on surface and thorough drainage, on agricultural, hydraulic, and marine engineering, and a brief outline of the science and art of military engineering. The engineering drawing consists of a course of instruction in the drawing of plans, sections, elevations, and details of bridges, tunnels, canal locks, etc. "For the above engineering course students can substitute mechanism, machinery, and machine drawing." The catalogue for 1883-84 mentions as text-books in the school of pure mathematics: "White's or Olney's Arithmetic; Davies' Bourdon, or Olney's Algebra; Olney's Trigonometry; Bowser's or Peck's Analytical Geometry; Bowser's or Peck's Calculus; Bledsoe's Philosophy of Mathematics. "Extra examples, illustrating the different subjects taught, are given throughout the course." This is the first time that we find Bledsoe's Philosophy of Mathe matics named as one of the text-books in a college course. According to catalogue, it was used in the third collegiate class, which completed analytic geometry and then took up "differential and integral calculus, and the philosophy of mathematics." The idea of teaching the philosophy of mathematics is certainly a good one, but the subject is hardly presented by Bledsoe in a form suitable for a young student. In the school of applied mathematics the books given in the catalogue for 1883-84 are, Gage's Physics; Loomis's Astronomy; Davies' New Surveying; Smith's Topographical Drawing; Church's Descriptive Geometry; Wood's, or Rankine's Mechanics; Mahan's Civil Engineering; Searles's Field Engineering. In June, 1888, a reorganization and a re-classification of the various schools took place. The work of the "school of mathematics and civil engineering" for the year 1888-89 is as follows: I. MATHEMATICS. First class (Sub-Freshman): Algebra (through surds and quadratics); Geometry (three books). Second class-(Freshman): Geometry, Algebra. Third class-(Sophomore): Trigonometry; Graphic Algebra; Analytical Geometry. Fourth class-(Junior): Calculus. Each. class is taught in sections small enough to be well handled by the instructor. Great stress is laid, throughout the course, on the written solution of original problems-the aim being to induce clearness of thought by precision in expression. Each student is required to use the level, transit, and compass, from the beginning of his Freshman to the end of his Sophomore year. On entering the Freshman class the use and adjustments of the level are explained to him. He then practices with it, at times convenient to himself, until, by running such lines as may be required of him and submitting profiles and crosssections, he shows his ability to handle the ordinary problems of drain age and irrigation. The graphical problems in geometry are solved, sometimes with drawing instruments on paper, and sometimes with engineering instruments on the ground. Thus habits of accuracy are enforced early in the course by the use of instruments of precision, and an elementary knowledge of surveying afforded. For admission to the first class the applicant is examined in arithmetic only. The text-books now in use are as follows: Hall and Knight's Algebra for the Sub-Freshman class, Wentworth's Algebra for the Freshman class, Wentworth's Geometry, Wells's Trigonometry, Puckle's Conic Sections (with lectures), Newcomb's Calculus. The Calculus is taught mainly by lectures, the text-book being used as a guide. As taught at present, it is based on the idea of fluxions, demonstrated by limits, and employs the notation of Leibnitz. In pure mathematics no higher branches than the calculus have been taught at the university, except during the session 1886-87, when a class in quaternions was taught. At present agricultural students must finish trigonometry, all others analytical geometry, while the engineering students must finish calculus. II. CIVIL ENGINEERING. 1. (Sophomore): Descriptive Geometry; Land, City, and Mine Surveying. 2. (Junior): Stone Cutting; Astronomy. 3. (Junior): Elementary Mechanics; Analytical Mechanics. 4. (Junior): Surveys; Soundings; Maps; Profiles; Cross-sections; Estimates'; Laying out Work; Engineering Materials and Methods. The time of this class is mainly spent in practical work. It makes barometric reconnaissances; makes a map of some portion of the bed of the Tennessee River; does the field and office engineering work for a line of communications to join two selected points, etc. 5. (Senior): Analytical Mechanics; Applied Mechanics. 6. (Senior): Engineering Structures; Specifications and Contracts. 7. (Post-graduate): Economics of Roads; Sewerage; Water Supply; Hydraulics; Architecture. The department is admirably equipped with the various engineering instruments. Of the more important (such as levels, transits, sextants, aneroids, etc.) it has a number of each. It has, with great care and expense, procured instruments of the finest workmanship and latest attachments, so that its students of engineering may see how much to expect the instrument-maker to contribute toward the attainment of accuracy and speed. Exercises requiring their use are continually required of every class. The first six of these classes are required for the degree of bachelor of science in civil engineering-the seven for the degree of civil engineer. At present the University of Tennessee is entering upon a career of remarkable prosperity. Like most of the higher institutions of learning in the South, it is experiencing a great revival. More thorough work and a higher standard of scholarship are every where perceivable. The present prosperity of the University of Tennessee is due chiefly to the aggressive leadership of its President, Dr. C. W. Dabney, a graduate of the University of Virginia, and later of the University of Göttingen. He accepted the presidency in August, 1887, under conditions. giving him great freedom to manage the institution according to his own ideas. In June, 1888, the professorships were declared vacant, and were then filled by men selected by the president. Prof. William W. Carson, who had been elected to the chair of mathematics in 1885, was now elected professor of mathematics and civil engineering. Professor Carson, a graduate of Washington and Lee, was civil engineer for a number of years. Of the other teachers of pure and applied mathematics, Prof. T. F. Burgdorff served about a dozen years in the U. S. Navy, and Prof. E. E. Gayle about an equal length of time in the U. S. Army. The three other instructors in this school are young men. TULANE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA. The Tulane University came into existence as such in 1884, when, by a contract with the State of Louisiana, the administrators of the Tulane educational fund became the administrators of the University of Louisiana in perpetuity, agreeing to devote their income to its development. The University of Louisiana had its origin in the Medical Department, which was established in 1834. This school has numbered among its professors and alumni the most distinguished medical men of Louisiana and the South. A law department was organized in 1847; and in 1878 the academic department of the University of Louisiana was opened. It existed under that name till 1884, when it was absorbed into Tulane University. Considering that the academic department of the University of Louisiana received from the State an annuity of only ten thousand dollars, it met with excellent success. A number of very earnest and well-trained young men were graduated during the six years of its existence. Its faculty consisted of only seven professors, but they were men of energy and ability. R. H. Jesse was dean of the faculty and professor of Latin. He was educated at the University of Virginia, and was a man of unusual executive ability. His individuality was strongly felt in the institution. He organized the department, taking the University of Virginia as his model. There was no curriculum or prescribed course of study. The parent or guardian had to choose, with the advice of the faculty, the branches to be pursued by the student. His cast of mind, as well as his future vocation, could thus receive due weight. In 1883 there were eight "schools." The student was required to attend at least three, but he was discouraged from electing more than four, in order to prevent superficial work. The school of mathematics was in charge of J. L. Cross, the profes sor of mathematics. Professor Cross was, before the War, a student at the Virginia Military Institute, and a pupil of Prof. Francis H. Smith. The school of mathematics was organized into three regular classes, the Junior, Intermediate, and Senior. During part of the time it was found necessary to establish also an introductory class for students deficient in preliminary studies. The requirements for admission to the Junior class were a knowledge of arithmetic and Loomis's Elements of Algebra. The Junior class studied Loomis's Treatise on Algebra, and Loomis's (later Wentworth's) Plane and Solid Geometry. The Intermediate class was taught Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, and Loomis's Analytical Geometry. The Senior class completed the course in mathematics by the study of Church's Descriptive Geometry, and Loomis's Differential and Integral Calculus. Professor Cross is, we believe, the first teacher who ever carried classes in New Orleans through the calculus. Very efficient work was done by students in the school of physics. This was in charge of Prof. Brown Ayres. Professor Ayres received his general education at the Washington and Lee University, and his training as a specialist at the Stevens Institute and the Johns Hopkins University. At the last institution he was honored with a fellowship in physics. He is a true lover of science, and, with great proficiency in the theoretical and mathematical parts of his subject, combines great mechanical ingenuity and skill. In his prelections on text-books he is extremely clear, and his experiments are always very successful and interesting. His great aim is to awaken in students a genuine love for pure science. In his school students had frequent opportunities of applying their knowledge of pure mathematics to physical problems. The theory of the combination of observations by the method of least squares was a study in his course. During several years he taught also analytical mechanics, using the work of De Volson Wood. In 1884 the University of Louisiana was absorbed into the Tulane University of Louisiana. Paul Tulane, who had been in business in New Orleans for fifty years, donated the greater part of his large fortune for higher education in New Orleans. Owing to his munificence, Tulane University has the good fortune of being free from those pecuniary embarrassments with which the University of Louisiana had always to contend. Under the presidency of Col. William Preston Johnston, an educator of great ability and wide reputation, the courses of study as they had existed in the University of Louisiana were reorganized. Not trusting in the ability of immature students, or even of parents unaccustomed to consider the due proportions and sequence of studies, to properly formulate their own ideals in education, Tulane College offered a series of six equivalent curricula with prescribed branches, all leading to the degree of bachelor of arts. These six courses of study were denominated, respectively, the Classical, Literary, Mathematical, Natural Science, Commercial, and Mechanical Courses. In the * For further information regarding the plan and workings of Tulane University, see President Johnston's address on "Education in Louisiana," before the National Educational Convention, Topeka, Kan., July 15, 1885. spring of 1880, the commercial course was discontinued, and the mathematical course had its name changed to physical science course. All the professors of the University of Louisiana continued to hold their respective chairs under the new régime. Several new professors were added to the faculty. The mathematical requirements for admission to Tulane College are a knowledge of algebra to quadratics and of plane geometry. The course in mathematics is the same for all Freshmen. After completing the algebra they take up solid geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, surveying and leveling, and navigation. In the Sophomore year, classical and literary students pursue analytical geometry, three hours per week, before Christmas. This completes the mathematics for students in those two courses. In the three other courses mathematics is pursued six hours per week throughout the year, and consists in the study of analytical geometry and differential calculus. In the first half of the Junior year, students in the physical science course and mechanical course pursue the study of integral calculus. These branches are taught by Professor Cross from Loomis's text-books, excepting that Wentworth's book is used in geometry. The mathematical teaching has, thus far, been strictly confined to the ordinary college branches. No work of university grade, as distinguished from college grade, has yet been attempted. "The end kept always in view is to impress the principles of mathematical truth clearly and deeply on the mind, by careful explanations, by daily examinations, and by constant application of these principles by the students themselves to numerous examples taken from the text books and from other sources." Professor Cross believes in making a clear presentation to the student of the principles of mathematics, without applying them to any great number of special cases. In his opinion, much valuable time is wasted in the solution of problems. If a student can give, for instance, the general solution of a quadratic equation, then there is no need of solving dozens of special exercises under this head. In geometry careful attention is given to the correct understanding of the demonstrations given in the book, but little or no effort is made to solve original exercises. In the class room Professor Cross preserves strict. discipline and is earnest in the discharge of his duties. When the routine work of the day is over, his mind finds relaxation and rest in a good game of chess or checkers. Students in the mechanical and physical science courses study an alytical mechanics under Professor Ayres six hours per week during the second half of the Junior year. This subject has been exceedingly well taught. The text-book used heretofore in connection with lectures has been Wood's Analytical Mechanics. This is a good text-book, inasmuch as the subject is taken up more or less inductively, and a large * Catalogue of the Tulane University of Louisiana, 1888-89, p. 46. |