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to encourage them in the way they follow, but to get thein out of it; for men are not bunglers because they are poor, but they are poor because they are bunglers.
Is it not pleasant enough to hear our authors cry, ing out on the one hand, as if their person and characters were too sacred for satire; and the public objecting on the other, that they are too mean even for ridicule? But whether bread or fame be their end, it must be allowed, our author, by and in this poem, has mercifully given them a little of both.
There are two or three who, by their rank and fortune, have no benefit from the former objections, supposing them good, and these I was sorry to see in such company: but if, without any provocation, two or three gentlemen will fall upon one, in an affair wherein his interest and reputation are equally embarked, they cannot, certainly, after they have been content to print themselves his enemies, complain of being put into the number of them.
Others, I am told, pretend to have been once his friends. Surely they are their enemies who say so, since nothing can be more odious than to treat á friend as they have done. But of this I cannot persuade myself, when I consider the constant and eternal aversion of all bad writers to a good one.
Such as claim a merit from being his admirers, I would gladly ask, if it lays him under a personal obligatior? At that rate he would be the most obliged humble servant in the world. I dare swear for these in particular, he never desired them to be his admirers, nor promised, in return, to be theirs ? that had truly been a sign he was of their acquaintance; but would not the malicious world have suspected such an approbation of some motive worse than ignorance, in the author of the Essay on Criticism? Be it as it will, the reasons of their admiration and of his contempt are equally subsisting, for his works and theirs are the very saine that they were,
Onc, therefore, of their assertions I believe may be true, “ that he has a contempt for their writings: and there is another which would probably be sooner allowed by himself than by any good judge beside, « that his own have found too much success with the public.” But as it cannot consist with his modesty to claim this as a justice, it lies not on him, but entirely on the public, to defend its own judg. ment.
There remains what, in my opinion, might seem a better plea for these people than any they have made use of: If obscurity or poverty were to exempt a man from satire, much more should folly or dulness, which are still more involuntary; nay, as much so as personal deformity. But cven this will not help them: deformity becomes an object of ridicule when a man sets up for being handsome; and so must dul'ness, when he sets up for a wit. They are not ridiculed because ridicule in itself is, or ought to be, a pleasure; but because it is just to undeceive and vindicate the honest and unpretending part of mankind from imposition; because particular interest ought to yield to general, and a great number, who are not naturally fools, ought never to be made so, in complaisance to those who are. Accordingly we find that in all ages all vain pretenders, were they ever so poor, or ever so dull, "have been constantly the topics of the most candid satirists, from the Codrus of Juvenal to the Damon of Boileau.
Having mentioned Boileau, the greatest poet and most judicious critic of his age and country, admirable for his talents, and yet perhaps more admirable for his judgment in the proper application "of them, I cannot help remarking the resemblance betwixt bim and our author, in qualities, fame, and fortune; in the distinctions shewn them by their superiors, in the general esteem of their equals, and in their extended reputation amongst foreigners; in the latter of which ours has met with the better fate, as he has had for his translators persons of the most eminent rank and abilities in their respective
nations. But the resemblance holds in nothing more than in their being equally abused by the ignorant pretenders to poetry of their times; of which not the least memory will remain but in their own writings, and in the notes made upon them. What Boileau has done in almost all his poems, our author has only in this. I dare answer for him he will do it in no more ; and on this principle, of attacking few but who had slandered him, he could not have done it all, had he been confined from censuring obscure and worthless persons; for scarce any other were his enemies. However, as the parity is so remarkable, I hope it will continue to the last; and if ever he should give us an edition of this poem himself, I may see some of them treated as gently, on their repentance or better merit, as Perrault and Quinault were at last by Boileau,
In one point I must be allowed to think the character of our English poet the more amiable: he has not been a follower of fortune or success; he has lived with the great without flattery; been a friend to men in power without pensions, from whom, as he asked, so he received, no favour, but what was done him in his friends. As his satires were the inore just for being delayed, so were his panegyrics; bestowed only on such persons as he had familiarly known, only for such virtues as he had long observed in them, and only at such times as others cease to praise, if not begin to caluminate them-I mean when out of power, or out of fashiont. A satire, therefore, on
* Essay on Criticism, in French verse, by General Hamilton ; the same, in verse also, by Monsieur Roboton, counsellor and privy secretary to King George I.; after by the Abbe Du Resnel, in verse, with notes. - Rape of the Lock, in French, by the Princess of Conti.. Paris, 1728; and in Italian verse by the Abbe Conti, a noble Venetian; and by the Marquis Rangoni, envoy extraordinary from Modena to King George II. Others of his works by Salvini of Florence, &c. His Essays and Dissertations on Homer, several times translated into French. Essay on Man, by the Abbe du Resnel, in verse; by Monsieur Siihouette, in prose, 1737; and since by others in French, Italian, and Latin.
* ds Mr. Wycherley, at the time the town declaimed against his book of poens; Mr. Walsh, after his death; Sir William Trumball,
writers so notorious for the contrary practice, became no man so well as himself; as none, it is plain, was so little in their friendships, or so much in that of those whom they had most abused; namely, the greatest and best of all parties. Let me add a further reason, that, though engaged in their friendships. be never espoused their animosities; and can almost singly challenge this honour, not to have written a line of any man which, through guilt, through shame, or through fear, through variety of fortune, or change of interests, he was ever unwilTing to own.
I shall conclude with remarking, what a pleasure it must be to every reader of humanity to see all along that our author, in his very laughter, is not indulging his own ill-nature, but only punishing that of others. As to his poem, those alone are capable of doing it justice who, to use the words of a great writer, know how hard it is (with regard both to his subject and his manner) vetustis dare novitatem, obsoletis nitorem, obscuris lucem, fastiditis gratiam.
I am your most humble servant, St. James's,
WILLIAM CLELAND. Dec. 22, 1798.
when he had resigned the office of secretary of state; Lord Boling. broke, at his leaving England, after the Queen's death; Lord Oxford, in his last decline of life; Mr. Secretary Craggs, at the end of the South-sea year, and after his death : others only in Epi. taphs.
* This gentleman was of Scotland, and bred at the university of Utrecht with the Earl of Mar. He served in Spain under Earl Rivers. After the peace, he was made one of the commissioners of the customs in Scotland, and then of taxes in England; in which having shewn himself for twenty years diligent, punctual, and incorruptible (though without any other assistance of fortune), be was suddenly displaced by the minister, in the sixty eighth year of his age, and died two months after, in 1741. He was a person of universal learning, and an enlarged conversation ; no man had a warmer heart for his friend, or a sincerer attachment to the constitution of his country: and yet, for all this, the public would never believe him to be the author of this Letter.
HIS PROLEGOMENA AND ILLUSTRATIONS
DENNIS, Remarks on Prince Arthur. I CANNOT but ihink it the most reasonable thing in the world to distinguish good writers, by discouraging the bad: nor is it an ill-natured thing, in relation even to the very persons upon whom the reflections are made. It is true, it may deprive them a little the sooner of a short profit and a transitory reputation; but then it may have a goud effect, and oblige them (before it be too late) to decline that for which they are so very unfit, and to have recourse to something in which they may be more successful.
Character of Mr. P. 1716. The persons whom Boileau has attacked in his writings, have been for the most part authors, and inost of those authors poets; and the censures he hath passed upon them have been coniirmed by all Europe.
GILDON, Preface to his New Rehearsal. It is the common cry of the poetasters of the town, and their fautors, that it is an ill-natured thing to expose the pretenders to wit and poetrv. The judges and magistrates may with full as good reason be reproached with ill-nature for putting the laws in execution against a thief or impostor. The same will hold in the Republic of Leiters, if the critics and judges will let every ignorant pretender to scribbling pass on the world.
THEOBALD, Letter to Mist, June 22, 1723. Attacks may be levelled either against failures in genius, or against the pretensions of writing without one.
CONCANEN, Ded. to the Author of the Dunciad.
A Satire upon duiness is a thing that has been used and allowed in all ages.
Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, wicked Scribbler!