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before, taking the ancient name of the town beside the in the window of a castle and to see a battle and the advenfamily seat at Gorhambury, and in January, 1621, he tures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the was made Viscount, with his title derived from the standing upon the vantage ground of truth (a hill not to be later name of the town-Viscount St. Albans.

commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene), In March followed his fall. In May, 1621, he was

and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and temsentenced, and thenceforth he withdrew from political pests, in the vale below.” So always, that this prospect be life. His last five years were spent in the worthiest

with pity, and not with swelling or pride. Certainly it is use of his intellect. Bacon was, however, among

heaven upon earth to have a man's mind move in charity, those who sought the office of Provost of Eton, which

rest in Providence, and turn upon the poles of truth. was given to Sir Henry Wotton. In 1625, the

To pass from theological and philosophical truth, to the

truth of civil business : it will be acknowledged, even by those year before his death, he published the third edition

that practise it not, that clear and round dealing is the of his Essays, leaving them perfected to the utmost

honour of man's nature; and that mixture of falsehood is like of his power. Of the Essays, as they were then

alloy in coin of gold and silver ; which may make the metal published, these are three :

work the better, but it embaseth it. For these winding and

crooked courses are the goings of the serpent, which goeth ESSAYS OF BACON, 1625.

basely upon the belly, and not upon the feet. There is no Of Truth.

vice that doth so cover a man with shame, as to be found “What is truth?” said jesting Pilate; and would not stay for

false, and perfidious. And therefore Montaigne saith prettily* an answer. Certainly there be that delight in giddiness, and

when he inquired the reason why the word of the lie should count it a bondage to fix a belief; affecting freewill in thinking

be such a disgrace and such an odious charge ? Saith he, “ If as well as in acting. And though the sects of philosophers of

it be well weighed, to say that a man lieth is as much to say

as that he is brave towards God and a coward towards men.” that kind be gone, yet there remain certain discoursing wits, which are of the same veins, though there be not so much

For a lie faces God and shrinks from man. Surely the blood in them, as was in those of the ancients. But it is not

wickedness of falsehood, and breach of faith, cannot possibly only the difficulty and labour which men take in finding out

be so highly expressed, as in that it shall be the last peal to of truth ; nor, again, that when it is found, it imposeth upon

call the judgments of God upon the generations of men ; it men's thoughts; that doth bring lies in favour : but a natural,

being foretold that when Christ cometh He shall not find faith though corrupt love of the lie itself. One of the later school

upon the earth. of the Grecians, examineth the matter, and is at a stand, to

Of Friendship. think what should be in it, that men should love lies; where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets; nor for advan

It had been hard for him that spake it, to have put more tage, as with the merchant; but for the lie's sake. But I truth and untruth together, in few words, than in that speech: cannot tell: this same truth is a naked and open daylight, “Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a that doth not show the masks, and mummeries, and triumphs god."" For it is most true that a natural and secret hatred and of the world half so stately and daintily as candlelights.

aversation towards society in any man hath somewhat of the Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl that showeth savage beast; but it is most untrue that it should have any best by day: but it will not rise to the price of a diamond or

character at all of the divine nature, except it proceed, not carbuncle that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of out of a pleasure in solitude, but out of a love and desire to a lie doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man doubt that if

sequester a man's self for a higher conversation, such as is there were taken out of men's minds vain opinions, flattering

found to have been falsely and feignedly in some of the hopes, false valuations, imaginations as one would, and the

heathen; as Epimenides, the Candian; Numa, the Roman ; like; but it would leave the minds of a number of men poor

Empedocles, the Sicilian; and Apollonius, of Tyana ; and, shrunken things, full of melancholy and indisposition, and

truly and really, in divers of the ancient hermits and holy unpleasing to themselves ? One of the fathers in great fathers of the Church. But little do men perceive what soliseverity called poesy, Finum Dæmonum,' because it filleth the

tude is, and how far it extendeth. For a crowd is not company, imagination, and yet it is but with the shadow of a lie. But and faces are but a gallery of pictures; and talk but a tinkling it is not the lie that passeth through the mind, but the lie

cymbal, where there is no love. The Latin adage meeteth that sinketh in, and settleth in it, that doth the hurt, such as

with it a little: "Magna civitas, magna solitudo;" 6 because in a we spake of before. But howsoever these things are thus, in

great town friends are scattered, so that there is not that men's depraved judgments and affections, yet truth, which fellowship, for the most part, which is in less neighbourhoods. only doth judge itself, teacheth that the inquiry of truth,

But we may go further, and affirm most truly that it is a which is the love-making or wooing of it; the knowledge of

mere and miserable solitude, to want true friends, without truth, which is the presence of it; and the belief of truth, which

which the world is but a wilderness: and even in this sense is the enjoying of it; is the sovereign good of human nature.

also of solitude, whosoever in the frame of his nature and The first creature of God, in the works of the days, was the light affections is unfit for friendship, he taketh it of the beast, and of the sense ; the last was the light of reason; and His sabbath

not from humanity. work ever since is the illumination of His spirit. First He

A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and discharge of breathed light upon the face of the matter or chaos; then He the fulness and swellings of the heart, which passions of all breathed light into the face of man; and still He breatheth kinds do cause and induce. We know diseases of stoppings and inspireth light into the face of His chosen. The poet, and suffocations are the most dangerous in the body; and it that beautified the sect 3 that was otherwise inferior to the rest,

is not much otherwise in the mind. You may take sarza to saith yet excellently well : “ It is a pleasure to stand upon the open the liver; steel to open the spleen; flowers of sulphur shore and to see ships tossed upon the sea : a pleasure to stand

Essais, Liv. II., chap. xviii. Du Desmentir. 1 Wine of Demons (Augustine).

3 Lucretius.

5 Aristotle, “Ethics," Bkviii. 3 The Epicureins.

• A great city, a great solitude.


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for the lungs; castoreum for the brain; but no receipt openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, counsels, and whatsoever lieth upon the heart, to oppress it, in a kind of civil shrift or confession.

It is a strange thing to observe how high a rate great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of friendship, whereof we speak, so great, as they purchase it many times at the hazard of their own safety and greatness. For princes, in regard of the distance of their fortune from that of their subjects and servants, cannot gather this fruit; except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons to be, as it were, companions and almost equals to themselves, which many times sorteth to inconvenience. The modern languages give unto such persons the name of favourites, or privadoes, as if it were matter of grace or conversation. But the Roman name attaineth the true use and cause thereof, naming them participes curarum;' for it is that which tieth the knot. And we see plainly that this hath been done, not by weak and passionate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned; who have often. times joined to themselves some of their servants, whom both themselves have called friends, and allowed others likewise to call them in the same manner, using the word which is received between private men.

L. Sylla, when he commanded Rome, raised Pompey (after surnamed the Great) to that height that Pompey vaunted himself for Sylla's overmatch. For when he had carried the consulship for a friend of his against the pursuit of Sylla, and that Sylla did a little resent thereat, and began to speak great, Pompey turned upon him again, and in effect bade him be quiet : for that more men adored the sun rising than the sun setting. With Julius Cæsar, Decimus Brutus had obtained that interest, as he set him down in his testament for heir in remainder after his nephew. And this was the man that had power with him to draw him forth to his death; for when Cæsar would have discharged the Senate, in regard of some ill presages, and especially a dream of Calpurnia, this man lifted him gently by the arm out of his chair, telling him he hoped he would not dismiss the senate till his wife had dreamt a better dream. And it seemeth his favour was so great, as Antonius in a letter, which is recited verbatim in one of Cicero's Philippics,3 calleth him“ venefica," witch, as if he had enchanted Cæsar. Augustus raised Agrippa (though of mean birth) to that height, as, when he consulted with Mæcenas about the marriage of his daughter Julia, Mæcenas took the liberty to tell him that he must either marry his daughter to Agrippa, or take away his life; there was no third way, he had made him so great. With Tiberius Cæsar, Sejanus had ascended to that height as they two were termed and reckoned as a pair of friends. Tiberius in a letter to him saith: “Hæc pro amicitiâ nostrâ non occultavi "';* and the whole Senate dedicated an altar to Friendship, as to a goddess, in respect of the great dearness of friendship between them two. The like, or more, was between Septimius Severus and Plautianus; for he forced his eldest son to marry the daughter of Plautianus, and would often maintain Plautianus in doing affronts to his son; and did write also in a letter to the senates by these words : "I love the man so well as I wish he may over-live me.” Now if these princes had bee Trajan, or a Marcus Aurelius, a man might have thought

that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of nature; but being men so wise, of such strength and severity of mind, and so extreme lovers of themselves, as all these were, it proveth most plainly that they found their own felicity (though as great as ever happened to mortal men) but as an half piece, except they might have a friend to make it entire; and yet, which is more, they were princes that had wives, sons, nephews; and yet all these could not supply the comfort of friendship.

It is not to be forgotten what Commineus observeth of his first master, Duke Charles the Hardy, namely, that he would communicate his secrets with none, and least of all those secrets which troubled him most. Whereupon he goeth on, and saith, that towards his latter time, that closeness did impair and a little perish his understanding. Surely Commineus might have made the same judgment also, if it had pleased him, of his second master, Louis XI., whose closeness was indeed his tormentor. The parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true: “ Cor ne edito,” eat not the heart. Certainly, if a man would give it a hard phrase, those that want friends to open themselves unto are cannibals of their own hearts. But one thing is most admirable (wherewith I will conclude this first fruit of friendship), which is, that this communicating of a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects: for it redoubleth joys and cutteth griefs in halves. For there is no man that imparteth his joys to his friend but he joyeth the more; and no man that imparteth his griefs to his friend, but he grieveth the less. So that it is, in truth of

ration upon a man's mind, of like virtue, as the alchymists used to attribute to their stone, for man's body: that it worketh all contrary effects, but still to the good and benefit of nature. But yet, without praying in aid of alchymists, there is a manifest image of this in the ordinary course of nature. For in bodies union strengtheneth and cherisheth any natural action; and on the other side, weakeneth and dulleth any violent impression; and even so is it of minds.

The second fruit of friendship is healthful and sovereign for the understanding as the first is for the affections. For friendship maketh indeed a fair day in the affections from storm and tempest : but it maketh daylight in the understanding out of darkness and confusion of thoughts. Neither is this to be understood only of faithful counsel which a man receiveth from his friend. But before you come to that, certain it is that whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, his wits and understanding do clarify and break up in the communicating and discoursing with another. He tosseth his thoughts more easily ; he marshalleth them more orderly ; he seeth how they look when they are turned into words; finally, he waxeth wiser than himself, and that more by an hour's discourse than by a day's meditation. It was well said by Themistocles to the King of Persia, that speech was like cloth of arras, opened and put abroad, whereby the imagery


6 Philippe de Commines began his career at the court of Charles le Hardi, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and was drawn, in 1472, from the service of Charles into the service of Louis XI., who gave him his confidence and treated him with great familiarity. Cominines, therefore, had no personal reason to record “the same judgment also of his second master."

Quoted in Plutarch's treatise on “ Education." 8 Praying in, inviting ; " praying in aid” was a law term for the calling in of help to a cause from one who has interest in it. So Pro. culeius says to Cleopatra ("Ant. and CI.," Act v., sc. 2) :

“You shall find
A conqueror that will pray in aid for kindness,

When he is kneeled to."
Hanmer first pointed out the meaning of the phrase in this passage of

as a

9 Plutarch's Life of Themistocles.

i Care-sharers.

* These illustrations are from Plutarch's Lives of Pompey and Cæsar.

3 Cic. " Philipp.” xiii. 11.
* These things, because of our friendship, I have not concealed.
5 Dion. Cass. lxxv,


doth appear in figure ; whereas in thoughts they lie but as but overthroweth your health in some other kind, and so cure in packs. Neither is this second fruit of friendship, in opening the disease and kill the patient. But a friend that is wholly the understanding, restrained only to such friends as are able acquainted with a man's estate will beware by furthering any to give a man counsel (they indeed are best), but even without present business how he dasheth upon other inconvenience. that a man learneth of himself and bringeth his own thoughts And therefore rest not upon scattered counsels; they will to light, and whetteth his wits as against a stone which itself rather distract and mislead, than settle and direct. cuts not. In a word, a man were better relate himself to a After these two noble fruits of friendship (peace in the statue, or picture, than to suffer his thoughts to pass in affections, and support of the judgment), followeth the last smother.

fruit, which is like the pomegranate, full of many kernels : Add now, to make this second fruit of friendship complete, I mean aid, and bearing a part in all actions and occasions. that other point, which lieth more open, and falleth within Here, the best way to represent to life the manifold use of vulgar observation, which is faithful counsel from a friend. friendship, is to cast and see how many things there are Heraclitus saith well, in one of his enigmas, Dry light is ever which a man cannot do himself; and then it will appear that the best.? And certain it is that the light that a man receiveth it was a sparing speech of the ancients to say, that a friend by counsel from another is drier and purer than that which is another himself :3 for that a friend is far more than himself. cometh from his own understanding and judgment, which is Men have their time, and die many times in desire of some ever infused and drenched in his affections and customs. So things which they principally take to heart: the bestowing as there is as much difference between the counsel that a of a child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If friend giveth and that a man giveth himself, as there is be- have a true friend, he may rest almost secure that the care of tween the counsel of a friend and of a flatterer. For there is those things will continue after him. So that a man hath, as no such flatterer as is a man's self; and there is no such it were, two lives in his desires. A man hath a body, and remedy against flattery of a man's self as the liberty of a friend. that body is confined to a place; but where friendship is, all Counsel is of two sorts: the one concerning manners, the other offices of life are, as it were, granted to him and his deputy. concerning business. For the first, the best preservative to For he may exercise them by his friend. How many things keep the mind in health is the faithful admonition of a friend. are there which a man cannot, with any face or comeliness, say The calling of a man's self to a strict account is a medicine or do himself? A man can scarce allege his own merits with sometimes too piercing and corrosive. Reading good books modesty, much less extol them. A man cannot sometimes of morality is a little flat and dead. Observing our faults in brook to supplicate or beg; and a number of the like. But all others is sometimes unproper for our case. But the best these things are graceful in a friend's mouth, which are receipt (best, I say, to work, and best to take), is the admoni. blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's person hath tion of a friend. It is a strange thing to behold what gross many proper relations which he cannot put off. A man errors, and extreme absurdities many (especially of the greater cannot speak to his son, but as a father; to his wife, but as a sort) do commit for want of a friend to tell them of them, to husband; to his enemy, but upon terms; whereas a friend the great damage both of their fame and fortune. For, as may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the S. James? saith, they are as men that look sometimes into a person. But to enumerate these things were endless. I have glass and presently forget their own shape and favour. As given the rule where a man cannot fitly play his own partfor business, a man may think, if he will, that two eyes see if he have not a friend he may quit the stage. no more than one; or that a gamester seeth always more than a looker on; or that a man in anger is as wise as he that hath

OF STUDIES. said over the four-and-twenty letters; or that a musket may be shot off as well upon the arm as upon a rest; and such Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. other fond and high imaginations, to think himself all in all. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring ; But when all is done, the help of good counsel is that which for ornament is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgsetteth business straight. And if any man think that he will ment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute take counsel but it shall be by pieces; asking counsel in one and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general business of one man, and in another business of another man; counsels, and the plots, and marshalling of affairs, come it is well (that is to say, better, perhaps, than if he asked best from those that are learned. To spend too much time none at all); but he runneth two dangers : One, that he shall in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is not be faithfully counselled; for it is a rare thing, except it affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the be from a perfect and entire friend, to have counsel given but humour of a scho They perfect nature, and are perfected such as shall be bowed and crooked to some ends, which he by experience. For natural abilities are like natural plants, hath that giveth it. The other, that he shall have counsel that need pruning by study: and studies themselves do give given hurtful and unsafe (though with good meaning), and forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in mixed, partly of mischief and partly of remedy: even as if by experience. Crafty men contemn studies ; simple men you would call a physician that is thought good, for the cure admire them; and wise men use them: For they teach not of the disease you complain of, but is unacquainted with your their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above body; and therefore may put you in way for a present cure, them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and con

fute ; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and

discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be i Quoted by Plutarch in his tract on “Flesh Eating :" the original

tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and words are, αυγή ξηρή ψυχή σοφωτάτη. In the opening of the first book of his "Advancement of Learning," Bacon has another reference to

digested: that is, some books are to be read only in parts; the “dry light" or "lumen siccum," saying that where fears and

others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read desires join personal care to the pursuit of knowledge, “ it becometh wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also lumen madidum' or 'maceratum,' being steeped and infused in the may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others, humours of the affections." So in common speech a “dry subject" or “ dry style" is that which is not at all touched by “the humours of the affections."

3 It was Cicero (" De Amicitia ") who said this of a friend : “Est, 2 James i, 23.

enim is quidem tamquam alter idem."


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but that would be only in the less important arguments, and centuries unknown. Bacon also attached his fancy the meaner sort of books : else distilled books are like common to the ancient fable of Atlantis. distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man, Solon, who died 558 years before Christ, was said conference a ready man, and writing an exact man. And there- to have been writing in his last days what he had fore, if a man write little he had need have a great memory; heard in Egypt of Atlantis, a perfect island, rich in if he confer little he had need have a present wit; and if he precious metals, wine, grain, choicest fruit. Neptune read little he had need have much cunning to seem to know was its chief deity, and its ten kingdoms were ruled that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; by ten of his descendants. Plato, who died B.C. 347, the mathematics, subtle ; natural philosophy, deep; moral, has left among his dialogues three that are thus related grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. “Abeunt studia in

to one another: “ Timias" mores.' ."! Nay, there is no stond? or impediment in the wit but

represents the Divine

Cosmos; the “Republic," Man in Society; “Critias" may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for

(unfinished), the perfect Society shown in action

under the pressure of terrible enemies, the pressure the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle

being an invasion from Atlantis. Plato represents walking for the stomach; riding for the head, and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathe

that Timæus, the Pythagorean philosopher of Locri, matics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never

and the Athenian Critias, having listened to dialogue so little, he must begin again : if his wit be not apt to dis

in which Socrates had developed the nature of Justice tinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for

in the constitution of a true Republic, Socrates they are “ cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over

called on them to show such a State in action. matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate

Critias undertook to do so by telling of the rescue of another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of

Europe by the ancient citizens of Attica, ten thousand the mind may have a special receipt.

years before, from an inroad of countless and irresistible invaders out of the vast island of Atlantis

- an island greater than all Libya and Asia-in From Plato's “Republic" downward various the Western Ocean. The story of this struggle was attempts have been made by philosophers in playful preserved, it was said, with the ancient records of earnest to suggest ideal commonwealths. Such a the temple of Naith, or Athene, at Sais, in Egypt, work of intellectual fancy, practical in essence and and handed down, through Solon, by a family tradiglancing everywhere at the political life of the days tion to Critias. The divine life had become slowly of Henry VIII., was More's “ Utopia.” Joseph imbruted in the Atlantid Kings, till they were Hall, in 1607, had in his “ Mundus Alter et Idem," reckless and ambitious. They poured into Europe, “A World Other and the Same,” imagined a great and broke their force against the trained valour and Austral continent, parcelled out into lands that wisdom of the citizens of Attica. But the perfect typified the vices and follies of mankind, near to citizens, having achieved their victory, were lost from which was the Terra Sancta, little known. The the face of the earth, which swallowed them in one gluttons and wine-bibbers peopled a Crapulia ; the night, while Atlantis itself, with all its people, was masterful women a Viraginia, or Gynia Nova; the

drowned in the ocean. The sinking of that great fools a Moronia, the largest of those regions; and

land was the cause of what in Plato's time was Lavernia was the land of thieves. Dr. William supposed to be the fact—that the Atlantic Ocean is King long afterwards began a translation of Hall's a great region of shallow water and mud. “Mundus Alter et Idem,” which, being found among

Francis Bacon's “New Atlantis” is, like Plato's his “ Remains," was supposed by their editor to be a “Critias,” unfinished; but it is nearly finished, and fragment of an original work, a satire on the Dutch, sets forth the whole design. It is one of the works and printed by him in 1732 as "a fragment in the in which he sought to win men to an experimental manner of Rabelais.” Another famous sketch of an study of Nature, and was first published nine years ideal commonwealth was Campanella's “Civitas after his death. Bacon died in 1626, and the English Solis,” City of the Sun, a city glorified by knowledge, version of the “New Atlantis,” first written in Latin, ruled by the citizen who had attained to the most appeared in 1629 as an appendix to Bacon's “Sylva perfect intellect, through Triumvirs, who represented Sylvarum; or, a Natural History in Ten Centuries." severally Power, Wisdom, and Love. Francis It accords with that view of his philosophy given by Bacon's “ New Atlantis” is an ideal, at the heart Bacon in his “Novum Organum,” where he distinof which he placed the highest spiritual aim of his guishes “three kinds and, as it were, degrees of philosophy, the drawing of men near to the divine human ambition; first, that of those who desire to life by search for the wisdom of God in His works, enlarge their own power in their country, which is that they may make it theirs. Bacon, like Joseph a vulgar and degenerate kind; next, that of those Hall, laid the scene of his imagined life in a then who strive to enlarge the power and dominion of undiscovered Australia, as the old Greek legend their country among the human race, which is cerplaced Atlantis in the New World beyond the tainly more dignified, but no less covetous. But if Atlantic, that was yet to remain for eighteen one should endeavour to renew and enlarge the

power and dominion of the human race itself over

the universe, this ambition (if so it may be called) is, i Studies pass on into character. From Ovid, Ep. w. 81 :“Sive abeunt studia in mores, artesque magistras."

beyond a doubt, more sane and noble than the other · Stond, point of standstill, as when a horse comes to a stand.

two. Now the dominion of men over things depends 3 Dividers of cumin (a very small seed); as we now say, splitters of alone on arts and sciences; for Nature is only hairs.

governed by obeying her.”

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the appearance of land all that night; and in the dawning of the next day we might plainly discern that it was a land, flat to our sight, and full of boscage;" which made it show the more dark. And after an hour and a half sailing, we entered into a good haven, being the port of a fair city-not great, indeed, but well built, and that gave a pleasant view from the

And we, thinking every minute long till we were on land, came close to the shore, and offered to land ; but straightways we saw divers of the people, with bastons in their hands, as it were, forbidding us to land; yet without any cries of fierceness, but only as warning us off by signs that they made. Whereupon, being not a little discomfited, we were advising with ourselves what we should do; during which time there made forth to us a small boat with about eight persons in it, whereof one of them had in his hand a tipstaff of a yellow cane, tipped at both ends with blue, who came aboard our ship without any show of distrust at all. And when he saw one of our number present himself somewhat afore the rest, he drew forth a little scroll of parchment (somewhat yellower than our parchment, and shining like the leaves of writing-tables, but otherwise soft and flexible), and delivered it to our foremost man. In which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew, and in ancient Greek, and in good Latin of the school, and in Spanish, these words: “ Land ye not, none of you ; and provide to be gone from this coast within sixteen days, except you have further time given you. Meanwhile, if you want fresh water, or victual, or help for your sick, or that your ship needeth repair, write down your wants, and you shall have that which belongeth to mercy.” This scroll was signed with a stamp of cherubins' wings, not spread, but hanging downwards ; and by them a cross. This being delivered, the officer returned, and left only a servant with us to receive our answer. Consulting hereupon amongst ourselves, we were much perplexed. The denial of landing and hasty warning us away troubled us much; on the other side, to find that the people had languages, and were so full of humanity, did comfort us not a little. And above all, the sign of the cross to that instrument was to us a great rejoicing, and, as it were, a certain presage of good. Our answer was in the Spanish tongue: That for our ship, it was well, for we had rather met with calms and contrary winds than any tempests; for our sick, they were many, and in very ill case, so that if they were not permitted to land they ran danger of their lives. Our other wants we set down in particular ; adding, that we had some little store of


ha cealfag

LONDON Printed for W. Lee and are to be foulda the Greek Mytre

in Fleetstreet TITLE OF Sylva Sylvakum.

We sailed from Peru (where we had continued by the space of one whole year), for China and Japan, by the South Sea, taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months' space and more; but then the wind came about, and settled in the west for many days, so as we could make little or no way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then again there arose strong and great winds from the south, with a point east, which carried us up, for all that we could do, towards the north, by which time our victuals failed us, though we had made good spare of them. So that finding ourselves in the midst of the greatest wilderness of waters in the world, without victual, we gave ourselves for lost men, and prepared for death. Yet we did lift up our hearts and voices to God above, who showeth His wonders in the deep, beseeching Him of His mercy, that as in the beginning He discovered the face of the deep, and brought forth dry land, so He would now discover land to us, that we might not perish. And it came to pass that the next day, about evening, we saw within a kenning before us, towards the north, as it were thick clouds, which did put us in some hope of land, knowing how that part of the South Sea was utterly unknown, and might have islands, or continents, that hitherto were not come to light.3 Wherefore we bent our course thither, where we saw

maps, of which the earliest is in the British Museum, prove that the Portuguese had as early as 1540 a belief that there was much land in the region now known as Australia. It is figured south of Java as a great region called, “Jave la Grande.” A map by a Jean Rotz, in an English volume of 1542, repeats this representation, calling the great southern continent “ The Londe of Java," and Java “The Lytil Java." In the Introduction to Mr. R. H. Major's edition for the Hakluyt Society (1859) of " Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia," will be found very interesting results of an inquiry into the growth from suspicion to vague knowledge of the existence of an unexplored Austral land, of which it was said in a book by Cornelius Wytfliet, published at Louvain in 1598, that "its shores are hitherto but little known, since after one voyage and another, that route has been deserted, and seldom is the country visited unless when sailors are driven there by storms. The Australis Terra begins at two or three degrees from the equator, and is maintained by some to be of so great an extent that if it were thoroughly explored, it would be regarded as a fifth part of the world” In 160 }, a part of the Australian coast was visited by the Dutch yacht, the Duyphen. In the same year, Luis Vaez de Torres, a Spaniard, passed through Torres Straits, which separate Australia from New Guinea. Bacon's knowledge went no farther, but the Dutch were busy in the southern seas during the last years of his life, and in 1642, fourteen years after his death, began the discoveries of Abel Jans Tasman.

* Boscago, wood, thicket An old French word modern French, "bocage." So, a little later, bastons, sticks or staves, bátons.

1 This is a copy of the engraved title of “Sylva Sylvarum," with the title of its appendix, the “New Atlantis," substituted.

2 A kenning, as far as one can see. John Palsgrave, in “Lesclarcissement de la Langue Francoyse" (1530), explains "Je blanchis" by “I am within syght, as a shyppe is that cometh within the kennyng."

3 Islands, or continents, that hitherto were not come to light. Esisting

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