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Sometimes it will be even necessary to consider the force of the reasoning, and to make one part of that also. (4)
Sometimes we shall find a proposition concealed, which it will be proper to supply. You must in such a case consider, whether the hidden propofition be important enough to inake a part, which
Let us hear another great the third is the perceiving master. Qui audiunt aliquem their connexion ; and the ratiocinantem de re ipfis per- fourth a making a right conspecta, et intelligunt linguam clusion, &c. Ègay as above. qua utitur; fi modo fani fint Whoever undertakes cerebri, et qui loquitur ob- handle a text fyllogistically fcuritatem non captet; nullis ought to take great care first regulis, ut videant an confe- to acquaint himself thoroughquenter ratiocinetur necne, ly with the whole doctrine of indigent. Rei cognitio et fyllogisms, otherwise he will attentio ad animadvertendum render himself ridiculous, and ratiocinationum nexum, feu tempt people to apply to him falsum, sufficiunt. Nulla what Mr. Locke says of one melior videtur probandæ veri- who handles purely identical tatis via, quam fi ii, quibus propositions. It is like a ignota est, per eundem trami- monkey shifting his oyster tem, per quem ad eam perve- from one hand to the other, nimus, deducantur. Clerici and saying oyster in right log. par. iv. cap. 1. de nat. hand is subject, and oyster in arg. cap. 2. de reg. gen. Syllo- left hand is predicate, and so gi/morum.
make a self-evident propofi(4) Mr. Locke, speaking tion of oyster: that is, oyster of reason as a faculty in man, is oyster, &c. In short, the says, we may consider in rea molt intelligible way is to fon these four degrees: the range ideas in a simple and plain first and highest is the discover- order, which is most natural ing and finding out of proofs ; and easy. See to this purpose the fecond, the regular and the firj chapter of Elements methodical difpofition
disposition of of criticism. Indeed we may them, and laying them in a fay of fyllogistic trammels as clear and fit order, to make a French poet fays of rhyme their connexion and force be ing : plainly and casily perceived ;
La rime est un esclave, et ne doit qu'obeïr.
it will sometimes be, as in Rom. iv. 1. What shall we say then, that Abraham our father as pertaining to the flesh bath found ? for if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof
. to glory, but not before God. Divide this text into two parts.
I. Consider the question, What small we say then, that Abrabam our father as pertaining to the flesh hath found? And 2. The solution. As to the question, first establish the sense, which depends on the meaning of the words after the flesh, that is to say, according to natural principles; either in regard to the birth of Isaac, who came into the world not in an ordinary way, and according to the force of nature, for Sarah was barren and beyond the age of childbearing; or as Abraham's natural state in marriage was a figure of the state of his soul in regard to God. According to t'e flesh, also signifies, according to works in regard to his juftification before God. The sense of the question is, then, Wkat Mall we Say of Abraham our father ? was he justified before God by his works? Nor must you fail to remark, that in St. Paul's sense, cccording to the flesh, is opposed to, according to the promise ; that is, the way of nature opposed to a supernatural way.
Secondly, Observe the importance of the question with the Jews, who looked upon Abraham as their father, the root, of which they esteemed themfelves the branches, deriving all their claims from him ; so that it was extremely important to clear up the state of Abraham, and in what manner he was justified; for thereon depended the ruin of that pretended juftification, which the Jews endeavoured to establish by the law, that is, by works.
Pass now to the solution, and observe, that it is a reafon, and that the particle which we translate but, should be translated because; thus, If
Abrabam were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory before God. Because, be bath notking to glory of before God. By which we see, there is a third proposition, which the apostle concealed, but which must necessarily be supplied, which is this conclusion, because Abraham was not justified by his works. As the solution of the question depends on this proposition, and on the proofs, which establish it, the three propositions must be treated separately, 1. Every man, who is justified by works, hath whereof to glory before God. 2. Abraham, what advantages foever he had otherwise, had nothing to glory of before God. conclusion suppressed, because Abraham was not justified by his works. (5)
(5) This verse is differently that Abraham our father bath understood by expositors of found [zagun grace) according equal learning. Mr. Claude's to the flesh ? that is, in the sense of the passage is very judgment of man, or accordprobable; and others, who ing to a carnal judgment. --expound the verse differently, if Abraham was justified by bring it to the same meaning. works, if he was accounted Slichtingius transposes the just for his works, rc ce cugza, words, and, according to his in the judgment of men, he reasoning, they read thus, hath whereof ro glory, viz. migus What fall we say then, that pomy capricu, before men : but not Abraham, who is our father before God, αλλ' ου προς τον after the flesh, bath found? Ocor. Le Clerc's supplement Hæc verba, fecundum carnem,
to Hammond's annot. in loc. refpiciunt ad verba patrem Our author thinks, there noftrum. Significat apoitolus is a proposition concealed, a Abrahamum esse quidem pa- mode of speaking, called by trem Judæorum, fed fecundum rhetoricians an apofiopesis. carnem, quatenus carnali ra Mr. Saurin gives tvio extione ex illo orti sunt, &c. amples of the same kind : Slichtingii com. in loc.
Prov. xxii. 2. The rich and Our Hammond denies this the poor meet together, ibe Lord construction, and the learned is the maker of them all. This Le Clerc reads the passage proposition, the Lord is the thus, What shall cue say thin? maker of them all, is one of - VOL. I.
There are texts of reasoning, which are composed of an objection and the answer, and the division of such is plain; for they naturally divide
those concise, and in some We may judge what ought to fort, defective propositions, he supplied, by the nature of which a judicious reader mut the thing, and by a parallel supply. The style is common pasiage in Jobxxxi. 15. Did nos in scripture, it is peculiarly be, that made me in the womb, proper in sententious works, make him ? and did not one such as the book of Proverbs. fashion us in the womb ? He Solomon's design is to teach hath formed us all the same, us, that, notwithstanding the this must be supplied to our great diversity of conditions text, the Lord is the maker of in society, the men, who com them all. Nothing but a fund pose it, are esentially equal. of ignorance or wickedness The reason, that he alledges, will induce a man to abuse is, the Lord hath made them the liberty of supplying, and all. Unless we add to this to conclude, that he may add what is wanting, it proves to a text whatever appears nothing at all. It does not fol. most proper to favour the opilow, that two beings, which nion, which he would defend, have the same God for their or the passion, that he would author, have for that reason preserve. When we search any resemblance, much less truth, it is easy to discover in that they are equal. Is not what texts the author uses this God the author of those intel- sort of figurative style. ligences, who are not clothed
We may place in this rank with mortal flesh,and who have all those, which do not give faculties above men? Is not distinct ideas, or which conGod the author of their exist- vey ideas opposite to the ence? Because God hath made speaker’s design, at least unibem all, does it follow, that less we make the supplement. these two forts of beings are e- For example, 2 Cor. xi. 4. qual? The same God is no less For if be, ibat cometh, preachthe author of an ant, than of eth another Jejus, whom we the most sublime genius among have not preached, or if ye remen : but does it follow, be- ceive another spirit, which ye cause the Lord hath made that have not received, or another ant, and this sublime genius, gospel, which ye have not acthat these two beings are cepted, ye might well bear with equal ? The understanding of him. If we affix to these words Solomon's words then depends on the ideas, which at first fight what the wife readir supplies. offer, we should take the text
into the objection and the solution. As Rom. vi. 1, 2. What shall we say then, shall we continue in fin, that grace may abound ? God forbid: how shall we, that are dead to fin, live any longer therein ? Divide this into two parts, the objection, and the answer. (6) The objection is, first, proposed in general terms, what shall we say then ? 2. In more particular terms, hall we continue in Jin? And 3. The reason and ground of the objection, because grace abounds. The soluzion of the question is the same. In general, God forbid. In particular, how mall we live in fin? And the reason, we are dead to fin.
There are some texts of reasoning, which are extremely dificult to divide, because they cannot
in a sense directly oppofite to gifts by him than those, which the apostle's. S. Paul desired the holy Spirit shed on you the Corinthians to respect his fo abundantly by my ministry, ministry, and to regard his you would do well to prefer apostleship as confirmed of that teacher before me: but God, in a manner as noble this.it is not to be supposed that and glorious, as that of any you have had such teachers : minister, who had been with you ought then to respect my them. What does the pro- ministry. Saurin fer. tom. vi. position, which we have read, f. 8. sur l'egalité des hommes. make for the apostle's design, (6) The text is an objection, if we do not supply what is and an answer. Eft prolepfis, not expressed? But if we qua apottolus occurrit quofupply what is understood, if rundam objektioni. Dicet we supply these words, or enim quis, si, o Paule! verum others equivalent, this is not est, quod dixisti cap. superiori to be supposed; we shall per- in fine, ubi abundavit delictum, ceive the folidity of his rea- ibi fuperabundu vit e gratia; soning, which comes to this. ergo peccata peccatis acidenda If you have had among you funi, ut gratia Dei magis any one, by whose ministry abundet. Refpondet Paulus, you have known a redeemer abfit, ita patres! Unde patet, more proper to heal your ma- peccatum hic proprie accipi Jadies than him, whom we have licet aliqui metonymice pro preached to you ; or if you fomite peccati accipiant. have received more excellent Corn. à Lapide com. iv loc.