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are those, who make no difficulty of delivering in the pulpit all the speculations of the schools, on the mystery of the trinity, the incarnation, the eternal


Pluribus autem nominibus traria fit rusticitas. Venuftum in eadem re vulgo utimur: ele, quod cum gratia quadam quæ tamen fi diducas suam

et venere dicatur, apparet. propriam quandam vim often- Salfum in confuetudine pro dent. Nam et urbanitas dici- ridiculo tantum accipimus, tur; qua quidem fignificari natura non utique hoc est, video sermonem præ se feren- quanquam et ridicula oporteat tem in verbis, et fono, et ufu effe falfa. Nam et Cicero, proprium quendam guftum ur omne quod salsum sit ait esse bis, et fumptam ex conversa- Atticorum ; non quia funt tione doctorum tacitam erudi- maxime ad risum compositi : tioncin : denique cui con et Catullus cum dicit,

Nulla in tam magno eft corpore mica salis : Non hoc dicit nihil in cor- paulo liberalius aspersus, fi pore ejus cfle ridiculum. Sal

tamen non fit immodicus, afTum igitur erit, quod non erit fert aliquid propriæ voluptainsulfum, velut quoddam fim- tis : ita hi quoque in dicendo plex orationis condimentum : babent quiddam quod nobis faquod fentitur latente judicio ciat audiendi fitim. Facetum velut palato, excitatque et a quoque non tantum circa ritædio defendit orationem. dicula opinor confitere. Sane tamen, ut ille in cibis

Molle atque facetum Virgiiio. Focum vero accipimus, quod eit didi, in hac quidem pugna contrarium serio. Nam et fin- forensi malim mihi lenibus gere, et terrere, et promittere, (i.e. jocis) interdicere. ---Priinterim jocus eft. Dicacitas -- mum itaque considerandum proprie fignificat sermonem eft, et quis, et qua causa, et cum risu aliquos incessentem. apud quem,et in quem, et quid Ideo Demofthenem urbanum dicat. -- Dicacitas etiam fuisse dicunt, dicacem negant. fcurrilis et scenica huic per

Now none of these is fin- fonæ alieniffima eft. Obiceful or improper upon certain nitas vero non a verbis tantum occasions; indeed in certain abeffe debet fed etiam a signi- . circumstances, and carried to ficatione. Quint. inftit. lib. certain degrees, they are in- vi. cap. 3. sulting and highly disgustful. Μητε γελωτα προπετη Σεργέ, Hear the heathen : °Longe penge Mogor Meta Igokeanodiya, que abfit propofitum illud,

το μεν γαρ ανοητον, το δε

payizor. potius amicum quam dictum per- Neque petulantem risum ama,


reprobation of mankind; such as treat of questions beyond our knowledge ;—what would have been if Adam had abode in innocence, what the state of souls after death; or what the resurrection; and our state of eternal glory in paradise. Such are they, who fill their sermons with the different interpretations of a term, or the different opinions of interpreters on any passage of scripture; who load their hearers with tedious recitals of ancient hiltory; or an account of the divers heresies which have troubled the church upon any matter; all these are contrary to the fobriety of which we speak, and which is one of the most excellent pulpit virtues. (4)

I say

neque audacem orationem is the fountain or well-head, proba, nam alterum ftultitiæ then there is the spring that eft, alterum insaniæ. Ifocrat. boils up out of that fountain, orat. ad Demon.

and then there is the stream Kau PinoyEhwTES (i. e. JUVE- that flows both from the founNEs) διο και ευτραπελοι. Η I yap

tain and spring, and yet all ευτραπελια σιπαιδευμενη υβρις there are but one and the Jame 250.- Ariftot. rhetor. lib. ii. quater; So here, God the cap. 14.

Vide Dion. Halic. father is the fountain of deity, de fruct, orat. f. 1.- Et ftu- the Son the spring that boils diofi funt risus : Quamobrem up out of the fountain, and etiam sunt faceti. Nam fa- the holy Ghost that flows from cetiæ erudita contumelia funt. boil, and get all three is but

(4) Is this sober talking one, and the same God. The about the holy trinity ? the same may also be explained by father is placed first, and really another familiar inftance: the is the first person, not as if he fun you know begets beams, and was before the other two, for from the sun and beams tothey are all co-eternal, but be- gether proceed both light and cause the other two received heat; so God the father be: their essence from him ; for the gets the son, and from the fon was begotten of the fa- father and son together prother, and the holy Ghost pro- ceeds the spirit of knowledge eedeth both from father and and grace : but as the sun is son ; and therefore the father not before the beams, nor the is termed by the primitive beams before the light and christians the root and fountain heat, but all are together; fo of deity. As in waters there neither is the father before VOL. I,



I say farther chaste, in opposition to those bold and impudent geniusfes whoare not ashamed of saying many things, which produce unclean ideas in the


the son, nor father or fon be to dignify these extravagant fore the holy Ghost, but only individuals with the titles of in order, and relation to one jeraphical doctors, angelical another, &c. Beveridge on doctors, irrefragable doctors, the Trinity.

&c. for inventing and main(5) Much of the ancient taining such ftuff. school-divinity was of this It may not be improper to filthy kind. The angelical add an example or two. A doctor St. Thomas Aquinas, certain friar, preaching at the Albertus Magnus, and others, church of Notre-Dame, in have handled the following Paris, againit the antipope, irreverend and scandalous Peter De-Luna, in the year questions: Utriem sent excre- 1408, among many other inmenta in paradiso ? Utrum decent exprellions, protested, Janeti refurgent cum inteftinis ? quod ANUM fordidiffime OmaQuare Christus non fuerit her. zariæ OSCULARI mallet

quam maphroditus ? Utrum fi Deia os Petri De-Luna. Velly' hif. para fuisset vir, potuisset efle de France, tom. xiii. p. 42. naturalis parens Christi? U That farcical droll Dr. frum verbum potuit hypoftaticæ South, whose low jokes obuniri naturæ irrationali, puta tained the name of wit in, equi, afini, &c. Bayle, Aqui- complaisance to the political nas, rem. E.

cause, for which he spouted, I omit others more scandal- abounds with ludicrous and ous still, and these are related offensive puns. In speaking for the sake of justifying the of “the delights of a soul reformation, and its true clarified by grace, he says, no ground, liberty of conscience. man, at the years and vigour Since the reformation, people of thirty, is either fond of Juhave enjoyed the right of pri- gar-plumbs or rattles.A fage vate judgment, and, in this remark indeed! but the next country, the liberty of pro- is fupremely nasty : pagating their privateopinions man would preserve the irch. by public preaching ; yet no on himself only for the pleaone fect has ever pretended to sure of firarching.I was suaintain theses equal in ab- going to inakc a reflection on furdity to these. Individuals this dirty doctor, but on casting in all parties have run into my eye on the top of the page, extravagances : but it be- I see the doctor has very witlongs to the infallible party ily provided for transferring

" No

mind.(5) A preacher cannot be called chaste, whe, speaking of the conception of Jesus Christ in the virgin's womb by the power of the holy Ghost without the intervention of man, is not careful of saying any thing, that may shock the modesty of fome, and give occasion of discourse to the profanity of others. There are I know not how many subjeets of this kind; as when the eternal generation of Jesus Christ the son of God is spoken of; when the term regeneration is explained, which fcripture useth to express our conversion; or when we treat of that seed of God, of which, according to St. John, we are born; or when we enforce the duties of husbands to wives, or of wives to husbands; or when we speak of the love of Jesus Christ to his church; under the notion of a conjugel relation ; or when eternal felicity is spoken of under the image of a banquet, or of a marriage-feaft. On all such subjects, chastity should weigh the expressions,


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it to the king A sermon whom he names Merdardus, preached at court! South's and who corpore vatto, buccis fermons. f. i. Prov. iii. 17. rubentibus, ventre promi

How superior to these is the nente, lateribus gladiatoriis, pagan rhetorician's example: præter effrontem improbitaEgo Romani pudoris more con tein et linguam eftrænam ni. tentus, ut jam respondi tali- hil habebat.--- Non eft chrifbus, verecundiam filentio vin- tinæ mentis cuiquam impredicabo. Quint.inft. lib. viii. cari male ; illud potius opcap. 3•

tandum, ut clementiilimus Et quidem jam non etiam reum formator et reformator obscena verba pro obscenis (qui ex Nabuchodonosor hofunt, batuit, inquit, impu- mine fecit bovem, et rursus ex denter, depfit, multo impu- 'bove fecit hominem, qui alidentius, atqui neutrum est næ Balaami dedit hominis linobscenum. Stultorum plena guam) omnes Merdardi fimiles sunt omnia. Cic. ad famil. vertat in melius, detque illis lib. ix. epift. 22.

et mentem et linguam viris I only add what Erasmus evangelicis dignam. Erajm. fays of a preaching friar, colleg. Concio, five Merdardus.

and make a judicious choice, in order to keep the hearers minds at the greatest distance from all forts of carnal and terrestrial ideas. The likeliest way of succeeding in these cases is to beware of pressing metaphorical terms too far; to keep in general considerations, and if possible to explain the metaphorical terms in few words, and afterwards cleave entirely to the thing itself. (6)

4. A

(6) For what regards me. he) is necessary, because there taphorical language see the is no one author without exother note in this chapter, No. ception, whose opinions may (6); at present let us exem not be mistaken, if his complify this rule from Mr. Sau- parisons be stretched beyond rin. The subject is regenera- due bounds: and this, which tion, the text John iii. first is true of all authors, is infive verses. He obferves, that conteftibly true of the orienthe term is a trope, and must tal writers; for as their imaist be restrained, because, says ginations were naturally more he, it is impossible to under- lively, their metaphors were Itand a metaphor if we do not more bold, and the bolder divest it of every thing foreign the metaphors, the more need from the subject in question. of restriction.'

This 2. It must be justified, for the he instances in several things change spoken of under the similar to Mr. Claude's obemblem of a new birth, tho'servations, and closes this expressed in figurative lan- part by saying, “ if you do guage, is yet a real change. not make these restrictions, 3: The idea which a new birth you will push the metaphor gives of this change is so per- too far, and consequently fect, that it might terrify ti- make indiscreet comparisons morous christians, it must between this new birth and a therefore be qualified. 4. The birth properly so called : you qualifications, of which the would form notions of it not subject is capable, are apt to only unworthy of being relull some into security, who, ceived, but even of being reunder pretence of infirmities futed in such a place as this.” inseparable from the best of Mr. Saurin then proceeds men, allow themselves in vices to guard against the oppofite incompatible with a state of mistake, which many have grace; this expression there- fallen into, by observing that fore must be guarded. there is a real change actually 1. “ This reftriction (adds required in order to falvation,

a change

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