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4. A preacher must be fimple and
grave. Simple, speaking things full of good natural sense without metaphysical speculations ; for none are more impertinent than they, who deliver in the pulpit abitract speculations, definitions in form, and scholastic questions, which they pretend to derive from their texts;- as on the manner of the existence of angels, the means whereby they communicate their ideas to each other; the manner in which ideas eternally subsist in the divine understanding; with many more of the same class, all certainly opposite to simplicity. To simple I add grave,
because all sorts of mean thoughts and expressions, all sorts of vulgar and proverbial sayinys, ought to be avoided. The pulpit is the seat of good natural sense ; and the good sense of good men. On the one hand then you are not to philosophize too much, and refine your subject out of light; nor on the other to abase yourself to the language and thoughts of the dregs of the people. (7)
a change of ideas, a change being adorned and inriched, she of will, a change of taste; a arrived at las to the higheft change of hope ; a change, in dignity and pre-eminence. The fhort, of all false schemes of title of the ninth is, The mass's felicity for the one true one, impeachment, and her answer, &c. Saur. fer. tom. 7. fer. with the proceedings against her. onzieme.
The tenth is intitled, God's (7) A preacher musi be grave. fentence against tho mass. This Bernard Ochin published 12 dramatick method of preachfermons on the Lord's-supper. ing is too much in the taste of The seventh sermonis intitled, the Italians. Bayle, art. OThe tragedy of the mass, and first chin, rem. P. bow lhe was conceived, born, No doubt but to people of and baptized. The eighth is good education, Vida's is a entitled, How the mass was good rule, as app.icable to nurjed and educated, and how, preaching as to poetry :
Rejice degenerem turbam nil lucis habentem,
5: The understanding must be informed, but in
a manner, however, which affects the heart; cither to comfort the hearers, or to excite them to acts of
But yet in compaflion to ledge at the reformation. the dregs of the people, who, Tria faciunt theologum dixit, with all their ignorance, have meditatio, oratio, et tentatio; fouls, it ought to be remem - et tria verbi minittro facienda, bered, that their minds are evolvere biblia, prare seria, accesible anly by their own et femper discipulum manere. way of thinking and speak. Optimi ad vulgus hi sunt coning, and theirs is a different cionatores, qui pueriliter, polanguage and a different habit pulariter et fimpliffime docent. of thinking from others in In vifitatione Saxonica cum in more cultivated life. Hence pago rusticus fymboli verba Aristotle wisely says, - To ds hæc recitaret dialecto suo, Ich τρεπον εξει η λεξις, ανη παθητικη, glove in Gottden alanochteigen, τε και ηθική, και τους υποκειμενους credo in Deum patrein omniπραγμασιν αναλογα HEIKH potentem ; quæfivit ex eo quid de autn n 8% twv onu etwa derevs, almecbteigen omnipotens figniοτι ακολουθει η αρμοτίασα εκατω ficet : refpondente rustico - geyft xabitet. Aeyw dt, ytros uev, ignoro, imo inquit Lutherus, καθ ηλικιαν' οιονεί παις, η ανης, η et ego et omnes eruditi id igyepesi , 20 7m, 400 orng' xat noramus; tu id faltem crede, naxar, y Ostianos. , nad Deum elle tuum patrem, qui poas 0105 TIS. TO Biwi 8 yrę za test et vult ti, tuosque, servare, απασαν εξιν οι Βιοι σοιοι τινες. Rhythmis etiam delectatus ferΕαν ουν και τα ονοματα οικεία tur vernaculis, &c. Melch. λεγη τη εξει, ποιησει το ηθος ου Adam. vitæ Germ. Tbeol. in yog TAUTĄ, 0:9 wauws ArPOI- vita Lutheri. ΚΟΣ αν και ΠΕΤΠΑΙΔΕΥΜΕΝΟΣ Mr. Adams inferts some of
Ariflot. rhet. lib. iii. 7. these homely country rhymes, To the same purpose speaks for which beggarly ballads, Dyonisius of Halicarnaffus : perhaps Luther may receive a Ομολογομεν δη παρα πασιν οτι greater reward at the last day πρεπον και το τους υποκειμενους αρ- than he would for whole μόζον προσωποις τε και πραγμα- helves of Greek and Latin
Dion, Halic. de frutt. folios. Vanity will make a orat. f. 20.
man write learnedly ; but piLuther's biographer, hav- ety only can prevail on a good ing related a saving of his on fcholar to ruiticate his speech this subject, adds, by way of and manners for the sake of expofition, the practice of this the poor. Truly, for a man reformer in diffusing know-, who relishes polite literature,
piety, repentance or holiness. There are two ways of doing this, one formal, in turning the subject to moral uses, and so applying it to the hearers the other in the simple choice of the things spoken; for if they be good, folid, evangelic, and edifying of themselves, should no application be formally made, the auditors would make it themfelves; because subjects of this kind are of such a nature, that they cannot enter the understanding without penetrating the heart. I do not blame the method of some preachers, who, when they have opened some point of doctrine, or made some important observation, immediately turn it into a brief moral application to the hearers; this Mr. Daillé frequently did : yet I think it should not be made a constant practice, because, ift, what the hearer is used to, he will be prepared for, and so it will lose its effect; and 2dly, because you would thereby interrupt your explication, and confequently also the attention of the hearer, which is à great inconvenience. Nevertheless, when it is done but seldom, and seasonably, great advantage may be reaped.
But there is another way of turning doctrines to moral uses, which in my opinion is far more excellent, authoritative, grand, and effectual; that is, by
treating who can spend his days in the such a man humbly imitatcs company of Plato, Tully, his master, who, bring in the Longinus, and such men; for form of God, became a servant, him to turn his back two or and humbled himself to the three times a week on fuch death of the cross; and such a illuftrions familiars, conde- preacher, however contemptscend to lisp with children, ible now, will one day have and to stammer with the il- a name above crery name, literate ; for such a man, I whether it be philosopher, fay, such a conduct muft needs poet, orator, or whatever is be self-denying, and require moft revered among mana heart devoted to God : But kind.
treating the doctrine contained in the text, in a way of perpetual application. (8) This way produces excellent effects, for it pleases, instructs, and affects all together. (9) But neither must this be inade habitual, for it would fatigue the hearer, nothing being more delicate, nor sooner discouraged than the human mind. There are fast-days, Lord's-supperdays, and many such seasonable times for this method. (1) This way, as I have said, is full of admirabie fruits ; but it must be well executed, with
power and address, with choice of thoughts and expressions, otherwise the preacher will make himself ridiculous, and provoke the people to say,
Quid dignum tanto feret hic promiffer hiatu ?
Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. 6. One of the most important precepts for the discussion of a text, and the composition of a fer
(8) This subject is fully concione linguæque volubilihandied in Chap. VII. for tate decipere. quia quicquid which reason I omit one page non intelligit plus miratur. of Mr. Claude here, because
Ferom. ad Nepot. its substance is repeated in the Optimus eit er.im orator qui chapter referred to.
dicendo animos audientium (9) Docente te in ecclefia et docet, ct delectat, et permonon clamor populi fed gemitus vet. Docere debitum est, fuscitetur ; lachrymæ audito- delectare honorarium, permorum laudes tuæ sint. Sermo vere necessarium. Cic. de orat. presbyteri fcripturarum fale (1) Equidem id maxime conditus fit. Nolo te decla- præcipiam, ac repetens iterummatorem, et rabulam, garru- queiterumque monebo. Res duas lumque fine ratione, seu my- in omni actu spectet orator, Iteriorum peritum, et facra- quid deceat, quid expediat. Exmentorum Dei tui eruditisi- pedit autem fæpe mutare ex mum. Verba volvere et cele- illo constituto traditoque orritate dicendi apud imperitum dine aliqua ; et interim decet; vulgus admirationem fui fa- ut in ftatuis atque pi&turis cere, indoctorum hominum videmus, variari habitus, vuleft. Nihil tam facile quam tus, ftatus, &c. Quint, inft. vilem plebeculam et indoctam lib. i. c. 14.
mon, is, above all things, to avoid excess : Ne
1. There must not be too much genius, I mean not too many brilliant, sparkling, and striking things, for they would produce very bad effects. The auditor will never fail to say, The man preaches himself, aims to display his genius, and is not animated by the spirit of God: but by that of the world. Beside, the hearer would be overcharged; the mind of man has its bounds and measures, and as the eye is dazzled with too strong a light, so is the mind offended with the glare of too great an assemblage of beauties. Farther, it would destroy the principal end of preaching, which is to sanctify the conscience; for when the mind is overloaded with too many agreeable ideas, it has not leisure to reflect on the objects, and without reflection the heart is unaffected. Moreover, ideas which divert the mind, are not very proper to move the conscience ; they flatter the imagination, and that is all. Such a preacher will oblige people to say of him, He has genius, a lively and fruitful imagination : but he is not solid. In fine, it is not possible for a man, who piques himself on filling his sermons with vivacities of imagination, to maintain the spirit all along; he will therefore become a tiresome tautologist: nor is it hard in such fermons to discover many false brilliances, as we see daily. (2)
(2) In order to render the the austerity of reason fhould productions of genius regular blend itself with the gaiety of and just, as well as elegant the graces. The proper and ingenious, the discerning fice of judgment in compofand coercive power of judg- tion, is to compare the ideas ment should mark and restrain which imagination collec; ; the excursions of a wanton to observe their agreement or imagination; in other words, disagreement, their relations VOL. I.