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of the ice with such incredible pain and peril that it was at once both by their matter and by change from the wonderful to behold; which otherwise, no doubt, had stricken first person into the third. Richard Hakluyt was quite through and through the sides of their ships, notwith
about eight years younger than Drake. He was born standing our former provision; for planks of timber of more in 1553, at Eyton, in Herefordshire, educated at than three inches thick, and other things of greater force and
Westminster School and at Christchurch, Oxford, bigness, by the surging of the sea and billows with the ice,
was ordained and became, about the year 1584, were shivered and cut in sunder at the sides of our ships. Chaplain to the English Ambassador in Paris, and And amidst these extremes, whilst some laboured for the defence of the ships and sought to save their bodies, other
also Prebendary of Bristol. He took enthusiastic some, of more mild spirit, sought to save their souls by devout
interest in voyages of adventure and discovery, and
we owe to his zeal the transmission to after time of prayer and meditation to the Almighty, thinking, indeed, by no other means possible than by a divine miracle to have
an admirable body of authentic records. He died in their deliverance; so that there was none that were either idle
the same year as Shakespeare, 1616, and in his latter or not well occupied ; and he that held himself in best security
years, in the reign of James I., was a Prebendary of had, God knoweth, but only bare hope remaining for his
Westminster, and Rector of Wetheringset, five miles safety.
from Eye in Suffolk.
Frobisher was preparing for a fourth attempt when Francis Drake returned in the Pelican, in November,
A NOTABLE SERVICE PERFORMED BY SIR FRANCIS 1580, from his adventurous voyage round the world. The Queen knighted him in 1581, and ordered the
A brief relation of the notable service performed by Sir Pelican to be preserved. Sir Francis Drake was the
Francis Drake upon the Spanish Fleet prepared in the son of a Devonshire sailor. He was born at Tavistock
Road of Cadiz: and of his destroying of 100 sail of barks; in 1545, the eldest of twelve sons, and educated at
Passing from thence all along the coast to Cape Sacre, the expense of Sir John Hawkins. When eighteen where also he took certain Forts: and so to the mouth of years old he was purser of a ship trading to Biscay, the River of Lisbon, and thence crossing over to the Isle at twenty he made a voyage to Guinea, and at twenty- of Sant Michael, surprised mighty Carack called the two was captain of the Judith. He served under Sant Philip coming out of the East India, which was the Sir John Hawkins against the Spaniards
; came back first of that kind that ever was seen in England: Perpoor, planned an attack on Spain in the West Indies formed in the year 1587. that attracted volunteers, earned credit and wealth
ER Majesty being inby other expeditions, and used his wealth in fitting
formed of a mighty preout ships for the service of his country. With Sir
paration by sea begun in Christopher Hatton for a patron, and Elizabeth for a
Spain for the invasion of friend, he left Plymouth, in 1577, with a little fleet,
England, by good advice the Pelican, his own ship, of 100 tons, the Elizabeth
of her grave and prudent of eighty tons, the Swan of tifty, the Marygold of
Council thought it exthirty, and the Christopher of fifteen. He was bent
pedient to prevent the on entering the South Sea through the Straits of
Whereupon she Magellan. Before reaching the Straits he had to
caused a fleet of some 30 abandon two of his ships, having taken out the crews
sails to be rigged and and provisions. After entering the great South Sea
furnished with all things the Jarygold was lost in a storm. The Elizabeth
Over that parted company and returned home through the Initial from Hakluyt's" Voyages " (1589). fleet she appointed GeneStraits. Drake in the Pelican went boldly on, took
ral Sir Francis Drake (of gold and silver from ships of the Spaniards—from whose manifold former good services she had sufficient proof), one ship at Valparaiso, from three ships in the port to whom she caused 4 ships of her Navy royal to be delivered, of Arica, from twelve ships at Lima-and after many
to wit, the Bonaventure wherein himself went as General, the adventures in bis passage over the whole round of
Lion under the conduct of Master William Borough, Controller the globe, including the sticking of his own vessel of the Navy, the Dreadnought under the command of M. for twenty-seven hours on a rock, when he had to
Thomas Venner, and the Rainbow, captain whereof was M. throw overboard eight of his guns, Drake sailed again Henry Bellingham: unto which 4 ships two of her pinnaces into Plymouth harbour on the 3rd of November,
were appointed as handmaids. There were also added unto 1580. In 1585 Sir Francis Drake went as
this fleet certain tall ships of the City of London, of whose Admiral with one-and-twenty ships to attack Spain
especial good service the General made particular mention in in the West Indies. Two years afterwards, when
his private letters directed to her Majesty. This fleet set the great Armada was being prepared by Spain towards the coast of Spain.
sail from the sound of Plymouth in the month of April against England, Sir Francis Drake set out with a
The 16 of the said month we met in the latitude of 40 small squadron to interfere as much as he could
degrees with two ships of Middleborough which came from with the preparation Spain was then making for
Cadiz; by which we understood that there was great store of the delivery of what was meant to be a crushing
warlike provision at Cadiz and thereabout ready to come for blow. Let us read the record of this expedition Lisbon. Upon this information our General with all speed obtained by the Rev. Richard Hakluyt from one who possible, bending himself thither to cut off their said forces took part in it, and given as received, with a few and provisions, upon the 19 of April entered with his fleet lines of his own at the close which are re
recognised into the harbour of Cadiz: where at our first entering we
were assailed over against the town by six galleys,' which not- their continual shooting from the galleys, the fortresses, and withstanding in short time retired under their fortress. from the shore : where continually at places convenient they
There were in the road 60 ships and divers other small planted new ordnance to offend us with : besides the inconvessels under the fortress: there fled about 20 French ships venience which we suffered from their ships which, when to Port Real, and some small Spanish vessels that might pass they could defend no longer, they set on fire to come among the shoals. At our first coming in we sunk with our shot a us. Whereupon when the flood came we were not a little ship of Ragusa of a 1000 tons, furnished with forty pieces of troubled to defend us from their terrible fire, which neverbrass and very richly laden. There came two galleys more theless was a pleasant sight for us to behold, because we were from S. Mary port, and two from Porto Reale, which shot thereby eased of a great labour, which lay upon us day and freely at us, but altogether in vain : for they went away with night, in discharging the victuals and other provisions of the the blows well beaten for their pains.
enemy. Thus by the assistance of the Almighty, and the Before night we had taken 30 of the said ships, and become invincible courage and industry of our General, this strange masters of the road, in despite of the galleys, which were and happy enterprise was achieved in one day and two nights, glad to retire them under the fort : in the number of which to the great astonishment of the King of Spain ; which bred ships there was one new ship of an extraordinary bigness, in such a corrosive in the heart of the Marquis of Santa Cruz, burthen above 1200 tons, belonging to the Marquis of Santa high Admiral of Spain, that he never enjoyed good day after, Cruz, being at that instant high Admiral of Spain. Five of but within few months (as may justly be supposed) died of them were great ships of Biscay, whereof 4 we fired as they | extreme grief and sorrow.
were taking in the King's provision of victuals for the furnishing of his fleet at Lisbon: the fifth being a ship of about 1000 tons in burthen, laden with iron spikes, nails, iron hoops, horse shoes, and other like necessaries bound for the West Indies, we fired in like manner. Also we took a ship of 250 tons laden with wines for the king's provision, which we carried out to sea with us, and there discharged the said wines for our own store, and afterward set her on fire. Moreover we took 3 fly boats of 300 tons a piece, laden with biscuit, whereof one was half unladen by us in the harbour, and there fired, and the other two we took in our company to the sea. Likewise there were fired by us ten other ships, which were laden with wine, raisins, figs, oils, wheat, and such like. To conclude, the whole number of ships and barks (as we suppose) then burnt, sunk, and brought away with us, amounted to 30 at the least, being in our judgment) about 10,000 tons of shipping.
There were in sight of us at Porto Real about 40 ships, besides those that fled from Cadiz.
We found little ease during our abode there, by reason of
Thus having performed this notable service, we came out of the road of Cadiz on the Friday morning of the 21 of the said month of April, with very small loss not worth men. tioning.
After our departure ten of the galleys that were in the road came out, as it were in disdain of us, to make some pastime with their ordnance, at which time the wind scanted upon us, whereupon we cast about again and stood in with the shore and came to an anchor within a league of the town; where the said galleys, for all their former bragging, at length suffered us to ride quietly.
We now have had experience of galley-fight : wherein I can assure you, that only these 4 of her Majesty's ships will make no account of 20 galley's, if they may be alone, and not busied to guard others. There were never galleys that had better place and fitter opportunity for their advantage to fight with ships : but they were still forced to retire, we riding in a narrow gut, the place yielding no better, and driven to maintain the same until we had discharged and fired the ships, which could not conveniently be done but upon the flood, at which time they might drive clear of us. Thus being victualled with bread and wine at the enemy's cost for divers months (besides the provisions that we brought from home) our General despatched Captain Cross into England with his letters, giving him further in charge to declare unto
i Galleys. The galley-old Spanish “ galea,” later "galera," Arabio “khaliyah"-a large ship, was low and flat-built, navigated with oars, and often rowed by slaves or prisoners. There is a Spanish galley, with its oars, on the right of the picture above, given from the Old Tapestries of the House of Lords.
her Majesty all the particularities of this our first enterprise. After whose departure we shipped our course toward Cape Sacre, and in the way thither we took at several times of ships, barks and caravels' well near an hundred, laden with hoops, galley oars, pipe staves, and other provisions of the King of Spain for the furnishing of his forces intended against England, all which we burned, having dealt favourably with the men and sent them on shore. We also spoiled and consumed all the fisherboats and nets thereabouts to their great hindrance, and (as we suppose) to the utter overthrow of the rich fishing of their tunnies for the same year. At length we came to the aforesaid Cape Sacre, where we went on land; and the better to enjoy the benefit of the place, and to ride in harbour at our pleasure, we assailed the same castle and three other strongholds, which we took, some by force and some by surrender.
Thence we came before the haven of Lisbon, anchoring near unto Cascaes, where the Marquis of Santa Cruz was with his galleys, who, seeing us chase his ships ashore and take and carry away his barks and caravels, was content to suffer us there quietly to tarry, and likewise to depart, and never charged us with one cannon shot. And when our General sent him word that he was there ready to exchange certain bullets with him, the Marquis refused his challenge, sending him word that he was not then ready for him, nor had any such commission from his King.
Our General thus refused by the Marquis, and seeing no more good to be done in this place, thought it convenient to spend no longer time upon this coast : and therefore, with consent of the chief of his company, he shaped his course towards the Isles of the Azores, and passing towards the Isle of Saint Michael, within 20 or 30 leagues thereof, it was his good fortune to meet with a Portugal carack 3 called Sant Philip, being the same ship which in the voyage outward had carried the three princes of Japan that were in Europe into the Indies. This carack without any great resistance he took, bestowing the people thereof in certain vessels well furnished with victuals, and sending them courteously home into their country: and this was the first carack that ever was taken coming forth of the East Indies; which the Portugals took for an evil sign, because the ship bare the King's own name.
The riches of this prize seemed so great unto the whole company (as in truth it was) that they assured themselves every man to have a sufficient reward for his travail; and thereupon they all resolved to return home for England : which they happily did, and arrived in Plymouth the same summer with their whole fleet and this rich booty, to their own profit, and our commendation, and to the great admiration of the whole kingdom.
And here by the way it is to be noted, that the taking of this carack wrought two extraordinary effects in England: first that it taught others that caracks were no such bugs 4 but that they might be taken (as since indeed it hath fallen out in the taking of the Madre de Dios, and firing and sinking of
A PORTUGUESE CARACK, From the title-page to Linschoten's “ Discours of Voyages” (1598).
The energies of life and thought that made Drake stand for Dragon in the eyes of Spain, and that bred in poetry a Shakespeare, gave also Bacon's genius in aid of the advancement of science. Francis Bacon, about three years older than Shakespeare, was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, and his mother, daughter of Sir Antony Cook, was sister to the wife of Elizabeth's chief statesman, Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh. As a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, Francis Bacon had shown distaste for philosophical studies that train a man to live within the prison of his own mind, acutely introspective, arguing over its way of arguing, thinking about its way of thinking, and accounting himself to know enough of the outward world when he can invent patterns of words under the name of definitions to explain its facts without asking how they arose, what they actually mean, and what fruit they can bear for the well-being of society. His wish, even as a youth, was to lead men away from the vain labour of running round and round within the circle of their own minds, like the mice in a revolving cage, and urge them to use their brains in aid of human progress. The mice in the cage are wonderfully active, and develop muscle; the cage-work is full of exercise, no doubt; but the workers never get an inch beyond their startingpoint. So Bacon thought it was with much of the philosophical work he was asked to employ his mind upon. It became his wish to persuade philosophical thinkers that the outer world is the great
· Caravels. French “caravelle," Spanish “caraba," Modern Greek "Kapáß," Gaelic “cairbh.” A light round ship, of not more than 100 tons, with a square poop; used in trade.
? Cascaes. A seaport town of Portugal, about fifteen miles west of Lisbon.
3 Carack. The great ship of burden used by the Portugnese for trade with the East Indies is said to have been called in Portuguese "carraca," from "carra," a wagon, because of the great load it bore. Others ascribe the name to a first use of it in trade with the Caraccas.
* Bugs, causes of needless fear. Welsh "bwg," hobgoblin, scarecrow. So Shakespeare, in the “Winter's Tale," Act iii. sc. 2:
“Sir, spare your threats ; This bug that you would fright me with, I seek.”
quarry in which we must hew; that a man's brain increase of man's store of wisdom.
Apart from is the tool with which he is to work that
rich unauthorised issues, there were three editions of in the wisdom of God, which, when thus rightly won, Bacon's “Essays," which mark their development. becomes wisdom of man, and adds to the well-being The first edition, in 1597, contained ten essays; the of the human race.
In this direction he did set author's second edition, in 1612, contained thirtythought working, and by so doing gave new life to eight; in his third edition, published only a year science, for by the vigour of his genius he fixed before his death, the number of essays was increased attention on the only sound and fruitful method of to fifty-eight. Moreover, the successive editions search into the secrets of the physical world sur- show continued work upon the old essays as well as rounding man; but this was not until after the the addition of new. Bacon's “Essays," in fact, death of Queen Elizabeth. In Elizabeth's reign he seem to have been part of the utterance of all his was battling for fortune. His father died suddenly life after it had reached its meridian, to have been when Francis Bacon was eighteen years old. There always at hand in his study for modification or was a family by a former wife, and arrangements to addition when he was disposed to quiet contemplation provide for the two sons by a second wife were not of human affairs, and they remain to us as finally completed. Bacon had to make law his profession issued—the deliberate, well-weighed expression of his instead of diplomacy, and seek to live by it. In sum of worldly wisdom. The only essayist before 1584, when in his twenty-fifth year, he entered Bacon was Michel Montaigne, and the first edition Parliament as member for Melcombe Regis, in of Montaigne's essays had appeared in 1580; the Dorsetshire. In the Parliament that met in 1586 second, much enlarged, in 1588; the third in 1595. he sat for Taunton; he was member next for Liver- The first English translation of Montaigne's essays
In 1589 he wrote--but did not print-a was by John Florio, but that did not appear until calm and earnest paper upon the unseemly spirit 1603. A copy of that was in Shakespeare's library, shown in the Marprelate and other Church contro- for it remains with an undoubted autograph of versies of the day. In October of that year he Shakespeare, and there is shrewd use made of a obtained the reversion of the office of Clerk of the passage from it in the second scene of the second act Council in the Star Chamber, which was worth of the “Tempest." But the pleasant talk of Monnearly two thousand a year; but it was in reversion taigne's essays supplied to Bacon no pattern of only, and he had twenty years to wait before it essay writing To Bacon, the essay was-according became vacant. In 1593, when Bacon was member to the strict meaning of the word, preserved still in for Middlesex, he offended the Queen by opposition its other form of "assay ”.
-an attempt to reduce to to her wish on a question of subsidy. Next year he its elements each relation of life that might be made hoped, though only a young barrister of thirty-three, a subject of analysis. In the first edition of ten to get the vacant office of Attorney-General. The essays, which shall be here given complete, the Queen promoted to it the Solicitor-General, Sir relation of life to religion is not yet included in the Edward Coke, who had high standing in his pro- field of view, though the section of “Sacred Meditafession, and was by nine years Bacon's senior. tions " insures its being contained within the volume. Bacon tried then to obtain the office of Solicitor- Bacon begins with Study, Man alone with his General, which Coke's promotion had left vacant. thought; passes then to intercourse with another After long delay, the Queen gave that office, in man, Discourse; then to the common forms of such November, 1595, to another of his seniors. The intercourse, in three divisions, Ceremonies and young Earl of Essex had been patron to Francis Respects, Followers and Friends, Suitors; then to Bacon and his brother Antony. To make amends a man's management of his life in the household, for Bacon's disappointment, the Earl of Essex gave in Expense, in Regimen of Health; then for his Bacon “a piece of land ”- Twickenham Park—which management and advancement of life in the outer he afterwards sold for £1,800 (equal, say, to about world, at home and abroad, in the three remaining £12,000 in present money). In 1597 Bacon was in essays, of Honour and Reputation, of Faction, of debt, and thought to help himself by marrying a Negotiating. rich young widow. That prize was afterwards (in November, 1598) won also from him by Sir Edward
BACON'S ESSAYS—1597. Coke. It was at this period of his life, when he was
Of Studies. thirty-six years old, in January, 1597, that Francis
Studies serve for pastimes, for ornaments, for abilities: Bacon published the first edition of his “Essays." their chief use for pastimes is in privateness and retiring:
This book was a very little one, containing only for ornaments, in discourse ; and for ability in judgment : for ten Essays, followed by twelve Sacred Meditations expert men can execute, but learned men are more fit to in Latin, and a third section of ten pieces, entitled judge and censure: to spend too much time in them is sloth : “A Table of Colours; or, Appearances of Good and to use them too much for ornament is affectation : to make Evil.” Bacon's “ Essays” grew with his life. They judgment only by their rules is the humour of a scholar: represent his analytical spirit applied practically to they perfect nature, and are themselves perfected by experiman, with a view to the conduct of life, as in his
ence : crafty men contemn them, wise men use them, simple philosophy it is applied to outward nature with a
men admire them; for they teach not their own use, but that view to the material well-being of life and the
there is a wisdom without them and above them, won by
observation. Read not to contradict, nor to believe, but to 1 It is given in the volume of this Library illustrating English
weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to Religion, pages 183 to 190.
be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested : that
is, some are to be read only in parts, others to be read but curiously, and some few to be read wholly with diligence and attention. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready, and writing an exact man: therefore, if a man write little he had need of a great memory; if he confer little, he had need of a present wit, and if he read little, he had need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not know.' Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.
because they are continually in use, and in note, whereas the occasion of any great virtue cometh but on holidays. To attain good forms it sufficeth not to despise them, for so shall a man observe them in others, and let him trust himself with the rest : for if he care to express them he shall lose their grace, which is to be natural, and unaffected. Some men's behaviour is like a verse, wherein every syllable is measured; how can a man observe great matters that breaketh his mind too much in small observations ? Not to use ceremonies at all is to teach others not to use them again, and so diminish his respect : especially they are not to be omitted to strangers, and strange natures. Among a man's equals a man shall be sure of familiarity, and therefore it is good a little to keep state ; among a man's inferiors a man shall be sure of reverence, and therefore it is good a little to be familiar: he that is too much in anything, so that he giveth another occasion of satiety, maketh himself cheap; to apply oneself to others is good, so it be with demonstration that a man doth it upon regard and not upon facility: it is a good precept generally in seconding another, yet to add somewhat of his own; if you grant his opinion let it be with come distinction; if you will follow his motion let it be with condition; if you allow his counsel, let it be with alleging further reason.
Of Discourse. Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit, in being able to hold all arguments, than of judgment in discerning what is true: as if it were a praise to know what might be said, and not what should be thought: some have certain commonplaces and themes, wherein they are good, and want variety: which kind of poverty is for the most part tedious, and now and then ridiculous: the honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion, and again to moderate, and pass to somewhat else. It is good to vary and mix speech of the present occasion with arguments; tales with reasons; asking of questions with telling of opinions; and jest with earnest : but some things are privileged from jest, namely, religion, matters of state, great persons, all mens' present business of importance, and any case that deserveth pity. He that questioneth much shall learn much, and content much, especially if he apply his questions to the skill of the party of whom he asketh: for he shall give them occasion to please themselves in speaking, and himself shall continually gather knowledge : if sometimes you dissemble your know. ledge of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought another time to know that which you know not. Speech of a man's self is not good often; and there is but one thing wherein a man may commend himself with good grace, and that is commending virtue in another; especially if it be such a virtue as whereunto himself pretendeth. Discretion of speech is more than eloquence, and to speak agreeably to him with whom we deal, is more than to speak in good words, or in good order; a good continued speech, without a good speech of interlocution, showeth slowness; and a good second speech without a good set speech showeth shallowness. To use too many circumstances ere one come to the matter is wearisome, and to use none at all is blunt.
Of Followers and Friends. Costly followers are not to be liked, lest while a man maketh his train longer, he maketh his wings shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which charge the purse, but which are wearisome and importunate in suits. Ordinary followers ought to challenge no higher conditions, than countenance, recommendation, and protection from wrong. Factious followers are worse to be liked which follow not upon affection to him with whom they range themselves, but upon some discontentment received against some others, whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intelligence, that many times we see between great personages. The following of certain states answerable to that which a great personage himself professeth: as of soldiers to him that hath been employed in the wars, and the like hath ever been a thing civil, and well taken even in monarchies, so it be without too much pomp, or popularity; but the most honourable kind of following is to be followed as one that intendeth to advance virtue and desert in all sorts of persons: and yet where there is no imminent odds in sufficiency, it is better to take with the more passable, than with the more able : in government of charge it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to countenance some extraordinarily is to make them insolent and the rest discontent, because they may claim a due: but in favours to use men with much difference and election is good, for it maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and the rest affectious, because all is of favour. It is good not to make too much of any man at first, because one cannot hold out that proportion. To be governed by one is not good, and to be distracted by many is worse; but to take advice of friends is ever honourable: for lookers on many times see more than gamesters, and the vale best discovereth the hill. There is little friendship in the world, and least of all between equals; that which is, is between superior and inferior, whose fortunes may comprehend the one the other.
Of Ceremonies and Respects. He that is only real, needeth exceeding great parts of virtue, as the stone had need to be exceeding rich that is set without foil : but commonly it is in praise as it is in gain: for as the proverb is true that light gains make heavy purses, because they come thick: whereas the great come but now and then : so it is as true that small matters win great commendation,
1 Bacon suggests a touch of the same cunning, which many use who would be sorry to commend it, in the next essay. * You shall be thought to know that which you know not.
There are a sort of men, whose visages
(Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice," Act i., sc. 1.)
Of Suitors. Many ill matters are undertaken, and many good matters with ill minds : some embrace suits which never mean to deal effectually in them, but if they see there may be life in the matter by some other mean, they will be content to win a thank, or take a second reward. Some take hold of suits only for an occasion to cross some others, or to make an