Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World
Cambridge University Press, 17.05.2007
The global spread of English has resulted in the emergence of a diverse range of postcolonial varieties around the world. Postcolonial English provides a clear and original account of the evolution of these varieties, exploring the historical, social and ecological factors that have shaped all levels of their structure. It argues that while these Englishes have developed new and unique properties which differ greatly from one location to another, their spread and diversification can in fact be explained by a single underlying process, which builds upon the constant relationships and communication needs of the colonizers, the colonized, and other parties. Outlining the stages and characteristics of this process, it applies them in detail to English in sixteen different countries across all continents as well as, in a separate chapter, to a history of American English. Of key interest to sociolinguists, dialectologists, historical linguists and syntacticians alike, this book provides a fascinating new picture of the growth and evolution of English around the globe.
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respectively The STL population regard themselves as full members and
55 The Philippines
165 It is indicative that in
14 observed this a while ago and if Baldauf 2004
The complexity of the sociolinguistic constellations in South Africa
As before in the case of India the Dynamic Model
This may in
Thus during this period initial if highly restricted bilingualism
bilingualism develops predominantly among a minority of the local
they entail an everincreasing range of contacts with members of
95 I call
first used to be a foreign temporary destination has now
related to broader issues of language use in a given
developments are a political issue and hence conflicting opinions will
4 Linguistic aspects of nativization
of almost 70 varieties worldwide Schneider et al 2004 for
Pronunciation tendencies by language types
The last type of lexical expansion to be mentioned here
number of speakers like the ruts of a wagon
421 Degrees of difference
with exceptional frequency Such distributional relations are precisely
be clear that most of these factors are closely related
England and l vocalization in parts of West Africa which
614 Secondly despite the limited impact of
53 New Zealand
Dialect mixture and koineization shaped early New Zealand English as
respects New Zealand usage is found to be variable but
2534 Michieka 2005183 Descriptive work on properties of
5123 Phase 3 late 1940s
5141 Phase 1 1627ca 1650
5143 Phase 4 1961
the British who came later could build upon or inherit
5164 Phase 4 ca 1920ca 1970
Lumbees do have a distinct ethnolinguistic identity which is expressed
happened practically all the time koineization occurred so in a
and of course Spanish place names in Florida including the
in North America there prevails not only the
632 Identity constructions
633 Sociolinguistic conditions
634 Linguistic effects
differences between varieties
Similar movements can be found elsewhere the Cajun Renaissance to
Signaling endangered local identities through language
a great expansion geographically and phonologically in the second half
research eg Wolfram 1984 Leap 1993 identified unmarked tense in
218 and enjoys strong covert prestige SJ Roberts
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accepted adopted ADS strand African Afrikaans American English attitude Australia Australian English basilectal bilingualism British English Canadian Canadian English Caribbean characteristic colonial contexts country’s Creole creolization cultural dialect Dictionary distinctive documented Dynamic Model early emergence endonormative ethnic European example exonormative orientation formal forms of English function grammatical groups homogeneity Hong Kong identity construction IDG strand immigrants important independence Indian English indigenous languages indigenous population innovations Jamaican Jamaican Creole Kachru koineization language contact language shift large numbers lexical linguistic major Malaysian English markers Mufwene Native Americans Nigerian norm observed one’s patterns PCEs percent phase Pidgin political pronunciation regional respect role settlement settlers Singapore Singaporean English Singlish situation slaves social society sociolinguistic South speakers speech spread standard status STL strand structural nativization symbolic tion traditional Trudgill twentieth century types typically usage varieties of English verbs vernacular whites words Zealand Zealand English
Seite 277 - As an independent nation, our honor requires us to have a system of our own, in language as well as government. Great Britain, whose children we are and whose language we speak, should no longer be our standard, for the taste of her writers is already corrupted and her language on the decline.
Seite 269 - Though the inhabitants of this Country are composed of different Nations and different languages, yet it is very remarkable that they in general speak better English than the English do.
Seite 287 - ... education. Noah Webster's blueback speller and William Holmes McGuffey's series of readers became all-time best-sellers, and the possession of certificates and diplomas became a passport to success. In the absence of a well-defined elite (except in parts of the South and some of the older cultural centers), it is not surprising that a citizen population that often sought salvation from the literal (though translated) message of the Bible should seek its path to education in the literal message...
Seite 185 - To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld. Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal.
Seite 297 - When a man says [rat] or [huus], he is unconsciously establishing the fact that he belongs to the island : that he is one of the natives to whom the island really belongs.
Seite 290 - English people; but there are fewer local peculiarities of form and articulation in our vast extent of territory than on the comparatively narrow soil of Great Britain. In spite of disturbing and distracting causes, English is more emphatically one in America than in its native land...
Seite 277 - English, yet several circumstances render a future separation of the American tongue from the English, necessary and unavoidable. The vicinity of the European nations, with the uninterrupted communication in peace, and the changes of dominion in war, are gradually assimilating their respective languages.