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2. Of the Hebrew letters five are vowels ; viz. X, 17, 1, &: all the rest are consonants. *

3. Hebrew is read from the right hand to the left.

4. When two consonants come together, without any of the five vowels intervening, pronounce them, as if a short ě stood between them t: thus, 739 is pronounceu děběr ; 7pe, pěquěd.

5. The textual | vowels must always be pronounced long and strong ; but the supplied one, short and quick; as, wx, åser ; 737, děbir.

6. A full stop, in Hebrew, is expressed thus (5) S.

7. When two or more vowels come together, they are not to coalefce in diphthongs, but must be pronounced distinctly; as, 172, bēó, not beu : 7179, Tēóē, four distinct fyllables. 8. Illustration of the foregoing rules, in reading.

Genesis, Chap. I. Verses 1, 2, & 3.

בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ : והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך על פני תהום ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המיס : ויאמר אלהים יהי אור ויהי אור :

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Pronounced thus :

Brâsīt brâ Alēim ât ēsmim ôât ēârězh. Ôēârězh eitē tēô ôbēô ôhesk öl pěni tēôm ôrôh Älēim měrhčpět õl pěni ēmim. Oiamēr Alzim iei aor oiei âôr.||

* To write the Hebrew letters frequently is the best way to make them familiar to the learner.

+ When two consonants, joined with a vowel either preceding or following, will form an easy found, it is best to run them both into one syllable : for instance, pronounce 373, õrb; 892, brá. "This is nearly the fame as to pronounce the supplied vowel very fhort. I The textual vowels are the five mentioned, No. 2.

No other itop is used in moft unpointed books. 11 A, with this (TM) placed over it, is pronounced broad, as in all: 0, with it, like 00, or as in tômb.

Proverbs, Chap. I. Verses 1, 2, 3, 4.

משלי שלמה בן דוד מלך ישראל: לדעת הכמה ומוסר להבין אמרי בינה : לקחת מוסר השכל צדך ומשפט ומשרים : לתת לפתאים ערמה לנער דעת ומזמה :

Pronounced thus :

Měsli Sēlmē běn Dôd mělk Isrâl. Lědöt hekmo ômôshěr lēbin âmri binē. Lěquěhět môshěr ëskěl zhěděk ôměspěth ôměsrīm. Lětět léptàim örme lenor dõt ômězmē.


לכן תנו לי נאם יהוה ליום קומי לעד כי משפטי לאסוף גויס לקבצי ממלכות לשפך עליהם זעמי כל חרון אפי כי באש קנאתי תאכל כל הארץ :

Pronounced thus : Lekẹn hekô li nấm sẽôẽ liôm quối loc ki mẹspÒthi lâshộp gôīm lěquěbzhī měmělkôt lěspěk õlsēm zomi kěl hěrôn âpī ki bâs quěnâti tâkěl kěl zârëzh.



1. Beside the common division of letters into vowels and consonants, they are, in Hebrew, divided into radicals and serviles.

2. A radix or root is a simple word, usually consisting of three letters, from which other words are derived; as 7pp, be visited ; ay, he served,

3. Radical letters are those which always make part of a radix or root.

4. Servile letters are those which serve for the variation of the root, by gender, number, person, &c. and for particles.

5. The servile letters are eleven, viz. X, 5, 7, 9, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, w, m.

6. The other eleven letters are radical ; except and when used for 7.*

7. Although the radical letters are never fervile, yet the servile letters are often radical, or make part of a root.



1. Words in Hebrew may be divided into three kinds, viz. Nouns, Verbs, and Particles.

2. A noun is the name of a substance, or of a quality ; as, ry, a tree ; 50, good.

3. A verb expresses the action or state of a being, or thing, ; as, Dyby 289, and God said ; Onun 95%, and the heavens were finished.

4. Particles denote the connexion, relation, distinction, emphafis, opposition, &c. or, in a word, the circumstances of one's thoughts ; as, and; but, with, or, although.

** See Sect. VIIL No. 12.

Escept , &c. as in No. 6, SECTION IV.



1. A noun is either substantive, or adjective.

2. A noun substantive is the name of a substance ; as, jo, a tooth ; *Xa man ; 5pv", Jacob : or of a quality, action, passion; or state of a being, or thing, considered abstractedly ; as, 755, glory; op, shame.

3. A noun adjective, so called because adjectitious, or added to a substantive, denotes some quality or accident of the substantive to which it is joined ; as, hyund, great ; 310, good. Thus, in the phrases, ED

a great book, and "x 51, a good man, great and good are adjectives.

4. Nouns, in Hebrew, as in English, are not declined by cases, or by changes made upon their terminations, to express the relation of one thing to another, as nouns in Latin and Greek are.

5. In Hebrew, nouns are of two genders, masculine and feminine"; and of two numbers, fingular and plural.

6. Most Hebrew nouns not ending in oor n are masculine ; those which do end in or n are usual. ly feminine.

7. The feminine singular may be formed from the

**Some masculine nouns fingular, derived from verbs Lamed Hey end in 7, N. B. They always throw away 17 before :

*.fem ,טובת or טובה

masculine, by suffixing norm; as, 312, good, mafc.

, . 8. Names of females, proper names of places, cities, countries ; and of parts or members of the human body, &c. are feminine, though of a masculine termination.

9. Cardinal numerals from three to ten are masculine with a feminine termination, and feminine with a masculine termination.

10. Nouns ending in take n only for the feminine; as, 1932, an Egyptian man ; 1993o, an Egyptian woman : also, when a letter is dropped, the feminine ends in n; as, ?), a son, no, a daughter, (3 being dropped); 753, one, nnx, feminine, (+being dropped.)

11. The plural of masculine nouns is formed by adding ", and sometimes only , to the fingular ;

. , . , kings.t

12. The plural of feminine nouns is formed by adding ni or on to the fingular ; as prx, a land ; plur.

, o; , , ; . , laws : or by retaining of the singular, or by changing it

; . 13. Feminine nouns singular in my form the plural by 199 or 09; as, sing. hinx, a sister ; plur,


,מלכם or מלכים .a king ; plur ,מלך .as

, fing

ות into ה lands

: or by changing ,ארנת or ארצות : lazes ,תורת or תורות .plur ; שa la ,רורה ,as ;ת or

.letters ,אגרות or אגרת

.a letter ; plur ,אגרת ,as ;ות into

.JJters ,אחית or אחיות

* Not only feminine substantives fingular, but feminine adje&tives and participles sing. often end in n, in the absolute state. For the definition of the absolute ftate, fee No. 19.

† It is matter of notoriety, that, by means of the points, Vau and Yod have been often dropped from the plural : they ought, however, to be restored, where the analogy of the Hebrew language requires them.

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