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SECTION XI.

OF THE VERB ; REDUPLICATIVE, AND PLURI

LITERAL VERBS.

ye are.

1. , he is, or they are, has rather the nature of a noun than of a verb, in this respect, that it takes the same suffixes as nouns, instead of the personal terminations of verbs; as, 70, thou art ; SS0", you or

See the word, in Parkhurst's and Pike's Hebrew Lexicons.

2. Reduplicative verbs have the last, the first and last, or the two last radicals doubled. They are derived from simple verbs ; as, from Sy are derived

; , '; , ; , . clined regularly.

3. Pluriliteral verbs consist of more than three letters in their root ; as, 5095 to waste, or root up ; 527), to invest. The few times they occur, they are declined regularly.

from ; קלקל and קלל ,קול from ; גלגל and גלל .Such verbs are de .סחרחר ,סחר from ;הפכפך ,הפך

SECTION XII.

OF PARTICLES.

1. Under the denomination of particles, * are included adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections.

2. Particles have suffixes like nouns singular ; as, 1723, before him.

3. Some particles imitate nouns plural in regimen ,

* See Sect. III. No. 4.

as, max, after, which, with some others, requires the fame suffixes which nouns plural do.

4. These three particles, **, not, mh, bebold, my, get, for a suffix of the third person masculine singular, take the verbal one 13; as, 9331%, not he.*

s. Particles often govern the infinitive mode.

SECTION XIII.

SYNTAX.

1. Two or more substantives signifying the same person, or thing, are regularly of the fame number, by apposition; as, 9734 IUD, Mofes, my servant.t

2. In Hebrew an adjective usually agrees with its substantive in gender and number ; as, SM , a wife fon ; 0573 mion, great strokes. We meet, however, with such expressions as these, niny Drty, great cities ; Deut. I. 28. VI. 10.be Dux, great stones ; Deut. XXVII. 2.1 Dan and 77997, good and bad figs ; Jer. XXIV. 2. and 3.-ban 779897, the great lights ; Gen. I. 16. As to the three first phrases, it has been observed, Sect. IV. No. 21. Note 2d, that some feminines plural end in ': and, perhaps, in such expressions as 9727 927), the adjective with a termination usually masculine is joined with a feminine substantive, as a mark of dignity or excellence.

3. Participles agree with substantives, in the fame manner that adjectives do.

* See Sect. VII. No. 7. and Sect. X. No. 1.

+ Except nouns which imply dominion or power, particularly some of the names of God; which, although plural, may be in appofition with nouns fingular.

F

and my Jon Solomon

1 ,אני ובני שלמה חטאים

male and ,זכר ונקבה ברא אתם ,to pronouns

;
as

as,

-the people piping ,העס מחללים

4. When two substantives of different genders have the same adjective, that adjective is usually of the masculine gender ; as, Job, I. 13. SSN 1693599939, his fons and his daughters eating.

5. When two substantives, one of which is singular, and the other plural, or both being fingular, have one adjective, or participle, that adjective or participle is, usually, in the plural number ; as,

, I (shall be) finning. 1 Kings, I. 21. This rule applies

; , female (or, as for the male and female) created he them. Gen. I. 27.

6. A collective noun, or a noun of multitude, though fingular, may

have a plural adjective ; D'INJ 71953, all Judah coming. Jer. VII. 2.

, . i Kings, I. 40. 7. A plural noun of dominion

may
have

a fingular adjective ; as, nup 09378, a cruel lord (lords).

8. An adjective singular is sometimes joined to a plural noun in a distributive sense; as, 7'EV'D 709, right are thy judgments (i. e. every one of them). Psalm, CXIX. 137.—1198 79778, they who curse thee are cursed (i. e. each one of them). Gen. XXVII. 29.

9. An adjective, referring to the former of two substantives, sometimes agrees with the latter ; as, On 311 nup, the bow of the mighty men (is) broken.

10. A verb commonly agrees with its noun in number, gender, and person; as, y7 37871, and Ad. am knew. Gen. IV. i.

, . Gen. I. 2.

11. Sometimes a masculine verb is joined to a

.the earth was ,הארץ היתה

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feminine noun, to show excellence and dignity ; as,

*.והיה הנערה

12. A feminine verb may be joined to a masculine noun, or pronoun, to express something base and mean ; as, yna powy.t

13. A verb singular joined with a noun plural, or a verb plural with a noun singular, often signifies diftributively; as, aroon ng 771277, the beasts of the field (i. é. each of the beasts) shall cry. Joel, I. 20. yug_-103, the wicked (i. e, every wicked man) flee. Prov. XXVIII. I.

14. When two nouns of different genders have the same verb, that verb is usually of the masculine gen

; , , heavens the earth were finished. Gen. II. 1.

15. When several singular nouns have the same verb, that verb may be put in the plural number ; as,

, , Chederlaomer, and Tidal made war. Gen. XIV. I.

,Arioch ,אריון-כדרלעמר--ותדער עשו מלחמה

and 2.

16. A noun of multitude, though singular, may have a plural verb ; as, 1787 17985 p, left the land shall say. Deut. IX. 28.

17. Nouns plural, when they denote the parts of one whole, are sometimes joined with verbs singular ; as, nisa 979, there shall be lights, that is, a colle&tion of lights.

18. Sometimes verbs in the future, when not prefixed with 1 conversive, and not in connexion with a

* Gen. XXIV. 14.

+ Ezek. XXXIII. 26.

thus did ,ככה יעשה איוב כל הימים ,preter

;
as

word prefixed with it, have the signification of verbs in the

; , , Job all the days. Job, I. 5.

19. Sometimes à verb in the infinitive has the fignification of some person in another mode ; and it must depend upon the sense and connexion to deter. mine its fignification. See Seat. IX. No. 34. Note.

20. The masculine noun plural oybox, when meaning the true God (the adorable Trinity), is frequent. ly joined with verbs singular, to express the unity of essence and operation ; as, aube MD, God created. Gen. 1. i.

21. Hebrew verbs are often joined with their infinitives, which may then be rendered as participles active, or as the Latin gerunds. This kind of expression denotes succession or continuance ; as, Tyni nx 1378 70711 73708 773, in blessing (or, to bless) I will bless thee, and, in multiplying, I will multiply thy seed : that is, I will continually bless thee, and multiply thy seed. Gen. XXII. 17.*

22. The substantive verbs, 747 and us, he was, &c. are often omitted,

,שמעו שמוע ואל תבינו וראו ראו ואל תדעו .9

.Thus

, Ifai . VE *

. 9. , bear, in bearing (i. e. be continually hearing), and ye sball not perseive ; and see, in seeing (i e. be continually seeing), and ye shall not know. Gen. II. 16. and 17. Of every tree of the garden xn 35%, thou salt or mayest continually eat ; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou sbalt not eat of it, &c.

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