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in examination before me. The Lord grant us grace to stand together, fighting lawfully in his cause till we be smitten down together, if the Lord's will be so to permit it: for there shall not a hair of our heads perish against His will, but with His will. Whereunto the Lord grant us to be obedient unto the end, and in the end. Amen. Sweet, mighty, and merciful Lord Jesus, the Son of David and of God. Amen, Amen, let every true Christian say and pray.

Then the clock being, as I guessed, about four, the lord Chancellor said that he and the church must yet use charity with me; what manner of charity it is, all true Christians do well understand, namely, the same that the fox does with

BISHOP Fox, (From Qucen Mary's Prayer Book; British Museum.)

was a usurper, and therefore I was the unjust possessor of them.

Was the king then an usurper, quoth I, who' gave Dr. Ridley the bishopric ?

Yea,' quoth he, and began to set out the wrongs that the king had done to the bishop of London, and to himself also. But yet I do misuse my terms, quoth he, to call the king usurper.—But the word was gone out of the abundance of the heart before; and I think that he was not very sorry for it in heart. I might have said more concerning that matter, but I do not.

I asked him wherefore he put me in prison ? He said, because I preached against the Queen.

I answered, that it was not true; and I would be bound to prove it, and to stand to the trial of the law, that no man should be able to prove it, and thereupon would set my life. I preached, quoth I, a sermon at the cross, after the Queen came to the Tower; but therein was nothing said against the Queen, I take witness of all the audience, which was not small. I alleged also that he had, after examination, let me go at liberty after the preaching of that sermon.

Yea, but thou didst read thy lectures after, quoth he, against the commandment of the Council.

That did I not, quoth I; let that be proved, and let me die for it. Thus have you now against the law of God and man handled me, and never sent for me, never conferred with me, never spoken of any learning, till now that ye have gotten a whip to whip me with, and a sword? to cut off my neck, if I will not condescend to your mind. This charity doth all the world understand.

I might and would have added, if I could have been suffered to speak, that it had been time enough to take away men's livings, and thereto to have imprisoned them, after they had offended the laws: for they are good citizens that break not laws, and worthy of praise and not of punishment. But their purpose is to keep men in prison, until they may catch them in their laws, and so kill them. I could and would have added the example of Daniel, who by a crafty-devised law was cast into the lion's den.

Also, I might have declared, that I most humbly desired to be set at liberty, sending my wife to him (Gardiner) with a supplication, being great with child, and with her eight honest women, or thereabout, to Richmond, at Christmas was a twelvemonth, while I was yet in my house.

Also, I wrote two supplications to him out of Newgate, and sent my wife many times to him. Master Gosnold also, that worthy man, who is now departed in the Lord, laboured for me, and so did divers other worthy men also take pains in the matter. These things declare my lord Chancellor's Antichristian charity, which is, that he hath and doth seek my blood, and the destruction of my poor wife and my ten children.

This is a short sum of the words which were spoken on the 28th day of January at afternoon, after that master Hooper had been the first, and master Cardmaker' the second,

the chickens, and the wolf with the lambs, and he gave me respite till to-morrow, to see whether I would remember myself well to-morrow, and whether I would return to the Catholic Church, for so he called his Antichristian false church again, and repent, and they would receive me to mercy.

I said, that I was never out of the true Catholic Church, nor would be: but into his church would I by God's grace

never come.

Well, quoth he, then is our church false and Antichristian ? Yes, quoth I.

And what is the doctrine of the sacrament ? False, quoth I; and cast my hands abroad.

Then said ore, that I was a player. To whom I answered not; for I passed not upon his mock.

Come again, quoth the lord Chancellor, to-morrow, between nine and ten.

I am ready to come again, whensoever ye call, quoth I.

And thus was I brought by the sheriffs to the compter in Southwark, master Hooper going before me, and a great multitude of people being present, so that we had much to do to go in the streets.

Thus much was done the 28th day of January.

The second day, which was the 29th of January, we were sent for in the morning, about nine of the clock, and by the sheriffs fetched from the compter in Southwark to the church again, where we were the day before in the afternoon. And when master Hooper was condemned, as I understood afterwards, then sent they for me. Then the lord Chancellor said unto me :

Rogers, here thou wast yesterday, and we gave thee liberty to remember thyself this night, whether thou

1 Yen, in answer to an affirmative question. (See note 3, page 35.)

2 Till ye have gotten a whip ... and a sword. The laws of Richard II., Henry IV., and Henry V. against heretics had been repealed, but were revived by an Act which was brought into the House of Commons on the 12th of December, 1554, and was passed by the Lords six weeks afterwards, that is to say, about six weeks before the date of Rogers's reference to it.

3 John Hooper, Bishop of Worcester, had been brought before Gar. diner at his house in Southwark on the 22nd of January, refused to acknowledge the Pope's supremacy, and was recommitted to the Fleet. On the 28th he had been summoned again before the Commissioners in the Church of St. Mary Overies, Southwark, then committed, like Rogers, to the Counter in Southwark till next morning, the 20th,

the second day also of this second examination of John Rogers. Both cases were then disposed of, by excommunication and delivery to the secular arm. Rogers was burnt at Smithfield on the 4th of the next February, Hooper at Gloucester on the 9th, and Cardmaker, who had been prebendary of Wells, was burnt in Smithfield on the 30th of May.

* Yes. Replying to the negative proposition, not true and not Christian

wouldest come to the holy Catholic Church of Christ again, or not. Tell us now, what thou hast determined, whether thou wilt be repentant and sorry, and wilt return again and

take mercy.

My lord, quoth I, I have remembered myself right well, what you yesterday said to me, and desire you to give me leave to declare my mind, what I have to say thereunto; and that done, I shall answer you to your demanded question.

When I yesterday desired that I might be suffered by the Scriptures, and authority of the first, best, and purest Church, to defend my doctrine by writing, meaning not only of the primacy, but also of all the doctrine that ever I had preached, ye answered me, that it might not, and ought not to be granted me, for I was a private person; and that the parliament was above the authority of all private persons, and therefore the sentence thereof might not be found faulty and valueless by me, being only a private person. And yet, my lord, quoth I, I am able to show examples, that one man hath come into a General Council, and after the whole had determined and agreed upon an act or article, some one man coming in afterwards, hath by the Word of God, declared so pithily that the Council had erred in decreeing the said article, that he caused the whole Council to change, and alter their act or article before determined. And of these examples, I am able to show two.

I can also show the authority of Augustine ; that when he disputed with a heretic, he would neither himself nor yet have the heretic to lean unto the determination of the two former Councils, of the which the one made for him, and the other for the heretic that disputed against him; but said that he would have the Scriptures to be their judge, which were common and indifferently for them both, and not proper to either of them.

Also, I could show, said I, the authority of a learned lawyer (Panormitanus),' who saith, that unto a simple layman who brings the Word of God with him, there ought more credit to be giren, than to a whole Council gathered together. By these things will I prove that I ought not to be denied to say my mind, and to be heard against a whole parliament, bringing the Word of God for me and the authority of the old Church four hundred years after Christ, albeit that every man in the parliament had willingly and without respect of fear and favour agreed thereunto, which I doubt not a little of; especially seeing the like had been permitted in that old Church, even in general Councils, yea, and that in one of the chiefest Councils that ever was, urto which neither any acts of this parliament, nor yet any of the late general Councils of the bishops of Rome, ought to be compared. For, said I, if Henry the Eighth were alive, and should call a parliament, and begin to determine a thing (and here I would have alleged the example of the act of making the Queen a bastard, and of making himself the superior head; but I could not, being interrupted by one whom God forgive), then will ye (pointing to my lord Chan. cellor), and ye, and ye, and so ye all (pointing to the rest of the bishops), say Amen; yea, and if it like your grace, it is meet that it be so enacted.

Here my lord Chancellor would suffor me to speak no more, but bade me sit down, mockingly saying, that I was sent

for to be instructed of them, and I would take upon me to be their instructor.

My lord, quoth I, I stand and sit not-shall I not be suffered to speak for my life?

Shall we suffer thee to tell a tale, and to prate ? quoth he. - And with that he stood up, and began to face me, after his old arrogant proud fashion; for he perceived that I was in a way to have touched them somewhat, which he thought to hinder by dashing me out of my tale, and so he did. For I could never be suffered to come to my tale again, no, not to one word of it; but he had much like communication with me, as he had the day before, and as his manner is, taurt upon taunt, and check upon check. For in that case, being God's cause, I told him he should not make me afraid to speak.

See, what a spirit this fellow hath, said he; finding fault at mine accustomed earnestness, and hearty manner of speaking

I have a true spirit, quoth I, agreeing and obeying the Word of God; and would further have said, that I was nerer the worse, but the better, to be earnest in a just and true cause, and in my Master Christ's matters; but I could not be heard.

And at length he proceeded towards his excommunication and condemnation, after that I had told him that his Church of Rome was the Church of Antichrist, meaning the false doctrine and tyrannical laws, with the maintenance thereof by cruel persecutions used by the bishops of the said church, of which the bishop of Winchester and the rest of his fellowbishops that are now in England are the chief members : of the laws I mean, quoth I, and not all the men and women which are in the Pope's Church.

Likewise, when I was said to have denied their sacrament, whereof he made his wonted reverent mention, more to maintain his kingdom thereby than for the true reverence of Christ's institution; more for his own and his popish generation's sake, than for religion or God's sake-I told him after what order I did speak of it; for the manner of his speaking was not agreeing to my words, which are before recited in the communication that we had on the 28th of January; wherewith he was not contented, but he asked the audience whether I had not simply denied the sacrament. They would have said and done what he listed, for the most of them were of his own servants at that day; the 29th of January I mean. At the last I said, I will never deny what I said, which is, That your doctrine of the sacrament is false; but yet I tell you after what order I said it.

To be short, he read my condemnation before me, particularly mentioning therein but two articles; first, that I affirmed the Romish Catholic Church to be the Church of Antichrist; and that I denied the reality of their sacraments. He caused me to be degraded and condemned, and put into the hands of the laity, and so he gave me over into the sheriffs' hands, which were much better than his.

[Rogers here adds in Latin, and I give in English, with omission of a central lump of verbiage,]

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The Sentence.

1 Panormitanus. Antonio Beccadelli, of Palermo, lawyer, crator, and poet, died in 1471. When serving Alfonso of Arragon, King of Naples, he was sent in 1451 on a mission to Venice to obtain an armbone of Livy, in which negotiation he succeeded. He is said also to have sold an estate that he might buy for himself a discovered text of Livy,

In the name of God, Amen. We, Stephen, hy the permission of God, bishop of Winchester, lawfully and rightly proceeding, with all godly favour, by authority and virtue of our office, against thee, John Rogers, priest, alias called Mathew, before us personally here present, being accused and detected, and notoriously slandered of heresy; having heard, seen, and understood, and with all diligent delibera. tion, weighed, discussed, and considered the merits of the

cause, all things being observed, which by us in this behalf conversion of the hereties, to the unity of the catholic faitb), in order of law ought to be observed, sitting in our judgment by this our sentence definitive, which we here lay upon and seat, the name of Christ being first called upon, and having against thee, and do with sorrow of heart promulgate in this God only before our eyes : Because, by the acts enacted, form aforesaid. propounded, and exhibited in this matter, and by thine own confession, judicially made before us, we do tind that thou

After this sentence being read, he sent us, master Hooper, hast taught, holden, and affirmed, and bstinately defended,

I mean, and me, to the Clink, there to remain till night; divers errors, heresies, and damnable opinions, contrary to

and when it was dark they carried us, master Hooper going the doctrine and determination of the holy church; as,

before with the one sheriff, and I coming after with the namely, these, that the Catholic Church of Rome is the

other, with bills and weapons enough, out of the Clink, and Church of Antichrist; also, that in the sacrament of

led us through the bishop's house, and so through St. Mary's the altar there is not, substantially nor really, the natural

churchyard, and so into Southwark, and over the bridge, in body and blood of Christ.

We therefore, procession to Newgate, through the city. But I must show albeit, following the example of Christ, which would not

you this also, that when he had read the condemnation, he the death of a sinner, but rather that he should convert

declared that I was in the great curse, and what a vengeable and live, we have gone about oftentimes to correct thee, and

dangerous matter it was to eat and drink with us that were by all lawful means that we could, and all wholesome

accursed, or to give us any thing; for all that did so, should admonitions that we did know, to reduce thee again unto

be partakers of the same great curse. the true faith and unity of the Universal Catholic Church,

Well, my lord, quoth I, here I stand before God and you, notwithstanding have found thee obstinate and stiff-necked,

and all this honourable audience, and take Him to witness, willingly continuing in thy damnable opinions and heresies,

that I never wittingly or willingly taught any false doctrine; and refusing to return again unto the true faith and unity

and therefore have I a good conscience before God and all of the holy mother church; and as the child of wickedness

good men. I am sure that you and I shall come before a and darkness thou hast so hardened thy heart, that thou wilt

Judge that is righteous, before whom I shall be as good a not understand the voice of thy shepherd, which with a

man as you; and I nothing doubt but that I shall be found fatherly affection doth seek after thee, nor will be allured

there a true member of the true Catholic Church of Christ, with his fatherly and godly admonitions.—We, therefore,

and everlastingly saved. And as for your false church, you Stephen, the bishop aforesaid, not willing that thou, which

need not excommunicate me forth of it. I have not been in art wicked, shouldst now become more wicked, and infect the

it these twenty years, the Lord be thanked therefore! But Lord's flock with thy heresy, which we are greatly afraid

now ye have done what you can, my lord, I pray you yet of, with sorrow of mind and bitterness of heart do judge thee,

grant me one thing. and definitively condemn thee, the said John Rogers, otherwise

What is that ? quoth he. called Mathew, thy demerits and defaults being aggravated

That my poor wife, being a stranger, may come and speak through thy damnable obstinacy, as guilty of most detestable

with me so long as I live. For she hath ten children that heresies, and as an obstinate impenitent sinner, refusing

are hers and mine; and somewhat I would counsel her what

were best for her to do. penitently to return to the lap and unity of the holy mother church, and that thou hast been and art by law excommu

No, quoth he; she is not thy wife. nicate, and do pronounce and declare thee to be an excom.

Yes, my lord, quoth I, and hath been these eighteen years. municated person. Also we pronounce and declare thee,

Should I grant her to be thy wife? quoth he. being a heretic, to be cast out from the church, and left unto

Choose you, quoth 1, whether you will or not, she shall be the judgment of the secular power, and now presently do

so, nevertheless. leave thee as an obstinate heretic, and a person wrapped in

She shall not come at thee, quoth he. the sentence of the great curse, to be degraded worthily

Then I have tried out all your charity, said I. You make for thy demerits (requiring them, notwithstanding, in the

yourself highly displeased with the matrimony of priests, bowels of our Lord Jesus Christ, that this execution and

- Thereto he answered not, but looked, as it were, punishment worthily to be done upon thee, may so be

a-squint at it; and thus I departed, and saw him for the moderated, that the rigour thereof be not too extreme, nor

last time. yet the gentleness too much mitigated, but that it may be Here follows a plain statement of what stood in place of marriage to the salvation of thy soul, to the extirpation, terror, and among many of the clergy.



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The chief strength of our literature was still in its good place. I was glad, then, and do rejoice yet to remember, verse during Elizabeth's reign, but the growing that my chance was so happy to be there that day, in the energies of the country, spent abundantly on thought company of so many wise and good men together, as hardly that touched men to the quick, added their own

then could have been picked out again out of all England beauty and force also to English prose. A fashion

beside. spread from Italy through Europe which caused

Mr. Secretary' hath this accustomed manner; though his nearly all writing to be overlaid with ingenuities of

head be never so full of most weighty affairs of the realm, thought and style; but in England the fresh life of

yet at dinner-time he doth seem to lay them always aside ; the time gave dignity to any dress. Men slit their

and findeth ever fit occasion to talk pleasantly of other clothes for ornament, and padded them into deformity;

matters, but most gladly of some matter of learning, wherein they caught from abroad arts of false dignity, but

he will courteously hear the mind of the meanest at his

table. had at home the true ; no art, but a possession native

Not long after our sitting down, “I have strange news to the soil and time. In literature, and in many of the outward forms of life, our fashions in Elizabeth's

brought me,” saith Mr. Secretary, “this morning, that divers time came from Italy. Roger Ascham, who remained

scholars of Eton be run away from the school for fear of under Elizabeth still Latin Secretary, died in 1568,

beating.” Whereupon, Mr. Secretary took occasion to wish

that some more discretion were in many schoolmasters in aged fifty-three. His widow two years after his

using correction, than commonly there is; who many times death published his chief prose work, " The School

punish rather the weakness of nature than the fault of the master.” It was begun in 1563, for a reason which

scholar; whereby many scholars, that might else prove well, is thus told by his own preface to the book :

be driven to hate learning before they know what learning

meaneth; and so are made willing to forsake their book, and ROGER ASCHAM'S PREFACE TO THE SCHOOLMASTER.” be glad to be put to any other kind of living. When the great plague was at London, the year 1563,

Mr. Petre,” as one somewhat severe of nature, said plainly, the queen's majesty, Queen Elizabeth, lay at her castle of

1 Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh, was 43 years old in Windsor, where, upon the tenth day of December, it fortuned, Born in Lincolnshire, and educated at Cambridge, he began that in Sir William Cecil's chamber, her highness's prin- life with the study of law, but made his way at Court and became a cipal secretary, there dined together these personages :

Secretary of State under Edward VI. Though he held no office under Mr. Secretary himself, Sir William Petre, Sir J. Mason, D.

Mary, he escaped persecution. Elizabeth, upon her accession, took

him for her chief political adviser, as Secretary of State and Privy Wotton, Sir Richard Sackville, treasurer of the exchequer, Councillor, and firmly trusted him until his death, in 1598. Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer, Mr. * Sir William Petre was about 60 in 1563. He was William Petre, Haddon, master of requests, Mr. John Astley, master of the son of a rich tanner, of Tor-Bryan, in Devonshire, entered to Exeter jewel-house, Mr. Bernard Hampton, Mr. Nicasius, and I.

College, Oxford, but became Fellow of All Souls in 1523. He afterwards Of which number the most part were of Her Majesty's most

became successively Principal of Peckwater's Inn, one of the Visitors

of Religions Houses when they were being dissolved, Master of the honourable Privy Council, and the rest serving her in very Requests and a Knight, Secretary and one of the Privy Council tu


That the rod only was the sword, that must keep the school in obedience, and the scholar in good order. Mr. Wotton,' a man mild of nature, with soft voice and few words, inclined to Mr. Secretary's judgment, and said, “In mine opinion, the school-house should be in deed, as it is called by name, the house of play and pleasure, and not of fear and bondage ; and, as I do remember, so saith Socrates in one place of Plato. And therefore, if the rod carry the fear of a sword, it is no marvel if those that be fearful of nature, choose rather to forsake the play, than to stand always within the fear of a śword in a fondman's handling."

Mr. Mason, after his manner, was very merry with both parties, pleasantly playing both with the shrewd touches of many curst* boys, and with the smali discretion of many lewd schoolmasters. Mr. Haddon • was fully of Mr. Petre's opinion, and said that the best schoolmaster of our time was the greatest beater, and named the person. • Though,” quoth I, “it was his good fortune to send from his school unto the University one of the best scholars indeed of all our time, yet wise men do think, that that came so to pass, rather by the great towardness of the scholar, than by the great beating of the master: and whether this be true or no, you yourself are best witness.”6 I said somewhat farther in the matter, how, and why young children were sooner allured by love than driven by beating, to attain good learning; wherein I was the bolder to say my mind, because Mr. Secretary courteously provoked me thereunto; or else in such a company, and namely in his presence, my

wont is, to be more willing to use mine ears than to occupy my tongue.

Sir Walter Mildmay, Mr. Astley, and the rest, said very little; only Sir Richard Sackville7 said nothing at all. After dinner, I went up to read with the queen's Majesty. We read then together in the Greek tongue, as I well remember, that noble oration of Demosthenes against Æschines, for his false dealing in his embassage to king Philip of Mace. donia. Sir Richard Sackville came up soon after, and finding me in her Majesty's privy-chamber, he took me by the hand, and carrying me to a window, said: “Mr. Ascham, I would not for a good deal of money have been this day absent from dinner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gave as good ear, and do consider as well the talk that passed, as any one did there. Mr. Secretary said very wisely, and most truly, that many young wits be driven to hate learning, before they know what learning is. I can be good witness to this myself; for a fond schoolmaster, before I was fully fourteen years old, drave me so with fear of beating from all love of learning, as now, when I know what difference it is, to have learning, and to have little or none at all, I feel it my greatest grief, and find it my greatest hurt that ever came to me, that it was my so ill chance to light upon so lewd a schoolmaster. But seeing it is but in vain to lament things past, and also wisdom to look to things to come, surely, God willing, if God lend me life, I will make this my mishap some occasion of good hap to little Robert Sackville, my son's son. For whose bringing up, I would gladly, if it so please you, use especially your good advice. I hear say you have a son much of his age; we will thus deal together: point you out a schoolmaster, who by your order shall teach my son and yours, and for all the rest I will provide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred pounds by year; and beside, you shall find me as fast a friend to you and yours, as perchance any you have.” Which promise the worthy gentleman surely kept with me until his dying day.

We had then farther talk together of bringing up of children, of the nature of quick and hard wits, of the right choice of a good wit, of fear and love in teaching children. We passed from children and came to young men, namely* gentlemen : we talked of their too much liberty to live as they lust; of their letting loose too soon to overmuch experience of ill, contrary to the good order of many good old commonwealths of the Persians and Greeks; of wit gathered, and good fortune gotten by some, only by experience without learning. And, lastly, he required of me very earnestly to show what I thought of the common going of Englishmen into Italy. “But,” saith he, “because this place, and this time will not suffer so long talk, as these good matters require, therefore I pray you, at my request, and at your leisure, put in some order of writing the chief points of this our talk, concerning the right order of teaching, and honesty of living, for the good bringing up of children and young men; and surely, beside contenting me, you shall

King Henry VIII. and Edward VI.; Sub-treasurer and afterwards Treasurer of the First Fruits and Tenths to Edward VI., Secretary of the Privy Council to Queen Mary and Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, and finally Privy Councillor under Elizabeth. He was in high repate for learning, and often sent on foreign embassies. He died in 1571.

i Mr. Wotton may have been Henry, son of Edward Wotton, who had been pbysician to Henry VIII., and was very famous in his profession. Dr. Edward Wotton died in 1555. His son Henry, Greek Reader and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, served as Proctor to his University, afterwards (in 1567) proceeded in the Faculty of Physic, and also acquired a high place in his profession.

Fond, foolish. 3 Sir John Mason was born at Abingdon, Berks, the son of a cowherd who had married the sister of a monk. His uncle, the monk, finding John Mason apt to learn, had him well educated and sent him to Oxford, where he became a Fellow of All Souls. His ability attracted notice, and, by advice of Sir Thomas More, Henry VIII. sent him to continue his studies at the University of Paris, and, after his return, not only knighted him and employed him on embassies, but made him a Privy Councillor. Under Edward VI. he was still Privy Councillor, and held church preferments, including the Deanery of Winchester. In 1552 he became Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and held that office until 1556, when he resigned it in favour of Cardinal Pole. He had given np his deanery of Winchester in the first year of Mary's reign, and remained in the Privy Council under Mary and Elizabeth. In 1559 he was again elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and when at the dinner of which Ascham tells, not only held that office, but was also Treasurer of the Queen's Chamber. He died in 1566.

• Curst, ill-natured.

3 Walter Haddon was educated at Eton, and went to Cambridge, where he had a scholarship at King's College. He became Professor of Civil Law in his University, acquired great fame for learning, and as he was an earnest reformer, he was made, in Edward VI.'s reign, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, but only held that office for a gear. He avoided notice during Mary's reign, but was employed on embassies by Elizabeth, and made one of her Masters of Requests. He wrote several books, and among them (published in 1567) was a volume of Latin Poems. He died in 1571.

6 Walter Haddon left Eton just before the time of Nicholas Udall, who was head master there from 1534 to 1541. But U dall kept up the customs of his predecessor in this respect. It is of Udall that Tusser wrote :" From Paul's I went to Eton sent, to learn straightways the Latin

Where fifty-three stripes given to me at once I had.
For fault but small, or none at all, it came to pass thus beat I was :
Sve, Udall, see, the meros of thee to me poor lad."

7 Richard Sackville, eldest son of John Sackville and Aune, daughter of Sir William Boleyn, had left Cambridge without taking a degree, then studied law in Gray's Inn, was called to the bar, and became Treasurer of the Army under Henry VIII., froin whom he had large grants of Abbey lands. He was knighted in 1548, and held various lucrative offices. Although he was Roman Catholic, Queen Elizabeth, whose first cousin he was, had made him a Privy Councillor. He died in 1566, after a career of successful money-getting that had won for him the name of “Fill-sack." His son Thomas, born in 1536, became famous as poet and statesman, and was the Thomas Sackville, afterwards Lord Buckhurst, who in 1563 h'd lately written the best part of the first English tragedy. Sir Richard's interest is in the education of the poet's son.

& Namely, especially,

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