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xiv. COMTEAVT.S.

CHAPTER V.
APOPHIS.

The Naturalistic Theory of Apophis—The Serpent of Time—Epic of
the Worm—The Asp of Melite—Vanquishers of Time—Nachash-
Beriach—The Serpent-Spy—Treading on Serpents

CHAPTER VI.
The SERPENT IN INDIA.

The Kankato na—The Vedic Serpents not worshipful—Ananta and
Sesha—The Healing Serpent—The guardian of treasures—Miss
Buckland's theory—Primitive rationalism—Underworld plutocracy
—Rain and lightning—Vritra—History of the word ‘Ahi —The
Adder—Zohak—A Teutonic Laokoon -

CHAPTER VII.
THE BASILISK.

The Serpent's gem—The Basilisk's eye—Basiliscus mitratus—House-
snakes in Russia and Germany—King-snakes—Heraldic Dragon—
Henry III.-Melusina—The Laidley Worm—Victorious Dragons
—Pendragon—Merlin and Vortigern—Medicinal dragons -

CHAPTER VIII.
THE DRAGON's EYE.

The Eye of Evil—Turner's Dragons—Cloud-phantoms—Paradise and
the Snake—Prometheus and Jove—Art and Nature—Dragon
forms: Anglo-Saxon, Italian, Egyptian, Greek, German—The
modern conventional Dragon - -

CHAPTER IX.

THE COMBAT.

The pre-Munchausenite world—The Colonial Dragon—Io's journey
—Medusa—British Dragons—The Communal Dragon—Savage
Saviours—A Mimac helper—The Brutal Dragon—Woman pro-
tected—The Saint of the Mikados .

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COMTEAVTS. xV.

CHAPTER X.

THE DRAGON-SLAYER.
- page
Demi-gods—Alcestis–Herakles—The Ghilghit Fiend—Incarnate de-
liverer of Ghilghit—A Dardistan Madonna—The religion of
Atheism—Resuscitation of Dragons—St. George and his Dragon
—Emerson and Ruskin on George—Saintly allies of the Dragon . 394

CHAPTER XI.
THE DRAGON's BREATH.

Medusa—Phenomena of recurrence—The Brood of Echidna and their
survival—Behemoth and Leviathan—The Mouth of Hell—The
Lambton Worm—Ragnar—The Lambton Doom—The Worm's
Orthodoxy—The Serpent, Superstition, and Science - . 406

CHAPTER XII.
FATE.

Doré's ‘Love and Fate"—Moira and Moirae—The ‘Fates' of AEschylus
—Divine absolutism surrendered—Jove and Typhon—Commu-
tation of the Demon's share—Popular fatalism—Theological fatal-
ism—Fate and Necessity–Deification of Will—Metaphysics, past
and present - - - - - - . 42O

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32.

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. Beelzebub (Calmet)
. Handle of Hindu Chalice
. A Swallower

St. Anthony's Lean Persecutor

. Ancient Persian Medal - - -

Hercules and the Hydra (Louvre)

. Japanese Demon

Cerberus (Calmet)

. Canine Lar (Herculaneum) -
. The Wolf as Confessor (probably Dutch)
. Singhalese Demon of Serpents
. American Indian Demon
. Italian and Roman Genii

Typhon (Wilkinson).

. Snouted Demon

. Demon found at Ostia

. Teoyaomiqui .

. Kali . - - - - -
. Dives and Lazarus (Russian, seventeenth century) .
. The Knight and Death
. Greek Caricature of the Gods
. A Witch Mounted (Della Bella)
. Serpent and Egg (Tyre)

Serpent and Ark (srom a Greek coin)

Anguish - - -
Swan-Dragon (French) - -
Anglo-Saxon Dragons (Caedmon MS., tenth century)
From the Fresco at Arezzo . -
From Albert Durer's “Passion' -

Chimaera - • - -
Bellerophon and Chimaera (Corinthian)
From the Temptation of St. Anthony

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- D E M ON O L A T R Y.

CHAPTER I.

DUALISM.

Origin of Deism—Evolution from the far to the near—Illustrations from witchcraft — The primitive Pantheism — The dawn of Dualism.

A college in the State of Ohio has adopted for its motto the words ‘Orient thyself.’ This significant admonition to Western youth represents one condition of attaining truth in the science of mythology. Through neglect of it the glowing personifications and metaphors of the East have too generally migrated to the West only to find it a Medusa turning them to stone. Our prosaic literalism changes their ideals to idols. The time has come when we must learn rather to see ourselves in them : out of an age and civilisation where we live in habitual recognition of natural forces we may transport ourselves to a period and region where no sophisticated eye looks upon nature. The sun is a chariot drawn by shining steeds and driven by a refulgent deity; the stars ascend and move by arbitrary power or command; the tree is the bower of a spirit; the fountain leaps from the urn of a

naiad. In such gay costumes did the laws of nature hold WOL. I. A

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their carnival until Science struck the hour for unmasking. The costumes and masks have with us become materials for studying the history of the human mind, but to know them we must translate our senses back into that phase of our own early existence, so far as is consistent with carrying our culture with us. Without conceding too much to Solar mythology, it may be pronounced tolerably clear that the earliest emotion of worship was born out of the wonder with which man looked up to the heavens above him. The splendours of the morning and evening; the azure vault, painted with frescoes of cloud or blackened by the storm ; the night, crowned with constellations: these awakened imagination, inspired awe, kindled admiration, and at length adoration, in the being who had reached intervals in which his eye was listed above the earth. Amid the rapture of Vedic hymns to these sublimities we meet sharp questionings whether there be any such gods as the priests say, and suspicion is sometimes cast on sacrifices. The forms that peopled the celestial spaces may have been those of ancestors, kings, and great men, but anterior to all forms was the poetic enthusiasm which built heavenly mansions for them ; and the crude cosmogonies of primitive science were probably caught up by this spirit, and consecrated as slowly as scientific generalisations now are. Our modern ideas of evolution might suggest the reverse of this—that human worship began with things low and gradually ascended to high objects; that from rude ages, in which adoration was directed to stock and stone, tree and reptile, the human mind climbed by degrees to the contemplation and reverence of celestial grandeurs. But the accord of this view with our ideas of evolution is apparent only. The real progress seems here to have been from the far to the near, from the great to the small. It

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