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they hope thereof, but left in the hand of the plaine painefull begs, and Bassaes, the chief rulers of that so mightie a husbandman, all would in that so warlike an empire lie wast Monarchie. Hee hath also still in his armies a great mul. and desolate; the Turks themselues commonly saying, That titude of other horsemen called Acanzij, being indeed but wheresoener the Grand Seignior his horse setteth his foot, rurall clownes, yet for certaine priuiledges which they haue the grasse will there no more grow: meaning, the destruction are bound to goe vnto the wars, being euen of the Turks that their great armies bring in all places where they come. themselues accounted of small worth or value in comparison The institution of these Timariots, and the taking vp of the of the Timariots. Hee receiueth great aid also from the Azamoglans (for so they call those children which are taken Tartars in his warres, as also from the Valachians and Molvp from their Christian parents to be brought vp for Iani- dauians (vntill that now of late by the example of the Tranzaries) are the two chiefe pillars of the Turks empire, and the syluanians, they haue, to the great benefit of the rest of the strength of their warres : both which seeme to be deuised Christian commonweale, reuolted from him :) all which are vnto the imitation of the Romanes, as are diuers things moe to be accounted as the Romanes Auxiliarij, that is to say, in the Turkish gouernment; for the Romane emperours vsed such as come to aid and assist him. And thus much for his their owne subjects in their warres, and of them consisted horsemen. the Pretorian armie, which neuer departed from the emperours side, but were still to guard his person, as doe the lanizaries the great Turke. And in the Romane empire lands were giuen vnto souldiors of good desert for them to take the profit of during their lives, in reward of their good seruice and valour, which were called Beneficia, and they which had them, Beneficiary, or as we tearme them, Benefices, and Beneficed men. Alexander Seuerus graunted vnto such souldiors heires that they might enjoy those lands and commendams, vpon condition also, that they themselues should serue as had their fathers, otherwise not. Constantine also the great gaue vnto his captaines that had well deserued of him, certaine lands for them to liue vpon during the tearme of their life. The like fees in France, which they called Feuda, were of temporaries made perpetuities by these their late kings. ÆTATIS SVÆ

XXI * These Timariot horsemen in the Turkish empire, serue to two great and most notable purposes : whereof the first is, that by them the Grand Seigniour, as with a bridle, keepeth the rest of his subjects in euerie part of his great empire in awe, so that they cannot so soone moue, but that they shall have these his Timariots as faulcons in their neckes ; for to that purpose they are dispersed all ouer his dominions and empire: The other vse of them (and no lesse profitable than the former) is, for that out of them he is alwaies able at his pleasure to draw into the field an hundred and fiftie thousand horsemen well furnished, readie to go whither soeuer he shall command them ; with all whom he is not at one farthing charge. Which so great a power of horsemen cannot be continually maintained for lesse than 14 millions of duckats yearely. Wherefore it is to be maruelled, that some comparing the Turks reuenewes with the Christians, make no mention

SAAV12.0 Yon

ACHMAT, EMPEROR OF THE TURKS. of this so great a part of the Othoman emperours wealth and

From Knolles' “General Historie of the Turkes." strength, seruing him first for the suppressing of all such tumults as might arise in his empire, and then as a most Another great part of his strength consisteth in his footprincipall strength of his continual wars, alwaies readie to men, and especially in his Ianizaries : in whom two things serue him in his greatest expeditions. The number of these are to be considered, their Nation, and Dexteritie in armes. Timariot horsemen is now growne verie great, taking encrease Concerning their Nation, such of the Azamoglans as are together with the Turks empire. It is reported, that Amurath borne in Asia, are not ordinarily enrolled in the number of the third, grandfather to Achmat that now raigneth, in his the Ianizaries, but such as are borne in Evrope: for they of late warres against the Persian, subdued vnto himselfe so Asia are accounted more effeminate, as they haue beene much territorie, as serued him to erect therein fortie thousand alwayes more readie to flie than to fight : wheras the people of Timariots : and appointed at Tavris a new receit, which was EVROPE haue euen in the East beene accounted for better yearely worth vnto him a million of gold. These Timariots and more valiant souldiours, having there, to their immortall are in all accounted to be seuen hundred and nineteen thon- glorie, set vp the notable trophies of their most glorious sand fighting men: of whom 257000 haue their abode and victories. The souldiours of Asia be called Turkes, after the dwelling in Evrope ; and 462000 in Asia and AFRICKE. name of their nation, and not of their countrey (no countrey Beside these Timariots, the Grand Seignior hath a great being indeed so properly called) and they of Evrope Rumi, number of other horsemen also, vnto whom he giueth pay, that is to say, Romani, or Romans, as the country, especially which are his Spahi, Vlufagi, and Carapici of his Court, being about ConstantIXOPLE, is called by the name of Rvm-Ilt, indeed the nurseries and seminaries of the great officers and that is to say, the Romane country, as it was in antient time, gouernours of his empire: for from among them are ordinarily of the notable Romane Colonies therein, knowne by the name chosen the Sanzacks, which afterwards through their good of ROMANIA. Now as concerning their Dexteritie, such male deserts, or the Sultans great fauour, become Visiers, Begler. children are culled out from the Christians, as in whomi

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appeareth the greatest signes of strength, actiuitie and courage: haue a thousand royalties : some of them are appointed to the for these three qualities are in a souldiour especially required. keeping of embassadours sent from forrein princes : othersome This choice is made euerie third yeare, except necessitie of them are assigned to accompanie strangers, travellers, enforce it to be made sooner, as it happened in the late especially them that be men of the better sort, to the intent Persian warre : wherein not only oftner choice was made, they may safely passe in the Turkes dominions, for which but they were glad to vse the Azamoglans also, a thing neuer seruice they are commonly well rewarded. They haue made before by them done. For those youths, the children of choice of their prince, namely of Selymus the first, his father Christian parents, being by them that haue taken them vp Baiazet yet liuing; neither can any the Turkes Sultans brought to Constantinople, are taken view of by the Aga of account themselues fully inuested in their imperiall dignitie, the Ianizaries, who causeth to be registred the name of the or assured of their estate, vntil they be by them approoued youth, with the name of his father and countrey wherein and proclaimed. Euerie one of their Sultans at his first comhe was borne : which done, part of them are sent into the ming to the empire, doth giue them some great largesse; lesser Asia (now called Natolia) and other prouinces, where and sometime the better to please them, encreaseth also their learning the Turkish language and law, they are also infected pay. In euerie great expedition some of them goeth forth with the vices and manners of them with whom they liue, with their Aga, or his lieutenant, and are the last of all that and so in short time become right Mahometanes. Another fight. There is no office among the Turkes, that moe enuie part of them, and those of the most towardliest, is diuided at, than at the office of the Aga of the Ianizaries, for the into cloisters which the Grand Seigniour hath at CoNsTAN- greatnesse of his authoritie and commuund: onely he and the TIXOPLE and Pera, of whom the fairest and most handsome Beglerbeg of Græcia chuse not their owne lieutenant, but are appointed for the Seraglio of the great Sultan himselfe. haue them nominated vnto them by the Grand Seignior. All the time that these youths, thus sent abroad, liue in the Vnto this great man the Aga of the Ianizaries, nothing can lesser Asia, or other the Turkes prouinces, they are not portend a more certaine destruction, than to be of them appointed to any certaine exercises, but still kept busied, some beloued, for then is he of the great Sultan straightway feared at husbandrie, some in gardening, some in building, some in or mistrusted, and so occasion sought for to take him out of other domesticall seruices, neuer suffered to be idle, but the way. The number of the Ianizaries of the Court is betwixt alwayes occupied in painfull labour; where after certaine ten and foureteene thousand. This warlike order of souldiours yeares they haue beene thus enured to labour and paines taking, is in these our dayes much embased : for now naturall Turks they are called thence into the cloisters of the Azamoglans are taken in for Ianizaries, as are also the people of Asia; (for so they are called all the time vntil they be enrolled into whereas in former times none were admitted into that order, the number of the Ianizaries) and are there deliuered vnto but the Christians of Evrope only ; beside that, they marrie certaine speciall gouernours appointed to take charge of them: wiues also contrarie to their antient custome, which is not who keepe them still exercised in painefull worke and labour, now forbidden them. And because of their long lying still entreating them euill ynough, as well in their diet, as in their at ConstanTIXOple (a citie abounding with all manner of apparell and lodging: they sleepe together in large roomes, pleasure) they are become much more effeminate and slothful, like vnto the religious Dormitories, wherein are lampes still but withall most insolent, or more truly to say intollerable. burning, and tutors attending, without whose leaue they may It is commonly reported the strength of the Turkish empire not stirre out of their places. There they learne to shoot to consist in this order of the Ianizaries, which is not altogether both in the Bow and Peece,' the use of the Scimitar, with so, for albeit that they be indeed the Turkes best footmen many feats of actiuitie: and being well trained in those and surest gard of the great Sultans person, yet vndoubtedly exercises, are enrolled amongst the Ianizaries or Spahi: of the greatest strength of his state and empire resteth nothing whom the Ianizaries receiue not lesse than fiue aspers, nor so much in them, as in the great multitude of his horsemen, more than eight for their daily pay, and the Spahi ten. Being especially his Timariots. Beside these Ianizaries, the recorded among the Ianizaries, they are either sent away Turkish emperour hath a wonderful number of base footmen, into the warres, or into some garrison, or else attend at the whom the Turks call Asapi, better acquainted with the spade Court. These last haue for their dwelling three great places than with the sword, seruing rather to the wearying of their like ynto three monasteries in the citie of CoxstANTINOPLE: enemies with their multitude, than the vanquishing of them there they liue vndre their gouernours, to whom they are with their valour: with whose dead bodies the lanizaries vse deputed, the younger with great obedience and silence seruing to fill vp the ditches of townes besieged, or to serue them for the elder in buying of things for them, in dressing of their ladders to clime ouer the enemies wals vpon. But as the meat, and such like services. They that be of one seat or calling Romans had both their old Legionarie, and other vntrained live together at one table, and sleepe in long walkes. If any of souldiors, which they called Tirones; of whom the first were them vpon occasion chance to lye all night abroad without the chiefe strength of their warres, and the other but as it leane, the next evening hee is notably beaten, with such were an aid or supplie; euen so the Turke accounteth his nurture and discipline, that after his beating he like an Ape Timariot horsemen the strength of his armie, and the Acanzij kisseth his Gouernours hands that so corrected him. These (which is another sort of base and common horsemen) but as Ianizaries haue many large priuiledges, are honoured, although an accessorie: and so amongst his footmen he esteemeth of his they be most insolent, and are feared of all men, yea even of Ianizaries, as did the Romans of their Pretorian legions, but the great Sultan himselfe, who is still glad to make faire of his Asapi as of shadowes. The Ianizaries are by none to weather with them. In their expeditions or trauell they rob be commanded, more than by the great Sultan himselfe, and the poore Christians cottages and houses, who must not say their Aga; as for the Bassaes, they much regard them not, one word to the contrarie. When they buy any thing, they but in their rage oftentimes foule entreat euen the greatest of giue for it but what they list themselues. They can bee them. The Asapi as they are but base and common souljudged by none but by their Aga: neither can they be diours, so haue they also their ordinarie captaines and comexecuted without danger of an insurrection, and therfore maunders, men of no great place or marke. such exccution is seldome done, and that verie secretly. They The whole state of the great empire of the Turkes is

commaunded by the great Sultan, by the graue advice and 1 Peece, gun, as in “fowling-piece."

counsell of his Visier Bassaes, which were not wont to be in

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number aboue foure, so prouiding for the secrecie of his high designes or important resolutions, hardly by a greater multitule to be concealed : howbeit that the Sultans of later times haue had sometimes moe, sometimes fewer, as their pleasure was. These men are of all others in that empire the greatest, and for their high places most honored : vnto them euen the greatest princes that haue any thing to doe in the Turkes Court, sue and send their honourable presents. By their aduice the great Sultan taketh his warres in hand, neither without them concludeth he any peace. They giue audience vnto the Embassadours of forraine princes, and from them receiue their dispatch. The greatest honors and preferments (which are many in that so great and large an empire) are all by their meanes to be obtained : which maketh them of all others to be sought vnto. Some one or other of them are still Generals ouer the great armies of the Turkes, especially in these their late warres, their three last emperours neuer themselues going forth into the field (excepting once that Mahomet the third for the maintenance of his credit with his men of warte, came downe into HVNGARIE, and there woon the citie of AGRIA :) which leading of such mightie armies is still with great emulation and ambition of the Visier Bassaes amongst themselues sought after, as well for the great profit thereby vnto them arising, as for the honour thereof, which is of all other the greatest. But leauing these great ones, the chiefe counsellours for his state; the whole body of his so large and mightie an empire (all in the hands of martiall men) is gouerned by other great Bassaes, whom they by a most proud barbarous name call Beglerbegs, that is to say Lords of Lords, euery one of them hauing vnder him certaine Begs or Sanzackes, who are lords and rulers also ouer some particular cities & countries, with the Timariots therein; yet all stil at the command & beck of their Beglerbeg. In antient time there was wont to be but two of these proud Beglerbegs in all the Turks empire: the one commanding ouer all the prouinces the Turke had in Evrope; & the other ouer all that he had in the lesser Asia, now of the Turks called NATOLIA. But the Turkish empire greatly augmented in Asia by Selymus the first, & also afterwards much enlarged both in Evrope and Asia by Solyman his son, the number of the Beglerbegs were by him increased, and in some part also changed: who although that they be al Beglerbegs, and that one of them (especially in the time of peace) in the managing of his souldiers and affaires of his countrey, is not subject to any other, but is onely at the commaund of the great Turke; yet notwithstanding in time of warre, where the Beglerbeg of Romania is, all are obedient vnto him, as the chiefest of the rest; insomuch, that none of them but only he and the Bassa of Natolia are called by the stately name of Beglerbegs, the others being then only called the Bassaes of such and such places, as of BvDA, ALEPPO, and such like, although indeed they are in nature Beglerbegs, and so written in their records. For the more manifesting of which their gouernment, as also that they which come hereafter, may by comparing of that which is here written, with the state that then shall be, see how much this great Empire in the meane time encreaseth or diminisheth, I haue thought good here briefely to set down all the said Beglerbegs with their Sanzacks and Timariots, and as neere as I could (either by reading, or the credible relation of others well trauelled in those countries) together, and as it were at one shew set forth the whole strength and power of this so mightie an Empire, as also in what countries and prouinces the same is especially placed. The Beglerbegs or great Commanders of the Turkes

Empire in Evrope. The first and chiefest of all the Beglerbegs in the Turkish Empire, is the Beglerbeg of Romania or GRÆcia, called of the

Turkes Rvm-Ili (or as wee say, the Romane countrey) the principall residence of whose Beglerbegship, is at Sophia, a citie of BvlgaRIA ; so appointed for the commodious situation thereof, for the better commaund of the rest of the prouinces of Evrope: howbeit, that he for the most part or rather altogether abideth at the court, which the other Beglerbegs cannot doe, for that they are bound not to depart from the gouernment of their prouinces: in which charge they ordinarily continue but three yeares only, the great Sultan still changing and altering them at his pleasure. This Beglerbeg hath vnder his owne ensigne and commaund forty thousand Timariots alwaies ready at his call, vnder the conduct of these one and twenty Sanzacks following, namely, the Sanzacke of 1 Sophia in Bulgaria. 11 Prisrem 2 Nicopolis.

12 Salonichi Sall in Thessalia. 3 Clisse or Quadraginta Ec- 13 Trichala clesiæ.

14 Misitra, of old called 4 Vyza in Thracia.

Sparta, in Morea. 5 Kirmen

15 Palæopatra, in the same 6 Silistria all in Mace

prouince. donia, 7 Giustandill

16 Ioannina in Ætolia. 8 Bender, neere ynto the 17 Deluina

both in Achaia. Euxine. 9 Acherman, in the confines 19 Anelona or Aulona in Alof Moldauia.

bania. 10 V scopia.

20 Ducagin in Epirus.

21 Iscodra or Scodra in Albania. The Beglerbeg of Bvda, who there resideth in the frontiers of the Turkish Empire, hauing vnder his charge 8,000 Timariots, beside 12000 other souldiors, which in continuall pay lye still readie in garrison in the confines of HVNGARIE, Croatia, Stiria, and other places bordering vpon the Christians, but especially the territories belonging to the house of AvstrIA. He had of late vnder his ensigne and commaund these fifteene Sanzackes, viz. the Sanzucke of 1 Nouigrad.

9 Simontorna. 2 Filek.

10 Copan. 3 Zetschen.

11 Muhatz. 4 Zolnock.

12 Zigeth or Saswar. 5 Gran or Strigonium. 13 Petscheu or Quinque 6 Segedin.

Ecclesse. 7 Alba Regalis.

14 Sirmium. 8 Serard.

15 Semendria. Of which, FILEK, ZETSCHEN, and STRIGONIVM are in these late warres woon from the Turks by the Imperials, and so yet by them holden; as was also ALBA REGALIS, which but of late was by the Turkes again recouered.

The Beglerbeg of Temesvvar in HVNGARIE, who there hath his abode, hauing vnder his commaund seuen thousand Timariots, with these eight Sanzackes, the Sanzacke of 1 Temeswar.

5 Wischitirni. 2 Mudaua.

6 Iswornick. 3 Vilaoswar.

7 Vidin. 4 Tschinnad.

8 Lipa. The Beglerbeg of Bosna, who lieth at BAGNIALVCA, hath vnder him these Sanzackes, the Sanzacke 1 Bugnialuca.

6 Sazeschna. 2 Poshega.

7 Giula. 3 Clissa.

8 Brisrem. 4 Hertzegouina.

9 Allatschia 5 Lika.

chissar. The Beglerbeg of Coffe or Capha, who there resideth in Tavrica CHERSONESVs, and beside the countrey thereabout, commaundeth ouer all the Sanzacks neere vnto the great riuer Tannis, and the fennes of Meotis. It was at first but a Sanzackship, subject to the Beglerbeg of Græcia, and is in truth rather a Beglerbegs place in name, than in strength

and power.

The Beglerbegs or great Commaunders of the Turkes

Empire in Asia, The Beglerbeg of 1 Anatolia, who hath his resiance in Cutaie, the metro

politicall city of the greater Phrigia (called of auncient time Catyai) and hath vnder his ensigne and commaund thirtie thousand of the Timariot horsemen, with

twelue Sanzacks. 2 Caramania, who hath his abode at Caisaria (in auncient

time called Cæsaria) a citie of Cilicia, and hath vnder

him seuen Sanzackes, with twentie thousand Timariots. 3 Siuas, who hath his abiding at Sebastia, a citie of the lesser

Armenia, and hath vnder his gouernment ten thousand

Timariots. 4 Tocatun, who resideth at Amasia, the metropolis of Capa

docia, and hath ynder him fiue Sanzackes. 5 Dulgadir, sometime part of the kingdome of Aladeules, and

commandeth ouer foure Sanzackes. 6 Hal p, commonly called Aleppo, a citie of Syria, and one of

the most famous marts of the East, who hath vnder his

regiment fiue and twentie thousand Timariots. 7 Sham, otherwise called Damasco, a most famous citie of

Syria, who commandeth ouer fortie thousand Timariots. 8 Tarapolos or Trapolos, commonly called Tripolis, another

famous citie of Syria. 9 Maras, a citie vpon the great riuer Euphrates, betwixt

Aleppo and Mesopotamia, who hath vnder his commaund

ten thousand Timariots. 10 Diarbekir, otherwise called Mesopotamia, who maketh his

abode at the citie of Amida, or as the Turkes call it, Cara-hemid; who commaundeth over twelve Sanzackes,

and thirtie thousand Timariots. 11 Bagdat (or new Babylon) where he resideth not farre from

the ruines of old Babylon, who hath vnder him fortie

thousand Timariots. 12 Balsara, not farre from Bagdat vpon the Persian gulfe,

who hath vnder his rule or gouernment fifteene thou

sand Timariots. 13 Laxa, towards Ormus, and neere vnto the Persian, hath

vnder his regiment ten thousand Timariots. 14 Gemen and Aden, two famous cities in Arabia Falix,

vpon the coast of the red sea, who hath vnder him

thirtie thousand Timariots. 15 Chebetz or Zebet, vpon the coast of the Arabian gulfe,

neere vnto the kingdome of the great Æthyopian king

Preianes, commonly (but corruptly) called Presbiter lohn. 16 Cyprus, who lyeth at Micosia or Famagusta, commaunding

ouer all that great Island, sometime of it selfe a kingdome. 17 Scheherezul in Assyria, bordering vpon the Persian, who

hath vnder his gouernment ten thousand Timariots. 18 Wan, a citie in the confines of the greater Armenia

towards Media, who hath vnder him twelve thousand

Timariots. 19 Artzerum or Erzerum, in the borders of Armenia towards

Capadocia, about foure daies journey froin Trapezonde,

who coinmaundeth ouer twentie thousand Timariots. 20 Teflis, neere vnto the Georgians, erected by Mustapha

Bassa, Generall of Amurath the third his armie against

the Persian, in the yeare 1578. 21 Siruan or Media, erected by the same Mustapha, and at

the same time, commaundeth ouer all that great countrey, sometime a famous kingdome.

22 Temir-Capi or Derbent, neere vnto the Caspian sea, taken

by Osman Bussu the same yeare 1578, who hauing slaine Schehemet Chan his father in law, reduced that countrey

into the forme of a Beglerbegship. 23 Cars, a citie of Armenia the greater, distant from Artzeruin

four daies journey, by Mustapha Bassa made a Beglerbeg

ship in the yeare 1579. 24 Tschilder or Tzilder in the confines of the Georgians,

erected by the same Generall Mustapha in the same

yeare 1579. 25 Fassa or Phasis in Mengrelia, neere vnto the Georgians,

erected by Vluzales the Turks Admirall the same yeare

1579. 26 Sochum, in the borders of the Georgians, erected by the

great Bassa Sinan in the yeare 1580. 27 Batin, there erected also by the same Sinan Bassa. 28 Reiuan, erected by Ferat Bassa, Generall of the Turkes

armie, taken froin Tocomac Chan the Persian in the yeare

1582, whereof Cicala Bassa was the first Beglerbeg. 29 Somachia, in the countrey of Media, erected by Osman

Bassa in the yeare 1583. 30 Tauris, a most famous citie of Armenia the greater, some

time the regall seat of the Persian kings, but of late taken from them by Osman Bassa, and conuerted into a

Beglerbegship in the same yeare 1583. But these late erected honours, namely, the Beglerbegships of TEFLIS, SIRVAN, TEMIR-CAPI, Cars, TschiLDER, Fassa, and the rest gained by Amurath from the Persians and the Georgians, although they containe a great territorie, are not of themselues any of them worthy of those proud titles, or yet able to maintaine the same, Sirvan, Reivan, and Tavris onely excepted; but were by the great Bassaes, Mustapha, Sinan, Ferat, and Osman, Amurath his lieutenants, for their owne greater honor, and the encouraging of them which were to defend those their new conquests, erected; being indeed nothing either in power or strength comparable with the other more auncient Beglerbegs either in Evrope or Asia. But hauing thus passed through the great kingdomes and prouinces by the Turkes holden in Evrope and Asia, with their proud honours therein, let vs goe forward toward the South, to see what great kingdomes and territories they at this present hold in AFRICKE also. The Beglerbegs or great Commaunders of the Turkes

Empire in AFRICKE. The Beglerbeg of 1 Missir, who still making his abode at the great citie of

Caire, hath vnder his commaund all the kingdome of
Ægipt, with sixteene Sanzackes, and an hundred thou-

sand Timariots. 2 Cesair (in ancient time called Iulia Cæsaria) but now com

monly Algiers, where the Beglerbeg still residing, commandeth ouer all that kingdome, wherein are fortie

thousand Timariots. 3 Tunis, where he still remaining as a Viceroy, commaundeth

all that great and large kingdome. 4 Tripolis, the seat of his Beglerbegship, by Sinan Bassa

taken from the knights of Malta in the yeare 1551. There are beside, these other two kingdomes in AFRICKE enrolled in the Turks records as their owne, although they be not as yet by them brought into the forme of Beglerbegships : namely, the kingdomes of Fes and Maroco, but are as yet holden by them as their tributaries and vassales.

But hauing thus as it were taken view of the greatnesse and forces of this so mightie a Monarchs Empire by land, and so in some sort bounded it out, let vs consider also his power by sea.

With the great Ocean he much modleth not,

a

more than a little in the gulfes of Persia and ARABIA: most of his territories lying vpon the Mediterranean and Euxine seas, or else more inwardly into the heart of Asia, neere vnto no sea. Now for these seas, no prince in the world hath greater or better means to set forth his fleets than hath he: for the ouergrowne woods of Epirvs and CILICIA ; and more than they, those of NICOMEDIA and TRAPEZONDE, are so great and so thicke, and so full of tall trees fit for the building of ships and gallies of all sorts, as is almost incredible. Neither wanteth he store of shipwrights and other carpenters for the fraining of that so great store of timber, large pay drawing euen the Christian skilful carpenters and workmen into his Arsenals at CONSTANTINOPLE, SIxope, CALLIPOLIS, and others. For proofe whereof it is worth the noting, that Selymus the second in our fresh remembrance, the next yeare after that notable ouerthrow by him receiued at the ECHIXADES (commonly called the battle of LEPANTO") rigged vp a fleet where. with V'luzales his admirall was not afraid to face the whole power of the confederat Christian princes at Cerigo. Neither hath the Turke euer wanted good store of expert seamen, after the maner of those seas : for beside those he hath in store at CaLLIPOLIS and Sinope, out of his gallies which he hath alwaies in readinesse in Lesbos, Chios, Rhodvs, CYPRVS, and ALEXANDRIA, & from the pyrats which he continually receiueth into the ports of Tunis, Brgia, Tripolis, & Algiers, he can & doth from them when need is chuse captaines, mariners, and rowers sufficieut for the manning and storing of his fleet. What he is able to doe in those seas, was well seene in our time, by those filetts which he had at Malta, Cyprvs, the ECHINADES, and GVLETTA. He hath beside of all necessary and warlike prouision abundant store, & of great ordnance to furnish himselfe withall both by sea & land an infinit quantitie. Out of Hvngarie he hath carried away aboue 5000 great peeces, out of CYPRVS 500, and few lesse from Gvletta, not to speake what he hath more got from the Christians in diuers other places also. What store he hath of shot and pouder, he shewed at Malta, where he discharged aboue 60000 great shot; at FAMAGVSTA, where he bestowed 118000; & at GVLETTA, where in the space of 39 daies he by the furie of his great ordnance ouerthrew the fortifications which the Christians had been 40 yeares in building. So that to returne again vnto our purpose, the great Turke so well prouided of men, mony, shipping, and great ordnance, and hauing done so great matters at sea as is before rehearsed, is not in reason otherwise to be accounted of than as of a most mighty and puissant prince, as wel by sea as land : which to be so, the greatnesse of his Denizi Beglerbeg or great Admirall (commonly called Capitan Bassa, of whom we haue not yet spoken) well declareth. This great man hauing charge of all the Grand Signior his strength at sea, is alwaies one of the Visier Bassaes, not bound still to follow the court, as the other Visier Bassacs be, but alwaies or for most part resiant at CONSTANTINOPLE or CalliPOLIS, so to be the neerer vnto his charge. He that now hath this honorable place, is called of the Turks Cigala Bassa, discended of an honorable family of that name in Genva; who commonly residing at ConstaNTINOPLE or CALLIPOLIS, hath vnder him 14 Sanzackes, all of them great commaunders and men of great place, namely, the Sanzacke of 1 Gallipolis, or Callipolis. 5 Mitylene, or Lesbos. 2 Galata, or Pera.

6 Chios, or Sio. 3 Nicomedia.

7 Nexia, or Narus. 4 Limnos, or Lemnus.

8 Negropont, or Eubea.

9 Rhodus.

12 Lepanto, or Naupactus. 10 Cauala in the frontiers of 13 S. Maura. Macedonia.

14 Alexandria. 11 Napolidi Romania.

The greatnesse, wealth, and strength of this so mightie an Empire, as well by sea as land, thus in some sort declared, let vs now see vpon what princes it also confineth, and of what power euery one of them is in comparison of it, so great and ouergrowne a State. The Turks toward the East border vpon the Persians, according to a right line, drawne by imagination from Tavris to BALSARA : vpon the Portugals at the Persian gulfe, and so there likewise toward the South: at the red sea, vpon the great Æthyopian king Preianes, commonly called Prester Iohn : towards the West, in AFRICKE vpon the king of Maroco : and in Evrope vpon the kingdome of Naples, with some part of the Venetian signorie: towards the North vpon the Polonians, and the territories of the house of Avstria. Now to begin with the Persian, the great Turke no doubt is in field too strong for him, as by proofe hath been oftentimes seene: For Mahomet the Great in plaine battaile ouercame the valiant Vsun-Cassanes : Selymus the first, and after him Solyman his son, put to flight the noble Hysmael and Tamas, the two great and famous Persian kings: and now of late in our time, Amurath the third by his lieutenants hath taken from the Persians all Media, with the greater ARMENIA, both sometimes famous kingdomes, together with the regall citie of Tavris. That the Turke so preuaileth is by reason of his footmen, which the Persian wanteth ; and of his great ordnance, whereof the Persian hath neither store nor use : and although the Persians by valour of their horsemen hath sometime in open field foiled the Turke, yet haue they still lost some part of their countrey, Solyman taking from them MESOPOTAMIA, and Amurath Media and ARMENIA. Neither did the Persians alone feele that harme, and loose their owne, but vndid their confederats also; Selymus the first spoiling the Mamalukes of ÆGYPT and Siria, and ytterly rooting them from off the face of the earth, and Amurath by his lieutenants hauing brought to a low ebbe the warlike Georgians, both of them the Persian kings friends and confederats. Now is not the Turke so much too strong at land for the Persian, but that he is as much too weake at sea for the Portugals ; in those seas I meane where their forces haue more than once to the Turks cost met together in the East Indies. The Portugals, hauing in those rich but remote countries many sure harbours and ports, yea faire countries and territories abounding with victuals and all prouision necessary for shipping, with some also of those great Easterne princes, their allies and confederats; whereas the Turke on the other sid hath nothing in the Persian gulfe strong, beside BALSARA; the sea-coast of ARABIA, which might stand him in best stead, hauing no more but foure townes, and those but weak and of small worth. So that there, as also in the red sea, it is a matter of exceeding charge and difficultie for him to set out any great fleet into those seas; for that those countries are vtterly destitute of wood fit to make ships of. For which cause, those few times that he prepared his fleets in the red sea (to haue cut off the Portugals trade into the East Indies) being not able to performe the same in the Persian gulfe, he was enforced to bring the timber for the building of his gallies out of the ports of BITHYXIA and Cilicia (out of another world as it were) vp the Nile vnto Caire, and from thence vpon cammels by land to Sves, where he hath his Arsenall, a thing almost incredible. And yet hauing done what he could, as oft as he hath made any

1 Lepanto. On the 7th of October, 1571, the fleets of Spain, Venice, Genoa, Malta, and the Pope, commanded by Don John of Austria, defeated the Turks in a great sea-fight off Lepanto, ne... Corinth.

Thirty years after this was written, the Turks (in 1639) took Bagdad.

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