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both please and profit very many others." I made some excuse by lack of ability and weakness of body. “Well," saith he, I am not now to learn what you can do; our dear friend, good Mr. Goodricke, whose judgment I could well believe, did once for all satisfy me fully therein. Again, I heard you say, not long ago, that you may thank Sir John Cheke for all the learning you have; and I know very well myself, that you did teach the queen. And therefore, seeing God did so bless you, to make you the scholar of the best master, and also the schoolmaster of the best scholar, that ever were in our time; surely, you should please God, benefit your country, and honest your own name, if you would take the pains to impart to others what you learned of such a master, and how ye taught such a scholar. And in uttering the stuff ye received of the one, in declaring the order ye took with the other, ye shall never lack neither matter nor manner, what to write, nor how to write, in this kind of argument."

I beginning some farther excuse, suddenly was called to come to the queen. The night following, I slept little; my head was so full of this our former talk, and I so mindful somewhat to satisfy the honest request of so dear a friend. I thought to prepare some little treatise for a new-year's gift that Christmas; but, as it chanceth to busy builders, so, in building this my poor school-house (the rather because the form of it is somewhat new, and differing from others), the work rose daily higher and wider, than I thought it would at the beginning.

And though it appear now, and be in very deed, but a small cottage, poor for the stuff and rude for the workmanship; yet, in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was loth to give it over; but the making so costly, outreaching my ability, as many times I wished that some one of those three, my dear friends with full purses, Sir Thomas Smith,' Mr. Haddon, or Mr. Watson, had had the doing of it.

Yet, nevertheless, I myself spending gladly that little that I got at home by good Sir John Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my friend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me in reversion by my old masters Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero, I have at last patched it up, as I could, and as you see. If the matter be mean, and meanly handled, I pray you bear both with me and it ; for never work went up in worse weather, with more lets and stops, than this poor school-house of mine. Westminster Hall can bear some witness, beside much weakness of body, but more trouble of mind, by some such sores as grieve me to touch them myself : and therefore I purpose not to open them to others. And in the midst of outward injuries and inward cares, to increase them withal, good Sir Richard Sackville dieth, that worthy gentleman; that earnest favourer and furtherer of God's true religion; that faithful servitor to his prince and country; a lover of learning and all learned men : wise in all doings; courteous to all persons, showing spite to none, doing good to many; and as I well found, to me so fast a friend, as I never lost the like before. When he was gone, my heart was dead; there was not one that wore a black gown for him who carried a heavier heart for him than I : when he was gone, I cast this book away; I could not look upon it but with weeping eyes, in remembering him who was the only setter on to do it; and would have been not only a glad commender of it, but also a sure and certain comfort to me and mine for it.

Almost two years together this book lay scattered and neglected, and had been quite given over of me, if the goodness of one had not given me some life and spirit again. God, the mover of goodness, prosper always him and his, as he hath many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall comfort more and more. Of whom most justly I may say, and very oft, and always gladly I am wont to say, that sweet verse of Sophocles, spoken by Edipus to worthy Theseus: 6

έχω γάρ &'χω διά σε, κούκ άλλον βροτών.

Sir Thomas Smith, and Sir John Cheke, who is named below, were the two scbolars who had been most active in introducing Greek studies into the University of Cambridge. Both were born in the year 1514, and they were only about a year older than Ascbam, Smith, born at Saffron Walden, was of Queen's College, Cambridge ; Cheke, born at Cambridge, of St. John's, which also was Ascham's College. A scham was one of the first to be touched by Cheke's enthusiasm, and himself became Greek lecturer in his College, in 1537. Smith became Provost of Eton on the accession of Edward VI., and was knighted in 1548. Cheke also was knighted by Edward VI, under whom both Smith and Cheke prospered, and became Secretaries of State. Cheke suffered much under Mary, and died in 1557, before the accession of Elizabeth. Sir Thomas Smith was deprived of his offices, but had a pension of £100 a year for his learning. Under Elizabeth he rose to high favour, became Secretary of State, and Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, He died in 1579.

· Mr. Haddon, sea note 5, page 41.

: Mr. Watson is spoken of in “The Schoolmaster" itself as “one of the best scholars that ever St. John's College bred, Mr. Watson, mine old friend, sometime Bishop of Lincoln." He was about a year younger than Ascham. He became Dean of his College and one of its preachers. In 1565 he became domestic chaplain to Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, who gave him two livings. His tendency of mind was not friendly to the Reformation, and under Mary be became Master of St. Jobn's (September, 1553, but resigned in the following May), Dean of Durham (November, 15531, and in December, 1556, Bishop of Lincoln, but was not consecrated till the following August. He had been one of those who took part in the proceedings against Hooper, Rogers, and Cardmaker. His extreme zeal caused Lim to take part in the condemnation of John Rough as a pestilent heretic, though when Watson preached Catholicisır, in the north of England in King Edward's days, Rough bad saved him from an arrest for treason. Under Elizabeth, Bishop Watson is said to have talked of excommunicating the queen ; in April, 1559, he was sent to the Tower; in June he was deprived of his bishopric and released. He was afterwards watched, and occasionally imprisoned, and he died a prisoner under the Bishop of Ely's custody in Wisbech Castle in 1581. He had credit in his day as orator and poet, as well as

theologian, and deserves honour for being staunch to his convictions when suffering under Elizabeth for conscience' sake. It is also evidence of the kindliness of Ascham, who dared remain a reformer under Mary, and did so without losing the queen's goodwill, that under Elizabeth he delights to honour his old fellow-scholar of St. John's, who is suspected by the government, and from whose opinions in church matters Ascham totally dissents. In Ascham, scholarship had done its proper work in deepening thought, and suffering the mind to grow to its full breadth. He was the more free to think his own thoughts, because he could not and did not insult other men for thinking theirs.

My friend Sturmius. " At home" with Sir John Cheke, means in England. Ascham's friend John Sturm was born in 1507 at Schleiden, in Rhenish Prussia. He gave himself with great enthusiasm to the study of the ancient classics, and set up a printing press for the diffusion of Greek texts, being, like most of the early students of Greek, a reformer. After teaching Greek, Latin, and logic in Paris, he left for Strasburg to avoid religious persecution. At Strasburg a civic magnate, highly honoured in his town, which he had served substantially on embassies, and also named John Sturm, was about the same time founding a High School, and he made his learned namesake its first rector. Ascham's love of Greek had probably first drawn him into correspondence with Sturmius, and a hearty friendship between the two scholars was established by the pen. When Ascham went with the embassy to Germany, in Edward VI.'s time, he looked for Sturm at Louvain, but he happened to be away from home, and the friends never saw each other. Sturm lived until 1589.

5 Sir William Cecil.

6 In Edipus at Colonus, line 1129, after Theseus has restored to Edipus his daughters seized by Creon, “ For what I have, I have through thee, and no other among mortals ;” or, as it reads with the context in Prof. E. H. Plumptre's translation of Sophocles,

“Now these, beyond my hopes,
Appear again ; for well I know this joy
Has come to me from no one else but thee :

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This hope hath helped me to end this book; which, if he allow, I shall think my labours well employed, and shall not much esteem the misliking of any others. And I trust he shall think the better of it, because he shall find the best part thereof to come out of his school, whom he of all men loved and liked best.

Yet, some men, friendly enough of nature, but of small judgment in learning, do think I take too much pains, and spend too much time, in setting forth these children's affairs. But those good men were never brought up in Socrates's school, who saith plainly," " That no man goeth about a more godly purpose, than he that is mindful of the good bringing up both of his own and other men's children.”

Therefore, I trust, good and wise men will think well of this my doing. And of other, that think otherwise, I will think myself, they are but men to be pardoned for their folly, and pitied for their ignorance.

In writing this book, I have had earnest respect to three special points; troth of religion, honesty in living, right order in learning. In which three ways, I pray God my poor children nay diligently walk; for whose sake, as nature moved, and reason required, and necessity also somewhat compelled, I was the willinger to take these pains.

For, seeing at my death I am not like to leave them any great store of living, therefore in my life-time I thought good to bequeath unto them, in this little book, as in my will and testament, the right way to good learning ; which if they follow, with the fear of God, they shall very well come to sufficiency of living.

I wish also, with all my heart, that young Mr. Robert Sackville may take that fruct of this labour that his worthy grandfather purposed he should have done: and if any other do take either profit or pleasure hereby, they have cause to thank Mr. Robert Sackville, for whom especially this my Schoolmaster was provided.

And one thing I would have the reader consider in reading this book, that, because no schoolmaster hath charge of any child before he enter into his school, therefore, I leaving all former care of their good bringing up to wise and good parents, as a matter not belonging to the schoolmaster, I do appoint this my Schoolmaster then and there to begin, where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth not long, but until the scholar be made able to go to the university, to proceed in logic, rhetoric, and other kinds of learning.

Yet, if my Schoolmaster, for love he beareth to his scholar, shall teach him somewhat for his furtherance and better judgment in learning, that may serve him seven year after in the university, he doth his scholar no more wrong, nor deserveth no worse name thereby, than he doth in London, who, selling silk or cloth unto his friend, doth give him better measure than either his promise or bargain was.

Farewell in Christ.

Ascham." There are the clearest testimonies to his gentleness of character, and among the best scholars of Elizabeth's reign, Ascham's English style was hardly in less repute than his Latin. Gabriel Harvey wrote that “the finest wits prefer the loosest period in M. Ascham or Sir Philip Sidney before the tricksiest page in ‘Euphues' or Pap Hatchet.”

John Lyly's "Euphues,” which gave its name to the style in fashion at the time of its appearance and for the rest of the years of Elizabeth's reign, seems partly to have been inspired by a reading of Ascham's * Schoolmaster.” Lyly's age was about twenty-six in 1579, when “Euphues” was published. He was a Kentish man, who speaks of himself as born” in Queen Mary's reign. He became a student of Magdalene College, Oxford, in 1569, took his B.A. degree in 1573, was in 1574 seeking, without success, a fellowship through the help of Cecil, then Lord Burleigh, who became after this time his friend, and found him some employment in his service. In 1575, Lyly commenced M.A., and in the winter of 1578 he wrote “Euphues," which was published

, early in the spring. The fashion of ingenious talk had been brought home to England by the young men travelling in Italy to finish their education. In Italy it had arisen during the decay of liberty and rise of petty tyrannies within the old republics. The Medici at Florence, and other little supreme beings elsewhere, had encouraged talk about literature as a substitute for less convenient talk about politics, had set up as patrons of literature and art, enjoying both to a certain extent, and coming into the inheritance that was the produce of a freer life, they lived in a fruit time, ate and enjoyed the fruit, discussed its flavour with critical elegance, and killed the tree. The fine gentlemen at the little courts of Italy affected wit and talked daintily. Whatever they said must display wit or culture, both at once if possible. An allusion that showed reading, with a turn of thought to it that showed wit, and turns of alliteration and neat balances of word with word that showed in the mere phrase-making a more than vulgar ingenuity, was aimed at even in speaking, and much more in writing. The fashion spread from Italy through Western Europe, and affected literature in England, Spain, and France, but especially in England and Spain, for French literature was then wanting in energy. The fashion having become established by 1579, and Italian love-tales written in this daintily conceited fashion being in high favour with the courtiers, John Lyly thought it not amiss to put into the heads of courtiers sone of the good doctrine he found in Ascham's “Schoolmaster,” but framing it after their own dainty manner in the shape of an Italian novel. Ascham had condemned the corruption of manners introduced by the much going of young Englishmen to Italy, and had dwelt on the deep need of gentleness and earnestness in training of the young.

Those fathers who most needed the lesson were men who would not read a book with “Schoolinaster” for its title, but who might be caught by the bait of a fashionable lovestory. Its hero had a name taken--through Aschamfrom Plato, representing simply a youth apt by nature

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For thou hast saved them, thon, and only thou;
And may the gods grant all that I could wish
To thee and to thy land. For I have found
Here only among men the fear of God,
The righteous purpose, and the truthful word;
And knowing this I pay it back with thanks ;
For what I hide, I have through thee alone.
And now, O prioce, I pray thee, give thy hand
That I may grasp it; and, if that may be,

Kiss thy dear brow." 1 In Plato's “ Theages."

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to be influenced by all impressions from without. abounding in ingenious conceits of fancy and tricks Ascham had represented in “ The Schoolmaster,” of phrase, which represent the outward dress of frorn Plato's “ Republic,” the “seven plain notes to much good English thought under Elizabeth. Inchoose a good wit for a child in learning. He should genuity of the same kind was tried with the pencil be: 1. Euphues, that is to say, by nature well con- as with the pen. Thus a writer illustrated his stituted to receive impressions through each of his comment on the overlaying of pure Christianity senses, with a full use of all powers of the body, and with cerernonials of Rome with an ingenious puzzle to pass knowledge on to others with help of a ready picture of Christ covered. wit, clear voice and goodly presence. 2. Good of There was in such a style among weak writers memory. 3. Given to love learning. 4. Having a

4. Having a a not less obvious overlaying of the first simplicities will to take pains. 5. Glad to hear and learn of of truth. But the times bred vigour, and in Elizaanother. 6. Bold to ask questions. 7. Loving praise beth's days many a good wit could clothe living at his father's or master's hand for well-doing. Lyly breathing thought in a rich robe of conceits that took “Euphues” from this list as the name for his graced its free movement, and heightened rather

than obscured every charm.

The first part of "Euphues" is the complete work. The second and longer part, “ Euphues and his England," published in 1580, was apparently designed

to mitigate some of the severity of the first, and in简

directly deprecate in courtly fashion an interpretation of the author's meaning that might lead to the starvation of his family. In the first part, Lyly satisfied his conscience; in the second part, but still without dishonesty, he satisfied the country and the court.

In the dedication of his first part to Lord de la Warre, Lyly suggests that there may be found in it

more speeches which for gravity will mislike the foolish, than unseemly terms which for vanity may offend the wise." He anticipates some little disfavour from the “fine wits of the day;" and his allusions to “ the dainty ear of the curious sifter,” to the use of “superfluous eloquence," to the search after “ those which sift the finest meal and bear the whitest mouths,” sufficiently show that his own manner was formed upon a previously existing taste. Here it is that a censure occurs which is very significant : “ It is a world to see how Englishmen desire to hear tiner speech than their language will allow, to eat finer bread than is made of wheat, or wear finer cloth than is made of wool; but I let pass their tineness, which can no way excuse my folly."

Euphues was a young gentleman of great patriniony, who dwelt in Athens, and who corresponded

in his readiness of wit and perfectness of body to CARIST COVERED.(From Stephen Bateman's " Doom," 1581.) the quality called Euphues by Plato. Disdaining

counsel, the youth left his own country, and happened hero, and with a profoundly earnest purpose under- to arrive at Naples. “This Naples was a place of lying a quick wit, wrote after the fashion of the day more pleasure than profit, and yet of more profit with such complete success that the style of his book than piety, the very walls and windows whereof was taken as a standard of the form of writing he showed it rather to be the tabernacle of Venus than adopted, which was thence called in Elizabeth's day the temple of Vesta ; a court more meet for an Euphuism. The name is retained in the study of atheist than for one of Athens." Here the youth English literature as a convenient term for the style determined to make his abode, and wanted no com

panions. He welcomed all, but trusted none; and 1 Christ Covered. Below are the pierced feet of Christ, supported by showed so pregnant a wit, that Eubulus, an old Queen Elizabeth's badges. All else is Covered with a Gorgon's head

gentleman of Naples, as one lamenting his wantonness of ceremonial, thus formed :-A cburch bell is the helmet, inlaid with crosses made of swords and fire-brands; its plume is the smoke of a

and loving his wittiness, warned him against the censer ; its ornaments are a mitred wolf devouring sheep, an ass with dangers of a city where he might see drunken sots a book, a goose with a rosary in its bill, and a hog in a square cap, wallowing in every house, in every chamber, devouring. Of the Gorgon's face, paten and flagon make cheek, mouth, and chin; chalice and holy wafer make the eye ; a vesica piscis

yea, in every channel. The speech of good counsel the nose (this was a fish-shaped box used to contain a small image of (which occupies four pages) closed with the solemn Christ or of a saint, because the initials of Greek words for "Jesus admonition,“ Serve God, love God, fear God, and Christ, God's Son, Saviour," when put together, made the Greek for

God will so bless thee as either heart can wish or thy fish). A papal bull and its dependent seal form the curl of hair and the ear. In the shoulders, among Church ornaments, are a pys and a

friends desire." closed Bible with Pope's mitre and keys upon its cover.

Euphues, who was not at this stage of his journey

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through life also pinunoos--glad to learn of another- be in the mouth a pleasant grape. He passed to the accused the old gentleman of churlishness, and inquiry whether men or women be most constant ; proved to him by many similitudes that men's and, accounting it invidious to choose his own side in natures are not alike. The sun doth harden the dirt that argument, undertook to maintain the contrary to and melt the wax ; fire maketh the gold to shine whatever opinion might be given by Lucilla. Lucilla, and the straw to smother; perfumes refresh the dove willing to hear from him praises of her sex, declared and kill the beetle. Black will take no other colour. that women are to be won with every wind. Euphues, The stone asbestos being once made hot will never therefore, began the praise of wonian's constancy, but be made cold. Fire cannot be forced downward. ended abruptly, “neither,” he said, “for want of How can age counsel us who are young, when we good will or lack of proof, but that I feel in myself are contraries? I am not smothered, says the young such alteration that I can scarcely utter one word.” man, by your smoky arguments, “but as the Ah, Euphues, Euphues! The gentlewomen were chameleon, though he have most guts draweth least struck into such a quandary with this sudden change, breath, or as the elder tree, though he be fullest of that they all changed colour. But Euphues, taking pith, is farthest from strength : so though your Philautus. by the hand, and giving the gentlewomen reasons seem inwardly to yourself somewhat sub- thanks for their patience and his repast, bade them stantial, and your persuasions pithy in your own all farewell, and went immediately to his chamber. conceit, yet they are nought.” Here, says Lyly, Lucilla, who now began to fry in the flames of love, ye inay behold, gentlemen, how lewdly wit standeth all the company being departed to their lodgings, in his own light; and he attacks in his own person entered into these terms and contrarieties. Her the censoriousness of men of sharp capacity, who for soliloquy is three pages and a half long, and with the most part“ esteem of themselves as most proper.” its pros and cons of ingenious illustration curiously If one be hard in conceiving, they pronounce him a artificial. Euphues, immediately afterwards, has four dolt ; if given to study, they proclaim him a dunce ; pages and a half of mental conflict to work out in if merry, a jester ; if sad, a saint; if full of words, a similitudes, When he had talked with himself, sot; if without speech, a cipher. If one argue with Philautus entered the chamber, and offering comfort them boldly, then is he impudent; if coldly, an to his mourning friend, was deluded with a tale about innocent; if there be reasoning of divinity they cry, the charms of Livia, Lucilla's friend. From Philautus Quæ supra nos nihil ad nos ; if of humanity, Senten- the false friend sought help in gaining frequent access tias loquitur carnifex. But of himself he confesses, to the lady. “I have ever thought so superstitiously of wit, that Philautus and Euphues therefore repaired together I fear I have committed idolatry against wisdom.” to the house of Ferardo, where they found Mistress

After a two months' sojourn in Naples, Euphues Lucilla and Livia, accompanied with other gentlefound a friend in a young and wealthy town-born women, neither being idle nor well employed, but gentleman named Philautus. Euphues and Philautus playing at cards. Euphues was called upon to reused not only one board, but one bed, one book, if so sume his former discourse upon the fervency of love be it they thought not one too many. Philautus in women. But whilst he was yet speaking, Ferardo had crept into credit with Don Ferardo, one of the entered, and departed again within an hour, carrying chief governors of the city, who although he had a away Philautus, and craving the gentleman, his friend, courtly crew of gentlewomen sojourning in his palace, to supply his room. Philautus knew well the cause yet his daughter Lucilla stained the beauty of them of this sudden departure, which was to redeem certain all. Unto her had Philautus access, who won her by lands that were mortgaged in his father's time to the right of love, and should have worn her by right of use of Ferardo, who, on that condition, had beforetime law, had not Euphues, by strange destiny, broken promised him his daughter in marriage. Euphues the bonds of marriage, and forbidden the banns of was surprised with such incredible joy at this strange matrimony.

event, that he had almost swooned; for, seeing his It happened that Don Ferardo had occasion to go co-rival to be departed, and Ferardo to give him so to Venice about certain of his own affairs, leaving friendly entertainment, he doubted not in time to his daughter the only steward of his household. Her get the good will of Lucilla. Ten pages of love-talk, father being gone, she sent for her friend to supper, unusually rich in similitudes, do in fact bring Euphues who came not alone, but with his friend Euphues, to and Lucilla to a secret understanding.

But “as whom the lady gave cold welcome. When they all Ferardo went in post, so he returned in haste ;' sat down, Euphues fed of one dish, which ever stood and before there was a second meeting of the lovers, before him, the beauty of Lucilla. Supper being

Supper being the young lady's father had, in a speech of a page ended, “the order was in Naples that the gentle-long, containing no similitudes, proposed her immewomen would desire to hear some discourse, either diate marriage to Philautus. Lucilla replied artfully; concerning love or learning; and although Philautus disclaimed more than a playful acquaintance with was requested, yet he posted it over to Euphues, Philautus ; and declared her love for Euphues, to whom he knew most fit for that purpose.”

whom therefore Philautus, after a long soliloquy in Then follows one of the discourses characteristic his own lodgings, wrote a letter. Having received a of what in Elizabeth's day passed for the lighter gibing answer, he disdained all further intercourse portions of this work. Euphues spoke to the with the false friend. question whether qualities of mind or body most Euphues having absented himself from the house awaken love ; declared for mind; and said to the of Ferardo, while Ferardo himself was at home, longed gentlewomen, If you would be tasted for old wine, sore to see Lucilla, which now opportunity offered

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unto him, Ferardo being gone again to Venice with their slibber sauces which bring queasiness to the Philautus. But in this his absence, one Curio, a stomach and disquiet to the mind. Take from them gentleman of Naples, of little wealth and less wit, their periwigs, their paintings, their jewels, their haunted Lucilla, and so enchanted her, that rolls, their bolsterings, and thou shalt soon perceive Euphues was also cast off with Philautus. His that a woman is the least part of herself.” And next conversation with the fickle lady ended therefore Philautus also he admonishes—“Be not too curious thus :-“Farewell, Lucilla, the most inconstant that to curl thy hair, nor careful to be neat in thine ever was nursed in Naples ; farewell Naples, the apparel ; be not prodigal of thy gold, nor precise in most cursed town in all Italy; and women all, thy going ; be not like the Englishman, which prefarewell."

ferreth every strange fashion to the use of his own Euphues talked much to himself when he reached country.” home, lamenting his rejection of the fatherly counsel The “Cooling Card " is followed by a letter “to of Eubulus, and his spending of life in the laps of the grave Matrons and honest Maidens of Italy,” in ladies, of his lands in maintenance of bravery, and the spirit of one who, as he writes, “may love the of his wit in the vanities of idle sonnets. The greatest clear conduit water, though he loathe the muddy wickedness, he found, is drawn out of the greatest ditch. Ulysses, though he detested Calypso with wit, if it be abused by will, or entangled with the her sugared voice, yet he embraced Penelope with world, or inveigled by women. He will endeavour her rude distaff.” It should no more grieve the himself to amend all that is past, and be a mirror true woman to hear censure of woman's folly "than of godliness thereafter, rather choosing to die in his the mintmaster to see the coiner hanged." study amidst his books, than to court it in Italy Increasing in gravity as he proceeds, Euphues in the company of ladies.

founds on the recollection of his misspent youth “a The story is at an end, although the volume is caveat to all parents, how they might bring their not, and Lyly's idle readers, who have caught at his children up in virtue, and a commandment to all bait of a fashionably conceited tale, may now begin youth how they should frame themselves to their to feel the hook with which he angles. Ferardo, father's instructions.” This part of Euphues is, in after vain expostulation with his daughter, died of fact, under the title of “Euphues and his Ephebus," inward grief, leaving her the only heir of his lands, a systematic essay upon education, sound as Ascham's and Curio to possess them. Long afterwards we in its doctrine ; dealing with the management of are incidentally told of the shamelessness of her children from their birth, and advancing to the ideal subsequent life and of her wretched end. Philautus of a university. and Euphues renewed their friendship. Philautus Having reasoned that philosophy-one, in its was earnest to have Euphues tarry in Naples, and teachings, with religion-should be the scholar's Euphues desirous to have Philautus to Athens; but chief object of desire, Euphues delivers home-thrusts the one was so addicted to the court, the other to at the University of Athens, for the license of the the university, that each refused the offer of the scholars, the unseemly fashions of their dress, their other; yet this they agreed between themselves, newly-imported silks and velvets, their courtiers' that though their bodies were by distance of place ways, and their schisms. “I would to God,” he says, severed, yet the communication of their minds was they did not imitate all other nations in the vice to continue.

of the mind as they do in the attire of their body ; The first bit of his mind communicated by the for certainly, as there is no nation whose fashion in experienced Euphues is entitled "A Cooling Card apparel they do not use, so there is no wickedness for Philautus and all fond Lovers." He is ashamed published in any place that they do not practise. ... to have himself been, by reason of an idle love, not Be there not many in Athens which think there is much unlike those abbey lubbers in his life (though no God, no redemption, no resurrection ?" The far unlike them in belief) which laboured till they common people, seeing the licentious lives of students, were cold, ate till they sweat, and lay in bed till say that they will rather send their children to the their bones ached; urges that the sharpest wit cart than to the university ; “ and until I see better inclineth only to wickedness, if it be not exercised; reformation in Athens," Euphues adds, "my young and warns against immoderate sleep, immodest play, Ephebus shall not be nurtured in Athens." unsatiable swilling of wine. He bids Philautus An address to the gentlemen-scholars of Oxford, study physic or law-Galen giveth goods, Justinian prefixed to a subsequent edition of the book, proves honours--or confer all his study, all his time, all his to us that in these passages of Euphues it was treasure, to the attaining of the sacred and sincere believed that Oxford was “ too much defaced or knowledge of divinity. If this be not for him, let defamed :" him employ himself in jousts and tourneys, rather than loiter in love, and spend his life in the laps

any fault be committed," Lyly writes, “impute it to of ladies. When danger is near, let him go into the

Euphues, who knew you not; not to Lyly, who hates you country, look to his grounds, yoke his oxen, follow

Yet
may

I of all the rest most condemn Oxford of his plough, “and reckon not with thyself how many unkindness, of vice I cannot, who seemed to wean me before miles thou hast gone—that showeth weariness; but she brought me forth, and to give me bones to gnaw before I how many thou hast to go—that proveth manliness.”

could get the teat to suck. Wherein she played the nice Of woman's enticing ornaments, says Euphues, “I mother, in sending me into the country to nurse, where I loathe almost to think on their ointments and

tired at a dry breast three years, and was at the last forced apothecary drugs, the sleeking of their faces, and all

to wean myself."

" If

not.

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