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.c& ,פקוד ; תפקוד יפקוד ,is often inferted before the last radical of the future and the imperative ; a8 ו ,In Kal *



, , ה '

+ The final -7 of the second and third persons plural, fem. of the future, and of the second person plural, fem. of the imperative, is sometimes dropped. Instances of this occur, Gen. IV. 23, and Exod. I. 18, and 19, &c.

# , the characteristic of Hiphil, is sometimes omitted, in all the instances, where it is inserted in this example.

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being ת And the characteristic .שכר from ,השתכר

.צדק from ,הצטרק ; זמן from ,הרמן ,as :ט

9. In Hebrew, active participles signify either as those of the present, or the future in rus, in Latin ; pasfive participles, as those of the preter, or future in dus.*

10. 9 prefixed to a verb often converts the preter into the present, or future, and the future into the prefent, or preter ; as, nwyni, and I will rebuke ; 7979), and he spake.

11. The particle ix, then, coming before the futurę, sometimes converts it into the preter ; as, 737, ix, then he spake.

12. In Hithpael, when the first radical is }, D, 3, or u, the characteristic o is transposed with it ; as,

, transposed with ; is changed into 7, and with s, into

: , , ; , .

13. The prefixes, 3, 5, 5, and p, joined to the infinitive mode, form gerunds; as, 713, in visiting ; po's, to visit.s 14. When the third person feminine preter


any conjugation is followed by a pronoun fuffix, its o is changed into n; as, 903773, she loved him. 1 Sam. XVIII. 28.

15. The second person masculine plural of the preter of Kal sometimes drops its before a suffix ; as, Joy, ye have fasted to me, fornb. Zech. . 5. , , . Numb. XX. 5.

16. In the farthest column to the left hand of the preceding example of regular verbs are added the paragogic letters, i. e. letters which are sometimes suffixed to the respective persons of all the conjuga

* In Kal, there is a passive as well as ative participle.

† Sometimes they is not joined to the word it affects ; but to another.

Sometimes n, the characteristic of Hithpael, is omitted. § 2, 2, and often exclude 17, the characteristic of the infinitive of Niphal and Hiphil.

.העליתמנו ye baue brought us up
for ,העליתנו .5


tions, against which they stand. They are added for emphasis, or euphony. They are suffixed to irregular as well as regular verbs.



1. Those verbs, which in their formation are not strictly reducible to the foregoing example of ypo, are called irregular, or defective. 2. The several kinds of irregular verbs are these, viz.

X. or a verb the first radical of which is Oin Vau, or a verb the middle radical of which is Lamed He, or a verb ending with

h. Pe Nun, or a verb the last radical of which is 3. Oin doubled, or a verb the two last letters of which

are the same. Lamed Nun,

ora verb the last radical of which is


PE ALEPH. 3. The radical * of verbs Pe Aleph is generally omitted in the first person singular of the future, I left two Alephs should occur; as, yax, for 73NX. In other refpe&ts verbs Pe Aleph are regular.

Pe Yop. 4. Verbs Pe Tod cast away , in the imperative of Kal; as, sw, for 304; also » is omitted in the infinitive of Kal, and n is added ; as, nod. See the following example :

* From the old example sys, those verbs, which drop their first letter, have been called defective in Pe, D ; those, which drop their second, defective in Oin, y; and those, which drop their third, defective in Lamed, su

† Molt irregular verbs are sometimes regular ly formed. [ Or, rather, the two Alephs coalesce in one.

Example of the conjugations and declenfion of verbs


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.37 .Jerem . XXXII .הושבתי for השבתי ,as

5. When any of these servile letters, *, 7, , , , n, are prefixed to a verb Pe rod, in its declension, the radical - is usually either omitted, or changed into 1. Except 5, 550, , and p»» ; which, in Hiphil, require instead of 1; as, 20977, for 2017.

6. These four verbs, Dy, 159, 97, and 1777, in Hithpael, change into , as, 10%. Other verbs Pe rod are regular in Hithpael

. N. B. Whenever Hithpael is not inserted in the examples of irregular verbs, it is regularly declined, as in upo; unless in such instances as will be noticed.

7. The verb 5 has 1 in the future of Kal ; thus, byx, I fhall be able.

8.mps, to take, or be taken, is formed in Kallike 95%. . 9. The formative in Hiphil is fometimes omitted;

. Oin Vau. 10. The root of verbs Oin Vau is the infinitive; as, dip, to arise. In the third person masculine singular of the preter of Kal, which is the root of all other verbs, the 1 disappears.

11. Verbs Lamed He, and a few others, when their middle radical is ), are regular, with regard to that letter. 12. These four verbs, 718, VID, 71, and 310, have

; , , . 13. vs sometimes imitates verbs Pe lod; as, pre

, . 14. The third radical of verbs Oin Vau is frequently repeated ; as, ap. 15. Verbs Oin Vau sometimes omit their 1 in the

; , ; . 16. Hiphil sometimes suffers an aphæresis of the characteristic , in the imperative ; as, ap, second per. sing. masc. for Dypo. Verbs having their middle radical - sometimes, in' like manner, drop in Hiphil.

.טוב ,טובה ,טובת ,in the preter of Kal ; as ו

.הוביש ,ter of Hiphil

.שוב from ; ישוב for ישב ,future of Kal


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