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is a relative אשר.
E X PLANATION S.. Ver. 3. Int is a verb Lamed He ; $ IX. 22. It is found in the third person sing. mac. of the preter of Kal, converted into the future by the prefix '; S VIII. 10. It agrees with an understood; Š VI. 3. -195 is a masc. noun fing prefixed with S, fignifying as.
Sonu is a passive participle of Kal, from the regular verb 50, and declined like 590; S IV. 32.
-Sy is a particle.- abs is a masc. noun plur. in regimen. Spis a masc, noun plur. absolute. It is irregularly declined ; S IV. 31.pronoun ; S VI. 6.
-7999 is a masc. noun fing. fuffixed with 1, signifying his. is a verb Pe Nun and Lamed Nun; S IX. 2. 32. and 33. It is found in the third per. sing. masc. of the future of Kal ; S XIII. 18.-nya is a feminine noun sing. prefixed with >, and suffixed with. In the plur. it is Diny and nine.
- byr is a masc. noun with a feminine termination; S IV. 6. Note. It is declined S IV. 31. prefised with , and fuffixed with 17; S VII. 4.-* is a particle; explained above.- 939 is a verb Pe Nun, found in the third per. sing. masc. of the future of Kak; S. IX. 28-591 is an adjective undeclined, sing, and plurs prefixed with 9. -70X just explained.
-7Wyr is al verb Lamed He, found in the third per. sing. mafc. of the future of Kal.regular verb, found in the third per. sing. masc. of Hiphil.
Ver. 4. *) and > are particles. They have been explained above. Dumn is an adjective plur. masc. prefixed with 7; it is used substantively.-Os are particles ; explained above.-10 is a masculine noun fing. prefixed with us is a relative pronoun.
-107 is a verb Pe Nun, found in the third person sing. fem.of the future of Kal, suffixed with 9; S X. 1.
It agrees with 999, which is fem. with a masc. termination ; S IV. 21. Note 2d.
is a יצליח
Verse 5. Therefore the ungodly
כן לא יקמו רשעים
על כן -fhall not ftand in the judg | במשפט וחטאים בעדת
ment , nor finners in the | צדיקים:
, congregation of the righ
כי יודע יהוה דרך צדיקים : the way of the righteous | ודרך רשעים תאבד :
but the way of the ungod. ly shall perish.
EX PL A NATION S.
is a verb Oin Vau from יקמו
is a mafculine noun במשפט.
Ver. š. by, >, and sy are particles. They have been explained.
a ; found in the third person plur. masc. of the future of Kal ; S IX. 15.yun has been explained verse 1. and 4.
a singular, prefixed with 3.-Oxoni is a masculine noun plural, prefixed with 1-h7ys is a feminine noun singular, prefixed with >, declined like pas ; $ IV. 28. It is in regimen, as it comes before pony.
-D773 is an adjective plural masc. declined like 310 S IV. 32.
is an active partie יודע
Ver. 6.5 is a particle.
. ciple of Kal, from the verb Pe Yod y7%. It is declined like 574 S IV. 32. See also S XIII. 22. 979 is a noun with a masculine termination ; but it is frequently feminine. It is here in regimen. Dypes is an adjective, explained above.-7771, prefixed with », just explained.Our explained.
, . It is found in the third person singular feminine of the future of Kal ; and it agrees with 777 ; S IV. 21. Note 2d.
.אבר is a verb Pe Aleph
REMARKS ON THE READING OF HEBREW.
It has been asserted, that all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet are consonants, and that the vowels are marked by certain figns, called points : as, kametz or kamets, bâ; patach or pathah, 2, ba; chateph-patach or hateph-pathah, ă, &c.
But, what reason can be offered, why in Greek, and a in English and Latin, should be acknowledged as vowels, while x in Hebrew is not, although the former have their shape and place in the álphabet from the latter ?
1, 17, , ), and y, together with the found of ě, according to the directions in Sect. I. of this Grammar, furnish us with all the vowelfounds which are requisite to read Hebrew with accuracy. This mode of reading is very simple and easy; whereas the Maforetic pointing has unnecessarily multiplied the inflections of nouns and verbs, and, on various accounts, is difficult and perplexing.
The following observations are taken from Wilson's
ELEMENTS OF HEBREW GRAMMAR.
This method of using marks for vowels was adopted by a set of Jewish critics, called Maforites,* who flourished after the commencement of the Christian æra.
These men bestowed much pains upon the text of the Old Teftament, particularly that portion of it which was named the law. Their labor, indeed, did not penetrate very deep. They afford us little or no assistance in the investigation of the true sense of Scripture,
In vain do we seek from them the solution of difficulties, the elucidation of obscure passages, or any useful information concern. ing the manners and customs of their ancestors. Their time was chiefly spent in giving directions about the pronunciation or spell. ing of the language, about the manner in which it ought to be read, in numbering the syllables and words of particular books, and in attempting to unfold the mysteries, or rather superstitious fables,
* The name is borrowed from a word that signifies tradition. Mafora, a sritic on the text of the Old Testament, principally founded on tradition.
hid under the veil of inverted, enlarged, or diminished letters. Their attempts to affix points or marks to the Hebrew letters, with an intention to supply the defects of vowel-letters in the original text, appeared in the fifth century. These attempts continued to increase till about the tenth, at which period, it is generally thought, this art attained its perfection.*
The matter has been agitated with keenness and acrimony. Heat and passion have been introduced into a controversy of little or no importance : for, whether we read with or without vowelpoints, the sense and meaning of the language must entirely depend upon the written characters, deftitute of points and accents, as they Atill remain in the most ancient and authentic manuscripts. The Jews have never suffered the manuscripts, which are preserved in their fynagogues for the purposes of religious worship, to be diffigured with points.
Every one acquainted with Hebrew knows, that the whole structure of the language is independent of them, and can be much more easily learned, and much better understood, without than with them.
The vowel-marks are no indications to ús of the antient founds of the language. [See Biskop Hare's Prolegomena in Psalmos.] These sounds have vanished, like the breath of those who uttered them; and no tradition could either arrest or transmit them. We are at liberty to invent sounds for ourselves, and no objection can lie against this expedient, if we employ them only for the purposes of pronunciation, not to alter the radical parts of the words, not to determine their signification, nor to confound the original principles of the grammar, as the inventors of points have done.
It is a favorite argument with the advocates for the vowel-points, that without their affiftance, the sense of a vast number of words would be left in a fluctuating and uncertain state-that, on this account, they are absolutely necessary to prevent ambiguities in the language. A very
little reflection will shew the weakness of this argument. It is the unavoidable fate of all languages to be liable to ambigui. ties. The Hebrew is not more so than any other. But these ama biguities must be resolved by an investigation of the sense of the period, by confidering the difpofition and connection of the words, and not by points and marks, which particular persons may impofe. I