taught in Scripture which cannot be maintained without this.

The ancient Apollinarians, Eutychians, Monophysites, etc., regarded C. as having only one nature-a compound of the divine and human; but such a notion as that C. had only a human body, the divine nature supplying the place of a soul is held to be subversive of the whole Christian system; and his human nature, to be real, must be viewed as consisting both of a true body and a true soul His human nature never existed, however, apart from his divine nature, and was conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost.'

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