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SECTION XIV.

GRAMMATICAL FIGURES.

1. The Hebrews sometimes make use of enallăge; as, 11n. Pf. II. 12. 15 09h. Ifai. XXX. 18. In these instances, the constructed form is used for the absolute.

2. Paragõge frequently occurs. See the example of the conjugations and declension of regular verbs.

3. Ellipfis is frequent, particularly of the particles, and the substantive verbs, 197 and 1. See Sect. XIII. No. 22. Pleonasm is often used.

4. Aphæréfis sometimes takes place in the imperative of Hiphil of verbs Oin Vau, &c. See Sect IX. No. 16.

5. Epenthěsis is sometimes used. See Sect. X.

No. 5.

See Sect. VIII.

6. Apocope fometimes occurs. No. 8. Note 2d.

SECTION XV.

DIRECTIONS FOR FINDING THE ROOT IN HEBREW

LEXICONS.

found ,מסגרת out of their cloJe places , from ,ממסגרותיהם .רשע impious , from ,רשעיס : סגר in the lexicon under

1. The root, whence words of like fignification are derived, is commonly a verb in the third person masculine singular of the preter of Kal.

2. A root usually consists of three letters.

3. To find a root, cast away all the serviles ;* if three radicals remain, you have the root; as,

,

, . 4. If, after the serviles are cast away from a word, there remain two radicals only, the root is an irregular verb ; in such case, add, or to the beginning of the word ; thus, in ny77, Gen. II. 9. 7 is a prefix (emphatic), Sect. V. No. 3. n is the feminine termination; 97 remains ; but, not finding this in a two-lettered form, add , to the beginning, and you will have the

root.

5. If, after the prefixes and formative letters are rejected, one letter only should remain, the root is a doubly imperfect verb; and, in order to find it, add

or to the beginning, and 7 to the end : thus, in 05, Gen. XIV. 15. 1 is a prefix; , is the sign of the third person masculine sing. future, and is a fuffix, them; there remains only, to which prefix ), and suffix 17, and you have the root.

* See Sect. II. No. 4. and 5. The learner should know what letters are servile, and what the use of the ferviles is, in forming prefixes, sufixes, the plural number of nouns, the conjugations and perfons of verbs, &c.

6. Sometimes, though rarely, the root consists of but two letters ; as, ix, or ; 13, a roof. And,

7. Sometimes the root consists of four or five letters ; as, 0075, he wasted ; nund, he panted.* See Sect. XI. No. 2. and

3.

* In moft Hebrew Lexicons, the roots are placed in alphabetical order; and all the branches proceeding from a root are placed after it.

It is needless to be more particular on this subject, since almost every Hebrew Lexicon gives directions for finding the root.

GRAMMATICAL EXERCISES.
Exercise 1.-Examples of the use of Prefixes.

[blocks in formation]

yoy, who fed. 3. 1891, and a king.

Vys, as a tree.

pos, like visiting. 5. sy?, to, of, or for a people. nuas, in safety.

, . 6.

nina, from the wind.
0979, in comparison of honey.

apen, that he might not visit : or, from visiting. 7. Ne, who shall take.

Exercise II.-Words in regimen. Words with suf

fixes, &c. 1. 17935, in the garden-of Eden.

2. pe oby, a leaf-of an oak tree.

EXPLANATIONS.

1. 900 is a masculine noun singular, prefixed with >, fig.

nifying in. See s V. No. 2.-700 is absolute; S

IV. 19. It is declined like 139 ; S IV. 27. > is a prefix, as above. ni is a demonstrative pronoun; S VI.

5. > is a prefix, &c.

pa is a gerund in ; S VIII. 13. 2. it is a prefix; S V, 3. ū is a prefix, as above. It is here emphatic. ON

is a personal pronoun; S VI. 3. o is a prefix, signifying who ; S V. 3. 7ym is a verb

Lamed He, 3d person sing. masc. preter of Kal. 3. 1 is a prefix, signifying and ; S V. 4. 4. ) is a prefix. S V. 5.

apos is a gerund in 5; S VIII. 13. 5., 5 is a prefix ; S V. 6.

is a prefix,, as in the preceding word, A gerund ins; S VIII. 13. 6. D is a prefix ; S V.7.

o is a prefix, signifying in comparison of ; § V.7.

A gerund in D; S VIII. 13. 7. w is a prefix. ny is a verb Pe Aleph, in the 3d person sing. masc. of the future of Kal; S IX.

3.

EXPLANATIONS,

1. paD is a masc. noun sing. prefixed with , signifying

in. It is in regimen ; S IV. 18.-199 is a mascu.

line noun sing. absolute; S IV. 19. 2. Sy is a masc. noun sing. with a fem. termination ;

SIV. 6. Note. It is in regimen.-58 is a mascu. line noun singular, absolute.

G

אל

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