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had it not been carefully suppreft. It their returning to their duty, but was a letter of the Earl of Melfort's said nothing of the instructions, commy

Lord Dundee, when he sent missions, and pernicious advices he over your Majesty's Declaration, in bad sent along, believing (as unwhich was contained not only an In- doubtedly) it would have hindered derinity, but a Tolerance, for all per- us from joining with them, for by fuasions. This the Earl of Melfort this we ihould have clearly seen it believed would be checking to Dun- was only trying to make a better bardee, confidering his great hatred to gain for themselves, made them fanaticks, for he 'writes, That, not change parties, and not out of any withstanding of what was promised sentiments of conviction, for having in your Declaration, Indemnity and done amiss: but though it was very Indulgence, yet he had couched evident to us what disorders we would things so, that you would break them make among our enemies, and what when you pleased, nor would you profit to your party by going into think yourself obliged to stand to the Parliament, yet to join with our them. This not only dissatisfied him, mortal enemies, only to make the one but also many of your friends, who half ruin the other; and to take the thought a more ingenuous way of Oath of Allegiance to an Usurper; dealing better both for your honour and to comply with them in things and interest : which thews how that had always been against our much the Declarations of injured principles, were so hard to get over, Princes to their subjects are to be de. that some of us had greater difficulpended upon. The second passage ties to overcome them; nor even (page 119 ) acquaints us, • That the could any have done it, but the great Prince of Orange (so the Author desire we had to be instruments of calls the late King William III.) your Majesty's Restoration, and Ruin was so weary of the Scots, that he of


Enemies.' This, without told Duke Hamilton, that he was so any further comment, plainly shews, much troubled about their debates, that the Scotch Jacobites would stick that he wished he were a thousand at nothing that is base and infamous : miles from England, and that he were for what can be more so than the never King of it.' But here either breaking of solemn oaths ? the Author, or the transcribers of “ This shews likewise how little his manuscript, committed a mistake; their professions of affection and loyfor King William's saying was, That alty to King George are to be relied he wished Scotland were a thousand on, who have all along notoriously miles from England, and that Duke been in another intereft. To this Hamilton were King of it.' The purpose we may compare the Address third paliage I shall quote, is this of the Scotch Highlanders, prioted (page 129, 130.): Sir James Mont. in the Flying Poft of January 30th, gomery, in the first meeting we had 1713-14, and presented to the late with him, laid out the great advan. Queen Anne, with the Letter from tages your interest could obtain, if the Chieftains of the Highıland Clans, this succeeded (viz. the Jacobites to the Earl of Mar, printed first in joining with the Williamites, in order the Poft-Boy of October 7, then in to break the army.) The ftrength the Scots Courant of the 13th of Ocof his own party, and all the influ- tober; and lastly reprinted in the ence he had over them. He told us Daily Courant, of the 23d of the likewise of their sending a mellenger fame month." to your Majesty, with aflurances of

These memoirs, a few years after,

were * A Scoticism for foocking.

F 2

were the occasion of the author's son memoirs at his grace the Duke of
being brought into some danger, as Wharton's house, in Lincoln’s-inn-
may be seen from the following para- fields, and did propose to fight a duel
graph in the British Journal, Janua. as next morning ; but the same was
ry 30, 17253

prevented, Mr Lockhart being put
“On Tuesday night laft, his Grace under an arrest before day by Cul.
the Duke of Hamilton and Mr Lock. Howard, and had notice given him
bart, son to Mr Lockhart, who wrote of what was intended by a Justice of
the Memoirs of Scotland, had the the Peace, who was present when
misfortune to quarrel about the said the quarrel happened.”

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Translated from the German.

HE celebrated St. Evremond ments or misfortunes, I had recourse

gave the following advice to his to his remedy, and always with the friend Count d'Olone, who had been happiest success. Researches respectbanished from the court of Louis ing the oature of that powerful anXIV. “The unfortunate ought never tidote against melancholy, will not to read books which may give them therefore I hope displease those, who, occasion to be afflicted on account of tormented by its black vapours, may the miseries of maokind; but rather have need of such asistance. A celethose which may amuse them with brated physician of the mind t, who their follies; prefer therefore Lucian, with this remedy performed miracuPetronius, and Don Quixote, to Se- lous cures, shall be my guide. The neca, Plutarch, and Montaigne.” In English call this antidote Humour, the early part of my youth, I hap. and its history is as follows: It was pened to meet with this passage, and found out among the Greeks by AI have fince often reflected upon this ristophanes: and after him Lucian, great truth, that events, apparently and other authors who succeeded, of very little importance, have fome- carried it to perfection. Plautus, times the greatest influence upon our Horace, and Petronius, among the happiness or unhappiness during the ancient Romans, employed it with course of our lives.

advantage ; among the modern LaThe lively imprefsion which the tinifts, Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, advice of St. Evremond made on my and Holberg ; among the Italians, mind, induced me very clearly to Pulci, Ariosto, Cæsar Caporali, Pasfollow it ; and whenever I fouod my- seroni, Gozzi, and Goldoni ; among self too much afflicted by disappoint. the Spaniards, Cervantes, Quevedo,

Hurtodo * Though it is generally believed, and though Congreve has been at great pains to prove, that the words humour and bumourist are originally English, it is however certain that they are derived from the Italian. We find the word umorisa in the comedies of Buonarotti, who wrote in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and it was employed also by several other writers of that period. According to the Dictionary della Crusca, this word fignifies fome one, che ha bumore, persona fantasica ed inconftante. In the beginning of the last century, there was a society or academy at Rome, called Societa de gli humoristi.

The French have no expreffion answering to humour, in the sense in which it is here taken. Facetiofité is, perbaps, that which would approach neareft to it could it be adopted. The Germans bave Laune, and the Dutch Luim, which correspond perfectly with the meaning of our English word.

+ Fielding, in his Covent Garden Journal, No. 35.

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Hurtodo de Mendoza, Diego de Lu- serve as examples. Politeness and na, Luis Velez de Guevera, and Fa- good breeding tend indeed to extirther Ina; among the Freach, Rabe. pate all those seeds of humour, which lais, Cyrano de Bergerac, Sorel, Mo. nature has implanted in our souls. liere, Regnard, Dufresny, La Fon. To convince the reader of the jutttaine, and Scarron in his Roman Co. ness of this observation, I muit' exmique ; and among the English, Shak. plain in what humour confifts. Sevespeare, Ben Jonson, Butler, Con- ial authors have spoken of it, as an greve, Shadwell, Swift, Addison, impenetrable mystery ; but what is Steel, Arbuthnot, Fielding, Smollet, most extraordinary is, that others and Sterne. Of the Germans, I shall have given a very clear and juft defisay nothing ; by naming no one in nition of it, affuring us, at the same particular, none of my countrymen, time, that they did not know what who have pretensions to Humour, it was. Congreve says, in a letter to can reproach me with having treated Dennis, “ We cannot determine them with neglea *.

what humour is,” and a little after, England produces more characters “there is a great difference between of this kind than any country in Eu- a comedy in which there are many rope, and the cause of this is attri- humourous passages, that is to say, buted to that liberty, which distin- expreffed with gaiety ; and those, the guishes the English Government from characters of which are so conceived, all others. This opinion appears that they serve to distinguish in an very probable ; but I should believe effential manner the personages from it to be better founded, were we to one another. This humour,” contake the word liberty in a more ex tinues he, “is a fingular and unatensive sense, and to consider it not voidable manner of speaking and act. only as the absence of arbitrary pow. ing, peculiar and natural to one man er, and of all restraint imposed by only, by which his speech and acthe laws, but as a neglect of those tions are distinguished from those of rules of conduct, which are expressed other men. The relation of our hu. by the words urbanity and politevefs. mour with ourselves, and our actions, These laws are not written, and the resembles that of the accidental to execution of them does not depend the fubftance. This humour is a coon the sovereign power ; but in the lour and a taste, which is diffused circle where they are adopted, they over the whole man. Whatever be are perhaps better observed than the diversity of our actions in their those which, under the sanction of objects and forms, they are, as one Government, have been formed into may say, all chips of the same block.” a code. An entire freedom from such This definition of Congreve has been rules, is, if I mistake not, absolutely attacked by Homet. According to pece Mary for Humour.

Fielding's this author, a majestic and commandSquire Western, and Sir Andrew ing air, and juftness of expreffion in Freeport, in The Spectator, may conversation, ought also to be called


* The principal humourous writers among the Germans are Henry Alcmar, who wrote a heroi comic poc m, Rollinhagen, whom they confidir as their Rabelais, Lilcow, Wieland, Michalis, Lavater, &c. The Dutch have Van Moonen, Ruiting, Weyerman, Doeyden, Dekker, Huygens, Langendyk, and Frokenbrog, who is ace counted the Dutch Scarron.

To the English writers of this class, mentioned by the author, we may join Garth, Philips, and Prior. Among the Italians we may reckon also Dolce, Aritin, and the Archbishop de la Casa, author of a work entituled Capitolo del Forno,

+ Elements of Criticism, vol. ii. page 44:

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humour, if the opinion of Congreve readily observe, how much humour be true; and he adds, that we can mult offend againit the rules of po not call humour any thing that is just liteness and good breeding; fince or proper, or any thing that we ef. both confilt in the art of suiting our teem and refpect, in the actions, the conduct to certain regulations, tacitly conversation, or the character of adopied and generally followed by men.

all those who live wiih us in society. Ben Jonson, whom I shall quote Thus far have I spoken of humour, as one of the first humourists of his as belonging to character: I fall nation, says in one of his conuedies*, now consider that which is to be

-Humour as (tis ens) we thus define found in compofition. Singularity,

and a certain air of seriouincis, indi.
To be a quality of air, or water, cate humour in character, and they
And in itielf holds these two properties, are also the marks of humour in wri.
Moisture and fluxure : as for demontira- ting. I his fingularity and rifibility

tion, Pour water on this floor, 'will wet and

are found either io che invention for

the style t. An author poilelles real Likewise the air forc'd through a horn bumour, when, with an air of gravi. or trumpet

ty, he paints objects in such colours Flows inftantly away, and leaves behind as promote mirth and excite laughA kind of dew; and hence we do conclude,

ter; and in company, we often obThat whatsoe'er bath Auxure and humis serve the effect which this humour dity,

produces on the mind. When, for As wanting power to contain itself, example, two perfons amuse themBhumour.' So in every human body, felves in telling ludicrous tales, he The choler, melancholy, phlegm, and who laughs before he begins to speak, blood,

will neither interest nor entertain the By reason that they flow continually In fome one part, and are not continent, auditors half as mach as he who re. Receive the name of humourous. Now lates gravely, and without the least thus far

appearance even of a smile. 1 be It may, by metaphor, apply itself

reason of this, perhaps, is the force Unto the general disposition: As when lome voe peculiar quality

that contrait has upon the mind. Doth fo poffets a man, that it doiń draw There are some authors, who treat All his affects, his fpirits, and his powers serious subjects in a burleique ftyle, In their constructions, all to run as Tasfoni in the Rape of the Bucket, way.

and Scarron in his Typlcn. Such These three explanations may ena. authors, without doubt, excite mirth, ble us to give a fourth. Humour, but as they are different from real then, in my opinion, is a strong im. humourifts, we cannot properly rank pulse of the soul towards a particular them in that class. They possess onobject, which a person judges to be ly the burlesque, which is very difof great importance, although it be tinct from humour s. However, if not so in reality, and which, by con- their works are good, they are no ftantly engaging bis most serious at less deserving of praife. Nó kind of tention, makes him diftinguish him- poetry is contemptible, from the epo. self from others in a ridiculous man. pea and tragedy to fairy tales and ner. If this explanation be just, as I farces. Every thing consists in treat. hope it will be found, the reader will ing a subject well; and the Devil

* Every Man out of his Humour.
+ Gulliver's Travels.
| Tom Jones, by Fielding.
$ Fielding, in his differtation prefixed to Jofeph Andrews.


tét Loafe*, may be as good in one rious manner. "Sir Roger L'Efrange, kind, as Zara is another. Irony and in his translation of Josephus, speak. parody are great helps to authors ing of a queen extremely violent and who are humourilts. Of this Lucian passionate, who was so much displeaffurnishes proofs without number. ed with a proposition made to her by

In this species of writing, comic a certain ambassador, that scarcely comparisons have a great effect, e- had the latter finished his speech, fpecially when one part is taken from when she rose up suddenly and retira morals and the other from nature. ed, translates the latter part of this Of this, the first chapter of Tom sentence in the following manner, Joues may ferve as an example. The searce had the ambasador finished his author there compares himself to a speech, when up was Madam. No one person who keeps a public ordinary ; will be attonifhed at the humour his work is the dishes provided for which reigns throughout the works his grefts, and the titles to the chap- of Fontaine, when we are told that ters are his bill of fare. The fingu. this author asked an ecclefiaftic onc lar character of Uncle loby in Trif- day, with much gravity, whether Ratrain Shandy, and many paisages in belais or St. Augustine had moft The Spectator and Tatler are of the wit t. An author who is a humourist same kind, and may all serve as mo will do better to attack small foibles dels of true humour.

than great vices. As men fall into In Dr Johnson's Idler, we find also the former every hour, without rea passage of this kind, where the au- flecting, they have more need to be thor proves, that the qualities requi- reminded of them; while the laws fire to conversation are very exactly take care to suppress the latter, The represented by a bowl of punch: Archbishop of La Casa was therefore

“ Punch,” says he, " is a liquor right in saying, that he would be pounded of spirit and acid juices, su. more obliged to one who should tell gar and water. The spirit, volatile him the means of securing himself and fiery, is the proper emblem of from the stinging of insects, than vivacity and wit; the acidity of the to one who ñould teach him how limou will very aptly figure pungen- to prevent his being bit by tygers or cy of raillery and acrimony of cen. lions. sure ; sugar is the natural represen

observations respect. tative of luscious adulation and gentle ing this powerful antidote against complaisance ; and water is the pro. melancholy, and I advise all those per hieroglyphic of easy pratile, in. who may be subject to frequent fits nocent and taftclefs."

of it, to read a few pages of Lucian, Authors who possess humour in Don Quixote, Tom Jones, Triftram character, show it also in their writ. Shandy, or some other work of the ings ; strokes of it even escape invo. fame kind; the falutary effects of luntarily from them, when they wish which, I am certain, they will soon to treat a subject in a grave and se. experience.

These are my



HESE Letters were written Baillie of Nion, Author of " Letters

to Charles von Bonstetten; on the Pastoral Parts of Switzer


A German Comedy so called. † It is well known that Fontaine asked this question of the Abbć Boileau, brother of the celebated poet, who made no other answer than to tell him, that he had put on one of his stockings with the incide out, which was really the case.

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