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posing principles, which are true and plain, and which you are capable of proving and supporting, when it is neceffary, you must be content with using them to prove what you have in hand. Yet I do not mean, that in reasoning, arguments should be so short and dry, and proposed in so brief a manner, as to divert the truth of half its force, as many authors leave them. I only mean, that a due medium should be preserved ; that is, that without fatiguing the mind and attention of the hearer, reasons should be placed in juít as much force and clearness, as are necessary to produce the effect.
Reasoning also may be overstrained by heaping great numbers of proofs on the same subject. Numerous proofs are intolerable, except in a principal matter, which is like to be much questioned or controverted by the hearers. In such a case you would be obliged to treat the subject fully and ex profeso, otherwise the hearers would consider your attempt to prove the matter as an useless digreffion. (7) But when you are obliged to treat a subject fully, when that subject is very important, when it is doubted and controverted, then a great num. ber of proofs are proper. In such a case you must propose to convince and bear down the opponent's judgment, by making truth triumph in many different manners. In such a case, many proofs associated together to produce one effect, are like many rays of light, which naturally strengthen each other, and which all together form a body of brightness, which is irresistible. (8)
6. Yoų (7) Bad and multifarious reasoners resemble Homer's giants:
"Όσσαν επ' ουλίμπω μέμασαν θέμεν αύτας επ "Όσση
Odysey, (8) Mr. Saurin in his ser. ing how difficult it is to form mon on holiness, after observ, an adequate idea of it, says,
6. You must as much as possible abstain from all sorts of observations foreign from theology. In this class I place, 1. Grainmatical observations of every kind, which not being within the people's knowledge can only weary and disguft them. They may nevertheless be used when they furnish an ayreeable sense of the word, or open some important observation on the subject itself, provided it be done very feldom and very pertinently. (9)
“ Perhaps one of the princi- know, he was a son of Adam, pal causes of its obscurity, is he has followed his forefather, its clearnefs. For it is a truth, as we must all do him – and which we teach those, whom be died. we form to the art of reafon- * “ We are discoursing over ing, that when an idea is car the dead, and dying stories ried to a certain degree of should be sad stories ; such a evidence and fimplicity, all, one I have to tell you ; a trathat is added to clear, only gedy, the saddest under heaferves to obfcure and con ven, never such a killing trafound it. Is not this the gedy, where the world is plain cause of many difficulties on in one act; Adam's tragedy, the nature of jult and un which we have acted in the just ?!” Ser. sur la sainteté, chapters before: the persons,
Adam, Eve, and serpent: the (9) I take the liberty of stage at first strewed with fubjoining an example taken flowers, paradise, now with from a funeral sermon of one blacks. The plot, a most Humfrey, page 191. “ Gen. deyilish plot, the mott con. V. 5. and he died.
We are founding plot, was fin ; the met on this folemn occasion catastrophe, the end of all, to do our last office to a friend, is the text, Adam's exit ; exit to bring him to his long home, Adam carrying off the dead to wait on him to his bed- and be died. chamber, there to take our “ In the text are three parlast leave and good-night for ticulars set out by three little ever; draw to the curtains words, and those several parts and put out the lights. It of speech not unbefitting the cannot be expected I thould various cafes and decleniions of say any thing of the deceased; man's mortality. The first being a stranger, I know no and, a conjunction, notes the thing of his conversation, no coherence; the second he, a thing of his life : but this I pronoun, that's the subject of
2. Critical observations about different readings, different punctuations, &c. must be avoded. Make all the use you can of critical knowledge yourself: but spare the people the account, for it must needs be very disagreeable to them. (1)
the text; and the third a verb, edified, and diverted the the matter and business we friends of the deceased, full are now about, he died.
as much, methinks, had he “ For the coherence, this simply said, that Adam and little et, and, is a tack that this neighbour had kicked up holds together the whole life their heels. of Adam, summed up in the (1) The following critibeginning of the verse. All cism on Mat. xxviii. 19. is a che days Adam lived were nine burlesque on Persian and Syhundred and thirty years, and riac, English and Arabic, he died. For the subject he, Greek and Latin, more proand he died, this he is a pro- per to render critics contemptnoun I said, a relative, it has ible than venerable. Go ye relation to us, be, that is, therefore and teach, llogeve: les man; not a man, but man 8ν μαθητευσαίε, which more kind, the universal of man; properly may be rendered, go he that was the fore-door, and ye therefore and disciple all naback-door to the world, that tions, or make the persons of all let all in, and let all out; he nations my disciples, that is, that stood, stood, nay, fell, chriftians. That this is the for us all, he that has killed true meaning of the words is thee, and me, and him, he plain, and clear, from the that has killed our brother right notion of the word here here— and he died. He died, used, pabrleuw, which coming that includes he lived once. from fabrins, a disciple, it alHe was once immortal.
ways lignifieth either to be, or Adam's first state of immor to make disciples, wherefotality consisted on a basis and ever it occurs in all the scripfour props," &c. One would tures; as parlerbess, Mat. xiii. wish to reverence, for his hoary 52. which is instructed say we; head's-fake, a man, who says the Syriac better, ošanny, in the dedication of the above that is, made a disciple, apo, fermon, that he was annos that is, not only a scholar or jam ratus octoginta tres et learner, but a follower or procirciter dimidium; especially felfor of the gospel, here called as he adds, that the printer the kingdom of heaven. Anocould not read his hand: but ther place where this word ocreally the sermon would have curs is Mat. xxvii. 57. quaBr
I add 3dly. Avoid philosophical and historical cbservations, and all such as belong to rhetoric, or if you do use them, do not insist on them, and chopfe only those, which give either some light to the text, or heighten its pathos and beauty, all others must be rejected. (2)
Lastly. TEVIE TY INCO8, where we rightly tian faith. But it doth not translate it was Jesus' dijciple. therefore follow that children Another place is Acts xiv. 21. of such professors are not to My nabylevo avles ixaves, which be baptized, for the apostles we improperly render, having were commanded to baptize taught many, the Syriac and all nations." - Pool's annot. on Arabic, more properly, hav- the place. This is honestly ing made many difciples. And rejecting a childish witticism, these are all the places in the and placing the argument benew testament where this tween the baptifts and pædoword is used, except those I baptifts, on its right base. am now considering, where The baptists answer, that all the eastern languages ren σαντα τα εθνη being of the der it according to its notation, neuter gender, avles, which disciple. The Persian para- is of the masculine, cannot phrastically expounds it, go agree with ebon, but with Maye and reduce all nations to my beulas supposed and contained faith and religion. So that in the word waOxleusele. Dr. whosoever pleads for any other Gill on the place. meaning of these words, do (2) Instead of giving light but betray their ignorance in to the subject, what a vail of the original languages, &c. ignorance in the following
Beveridge on the Trinity. passage is thrown over what I believe it would puzzle a David calis a curious work in whole conclave of jesuits to the lowest parts of the earth, make a disciple of Christ, or That is, curious though secret, a chriftian, without teaching. becoming the great author It is a wonder the good bishop and preserver of nature. did not render it, go and said io corruption, Thou art my make all nations mathemati- father. This, with a little cians; from ualmpalocos, from logick, we may make good in μαθημα- from
How a literal sense. Nutrition much more eligible is Mr. (that is, the act of nourishPool : “ The Greek is pabr- ment we speak of) is a kind Tevvala, make disciples, but that of generation. 'Tis so, for must be first by preaching and there is motus a termino a quo, inttructing them in the chrif- ad terminum ad quem ; and 'tis
Lastly. I say the same of passages from Profane Authors, or Rabbies, or Fathers, with which
many think they enrich their sermons. This farrago is only a vain oftentation of learning, and very often they, who fill their sermons with such quotations, know them only by relation of others. (3) However, I would not blame a man who should use them discreetly. A quotation not common, and properly made, has a very good effect.
under no other species of mo (3) Bishop Burnet says, tus, but generatio, and there • The impertinent way of fore secundum partem, 'tis ge- needless setting out of the neration indeed. Well, nu- originals and the vulgar vertrition is a generation, and fion is worn out, the trilling consequently concoction is fews of learning in many corruption, and ’tis so; the quotations of passages, that meat we eat goes into the few could understand, do no stomach and liver, there it more fat the auditory,” &c. chylifies and fanguifies, loses The bishop said this in 1692: its form, and that is corrup- but had his lordship lived till tion, and out of this our bo- 1760 odd, he might have seen dies receive flesh, and grow a sermon published in English in bulk and stature ; so then with upwards of fixty such out of nutrition, as one pa- quotations. rent; and concoction, that is
A medley of literature was corruption, the other, we are formerly much in fashion, and born every day in lumps, and a French writer's remark is begotten by piece-meals, and we not inapplicable. “ It required may really say to corruption, a prodigious deal of learning Thou art my father,” &c. then to preach ill; now-a-days
Humfrey, Jerm. vii.p.201. it requires very little learning What profound erudition ! to preach well." La Bruyere, rather, what absurdity and charac. de fiecle. impertinence !