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topmost peaks, Vulcan forges the molten masses whence
there shall burst forth floods, devouring with full jaws the
level fields of fruitful Sicily; with rage such as this shall
Typhon boil over in hot artillery of a never glutted fire-
breathing storm; albeit he hath been reduced to ashes by
the thunderbolt of Jupiter.’
In this passage we see Jove invested with the glory of
defeating a great demon; but we also recognise the demon
still under the protection of Fate. Destiny must bear that
burthen. So was it said in the Apocalypse Satan should
be loosed after being bound in the Pit a thousand years;
and so Mohammed declared Gog and Magog should break
loose with terror and destruction from the mountain-prison
in which Allah had cast them. The destructive Principle
had its ‘share’ as well as the creative and preservative
Principles, and could not be permanently deprived of it.
Gradually the Fates of various regions and names were
identified with the deities, whose interests, gardens, or
treasures they guarded; and when some of these deities
were degraded their retainers were still more degraded,
while in other cases deities were enabled to maintain fair
fame by fables of their being betrayed and their good
intentions frustrated by such subordinates. Thus we find
a certain notion of technical and official power investing
such figures as Satan, Ahriman, Iblis, and the Dragon, as
if the upper gods could not disown or reverse altogether
the bad deeds done by these commissioners.
But the large though limited degree of control neces-
sarily claimed for the greatest and best gods had to be
represented theologically. Hence there was devised a
system of Commutation. The Demon or Dragon, though
abusing his power, could not have it violently withdrawn,

but might be compelled to accept some sacrifice in lieu of

the precise object sought by his voracity. These substi

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tutions are found in every theological system, and to apply them to individuals constitutes the raison d'être of every priesthood. In the progress towards civilisation the substitutes diminish in value, and finally they become merely nominal and ceremonial,—an effigy of a man instead of the man, or wine instead of blood. At first the commutation was often in the substitution of persons of lower for others of higher rank, as when slaves or wives were, or are, sacrificed to assure paradise to the master or husband. Thus, Death is allowed to take Alcestis instead of Admetus. A higher degree of civilisation substitutes animals for human victims. In keeping with this is the legend of Christ's sending demons out of two men into a herd of swine:1 which, again, is referable to the same class of ideas as the legend that followed concerning Jesus himself as a vicarious offering; mankind in this case being the herd, as compared with the son of a god, and the transfer of the Satanic power from the human race to himself, for even a little time, being accepted in theology as an equivalent, on account of the divine dignity of the being who descended into hell. It was some time, however, before theology worked out this theory as it now stands, the candid fathers having rejoiced in the belief that the contract for commutation on its face implied that Christ was to remain for ever in hell, Satan being outwitted in this. The ancient Babylonian charms often end with the refrain:—‘May the enchantment go forth and to its own dwelling-place betake itself.” Every evil spirit was supposed to have an appropriate dwelling, as in the case of Judas, into whom Satan entered,” and of whom it is said he ‘by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.” Very ingenious are some of the ancient specula

* Matt. viii. 30. * Luke xxiii. 3. * Acts i. 25.


tions concerning the habitations and congenial resorts of demons. In some regions the colour of a disease on the skin is supposed to indicate the tastes of the demon causing it; and the spells of exorcism end by assigning him to something of the same hue. The demon of jaundice is generally consigned to the yellow parrots, and inflammation to the red or scarlet weeds. Their colours are respected. Humanity is little considered in the Eastern formulas of this kind, and it is pretty generally the case that in praying against plague or famine, populations are often found selecting a tribe to which their trouble is adjured to betake itself. ‘May Nin-cigal,’ says a Babylonian exorcism, ‘turn her face towards another place; may the noxious spirit go forth and seize another; may the female cherub and the female demon settle upon his body; may the king of heaven preserve, may the king of earth preserve l'

So is it in regions and times which we generally think of as semi-barbarous. But every now and then communities which fancy themselves civilised and enlightened are brought face to face with the popular fatalism in its pagan form, and are shocked thereat, not remembering that it is equally the dogma of vicarious satisfaction or atonement. A lady residing in the neighbourhood of the Traunsee, Austria, informs me that recently two men were nearly drowned in that lake, being rescued at the last moment and brought to life with great difficulty. But this incident, instead of causing joy among the neighbours of the men, excited their displeasure; and this not because the rescued were at all unpopular, but because of a widespread notion that the Destinies required two lives, that they would have to be presently satisfied with two others, and that since the agonies of the drowning men had passed into unconsciousness, it would have been better to 426 THEOLOGICAL FATALISM

surrender the selected victims to their fate. At Elsinore, in Denmark, when the sea moans it is said to ‘want somebody,' and it is generally the case that some story of a person just drowned circulates afterwards. While the early mythological forms of the Fates diminish and pass away as curious superstitions, they return in metaphysical disguises. They gather their kindred in primitive sciences and cosmogonies, and finding their old home swept free of pagan demons, and, garnished with philosophic phrases, they enter as grave theories; but their subtlety and their sting is with them, and the last state of the house they occupy is worse than the first. Yes, worse: for all that man ever won of courage or moral freedom, by conquering his dragons in detail, he surrenders again to the phantom - forces they typified when he gives up his mind to belief in a power not him-. self that makes for evil. The terrible conclusion that Evil is a positive and imperishable Principle in the universe carries in it the poisonous breath of every Dragon. It lurks in all theology which represents the universe as an arena of struggle between good and evil Principles, and human life as a war of the soul against the flesh. It animates all the pious horrors which identify Materialism with wickedness. It nestles in the mind which imagines a personal deity opposed by any part of nature. It coils around every heart which adores absolute sovereign Will, however apotheosised. All of these notions, most of all belief in a supreme arbitrary Will, are modern disguises of Fate; and belief in Fate is the one thing fatal to human culture and energy. The notion of Fate (fatum, the word spoken) carries in it the conception of arbitrariness in the universe, of power deliberately exerted without necessary reference to the nature of things; and it is precisely opposed to that idea

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of Necessity taught by Science, which is another name for the supremacy of Law. Happily the notion of a universe held at the mercy of a personal decree is suicidal in a world full of sorrows and agonies, which, on such a theory, can only be traced to some individual caprice or malevolence. However long abject fear may silence the lips of the suffering, rebellion is in their hearts. Every blow inflicted, directly or permissively, by mere Will, however omnipotent, every agony that is consciously detached from universal organic necessity, in order that it may be called ‘providential,' can arouse no natural feeling in man nobler than indignation. The feeling of a suitor in a court of law, who knows that the adverse judgment that ruins him has no root in the facts or the law, but proceeds from the prejudice or whim of the judge, can be nowise different from that of a mother who sees her son stricken down by death, and hears at his grave that he was consumed by the wrath of a god who might have yielded to her prayer, but refused it. The heart's protest may be throttled for a time by the lingering coil of terror, but it is there, and christian theologians will be as anxious to protect their deity from it, at whatever cost to his sovereignty, as their predecessors who invented the Cabinet of Women to relieve Jove from responsibility. Metaphysics — which appear to have developed into the art of making things look true in words when their untruth in fact has been detected—have indeed already set about the task just predicted. Eminent divines are found writing about matter and spirit, freedom and natural law, as solemnly as if all this discussion were new, and had never been carried out to its inevitable results. They can only put in christian or modern phraseology conclusions which have been reached again and again in the history of human speculation. The various schools

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