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seems well informed, it is asserted that he engaged himself as usher to the Brown • submitted in his youth to be school which he had lately quittede a reaper of corn, to procure for him. In this capacity he officiated a whole self the means of improvement.

With
year.

In the course of this year, the price of such labour he put him. one of the classes in the high school at self to school, where his abilities and Edinburgh becoming vacant, Brown ardour attracted the notice of his appeared as a candidate, but proved mafter, and procured him the place unsuccessful. During his residence of afliltant to the school. His revolt at Dunse, it was remarked, that the from the loom, according to this ac. ftrictness of his religious priociples count, must have been attended with was relaxed. He even began to be highly honourable circumstances. accounted licentious both in his prin. Considering the energy of his mind, ciples and conduct. Ai a later pewe cannot be surprised that a little riod he was open enough in his avow. cultivation should have rendered the al of irreligion. gloomy and uniform labour of a wea. At the time he renounced divi. ver distasteful. The years of Brown's nicy, the scene before him must have grammar education appear to have directed his thoughts to the ftudy of Been, in no common degree, well fpent medicine. The only difficulty lay and happy, and he continued at school in the expence : but his observations until he had nearly attained the age might have fuggefted the means of of twenty. In the summer of 1755 overcoming this difficulty, indepenhis reputation as a scholar procured dently of the encouraging circumhim the appointment of tutor in a stance we shall mention. He must family of some diflinction in the have been aware, that Audents of neighbourhood of Dunse. But here phyfic are, in general, by no means he did not long continue to be an such proficients in classical acquire. agreeable inmate. It is likely enough, ments, as to speak Latio with tolerthat he added the ftiff ess of pedantry able fluency. Hence, before the exto the fourness of bigotry. When aminations for a D«ctor's degree, deprived of this employment, he re. which are carried on in Lalin, it is paired to the university of Edinburgh. common to have recourse to a pri. In this busy seat of science, after vate instructor, who converses with going through the usual course of the candidates in that language. This philosophy, he regularly entered upon preparation is familiarly called grindhis theological studies: he attended ing as a similar process at Cambridge the lectures, diligently applied to the is called cramming. The translation study of the authors recommended hy of inaugural differtations into Latin, the profeffor, and proceeded fo far,,as which the ftudents, in moft instances, to deliver in the public hall a discourse compose for themfelves in Englifh, upon a prescribed portion of ferip is another occupation from which a ture; which is an academical exercise good scholar may derive emolument previous to ordina ion as a clergyman at Edinburgh ; the ordinary gratui. of the Scottish establishment at this ty for a translation being five, and point he stopped, a'id relinquished the for an original compofition, teu guiprofession of divinity altogether : the neas. sequel will fufficiently explain his Of his qualifications for these motives for this change. Its imme: employments, accident, shortly after diate consequence was, his retrcat his unsuccessful competition for a vafrom Edinburgh to Dunfe. Here, to cancy in the high school, furnished gain time, as may be supposed, for him with an agreeable proof. Aparranging the plan of his future life, plication being made to one of his

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friends to recommend a person to He feemed to be happy in his fami.
turn a thesis into Latin, Mr Brown ly, and, as far as I could ever ob.
was mentioned. He performed the serve, acquitted himself affectionately
task in a manner that exceeded the as a husband and a parent. He ftill
expectations both of the friend and frequented the medical claffes, and I
the candidate. When it was observe heard him say, he had now attended
ed how much he bad excelled the them ten or eleven years.'
ordinary Atyle of such compofitions, We have seen how liberally
he said, he had now discovered his Brown was treated on his entrance
strength, and was ambitious of riding upon the Itudy of medicine. From
in his own carriage as a physic:an. the ce ebrated Cullen he early re-

Towards the clofe of 1759, therefore, cived the moft flattering marks of
he settled at Edinburgh in the dou attention. I his fpeculatift, like
ble capacity of teacher and liudent. Boerhaave, and other men of genius

In certain universities, deftitute in the same itation, was accustomed of foundations or yearly ftipends for to watch the Auctuating body of fta fcholars, the students live dispersed dents with a vigilant eye, and to seek in ordinary dwelling houses; and the acquaintance of the most promifthis dispersion is not less favourable ing. 1 here was a period when he to diligence and regularity than a made the greatest exertions to gain residence in colleges. In mixed com- profelytes to his opinions, and his panies, the vicious propensities, pe. mind was doubtless alive to that pleaculiar to any class of individuals, will sure, which the encouragement of never be countenanced; or, in the merit affords to all who are capable language of Dr Adam Smith, a whole of discerning it, when no dread of company can never sympathize in rivalship interferes with the gratifi. those unbecoming practices to which cation. But Brown's power over a few only feel themselves inclined. the Latin language served him as a

Brown, who now seems to have peculiar recommendation, and his cire fupported himself in affluence as a cumltances might induce Cullen to single man, perceived, in the establish believe, that he could render this ta. ment of a boarding house for itu. lent permanently useful to himself. dents, a resource, which would ena- Taking, therefore, its poffeffor unble him to maintain a family. His der his immediate patronage," he reputation for various attainments gave him employment as a private inwas, he thought, likely to draw itructor in his own family, and spar. round him a number fufficient to filled no pains in recommending him to a large house. With this prospect others. A

very

strict and confiden. he married in 1765, and his success tial intimacy ensued. The favoured answered his expectations, His house pupil was at length permitted to give was soon filled with respectable board- an ivening le&ure, in which he reers : but he lived too splendidly for peated and perhaps illustrated the his income, and, according to the in morning lecture of the professor, for formation of Mr Wait, managed so which purpose he was entrusted with ill, that in two or three years he be Cullen's own notes: it is well known, came bankrupt. Towards the end however, that this friendihip was veof 1770, though reduced in his cirry far from permanent. cumitances, he maintained the inde. Our materials do not furnish pendence of his character, proving fufficient information concerning the himself to be, in the language of his cause or pretext of an alienation, favourite Horace,

which was certainly injurious to the Satis inter vilia fortis. dependent party, and perhaps detri

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mental to society. In a communi. As we are not sufficiently acquainted cation from Dr S-- to Dr Bed with the particulars, we cannot vendoes, it is said, that after the failure ture to appreciate his conduct ; but of his boarding house, he became the mortal affront was given, when impatient, and unfortunately quarrel. Brown attempted to gain admission led with Dr Cullen, from a supposi into that philofophical society which tion, that the Doctor had it in his published the Edinburgh Eflays Afpower to ex!ricate him from embar. ter this transaction an open rupture rassinent, by placing him in a more took place ; bue however it arose, liberal and lucrative situation in the the account furnished, if not written mudii al line.' Dr Beddves remem by Brown, evinces that boch parties bers to have heard a report at Edin had before conceived a secret jealousy burgh coinciding with this intima. of each other. tion, When the theoretical chair of • Being estranged from Dr Cul. medicine became vacant, either on len's family, he gradu ily became the death of Dr Alexinder Monro his greatest enemy, and shortly afcer. Drummond, or the refusal of this wards found out the new theory of promising young man to fill it, B own phyfic, which gave occasion to his gave in his name as a candidate. On publishing the • Elementa Medicia former occasion, of a nature fome næ,' in the preface to which wurk what fimilar, he had disdained to a. he gives an account of the accident vail himself of recommendation, that led to this discovery. which he might have obtained with probation his work met with among eale; and though he acquitted him his friends encouraged him to give, felf in a manner far fuperior to the letures upon his lyitem. Though other candidates, private interest thin his lectures were not very numerously pruvailed over the more juft priten. attended by the students, on account sions of inerit. Ar the present com- of their dependance upon the propetition he was also without recom feffors, still it was always remarked, mendation. Such was his fimplicity, that the most clever among them that he seems to have conceived no. were all, as they were now called by thing beyond pre-eminent qualifica. way of nicknamé, Brunonjans. Hence tions necessary to success. The Ma- arose that perfecution, which was giltrateg of Étinburgh appoint Pro- carried on with such rancour, that it feffors to the College as well as at length obliged him to leave EdinMasters to the School. They are burgh.' The above quotation is reported, deridingly, to have enquir- from Dr S--, which in fome pared who this unknown and unfriended ticulars is by no means exact, and in candidate was ! and Cullen, on be- others the Itatement is overcharged. ing shewn the name, after fome real Meanwhile, if it be undeniable, that or affe&ted hefitation, is said to have as the Cullenian hypotheses were exclaimed, in the vulgar dialect of finking into disrepute, many of the the country,— Why fure, this can ableit students refürted to the ftane never be our Jock!' With this sneer dard of Brown, it ought not to be the application of a man was set a- forgotten, that it was joined allo by fide, whose equal the patrons of the the most idle and disolute. Their Edinburgh profeffors will not proba- misconduct, and their matter's imbly foon have an «pportunity of re- prudence in private life, together jecting Whether such a sarcasm with the offensive manner in which was uttered or not, Cullen complete he spoke of himself and others, kept ly estranged the mind of his Latin the syitem and the author in con{ecretary on a subsequent occafion. iftant discredit. He was soon in a

ftate

State of open hostility with all the when he thinks of the system of his medical teachers at Edinburgh, and ancient friend and master. it required nicer management than During the heat of contention he could observe, to keep on fair between the opposers and defenders terms with other practitioners of me of the few syftem, an event happen. diciue. Like other reformers, who ed, which we wish we could fairly have had to wrestle with powerful pass over in filence ; but as it has opposition, he committed and sustain. been already the subjict of more than ed injuftice. Like them too, where one piiblication, there can be no prehis fystem was concerned, he gradu- tence for the omisli n. ally lost his sense of equity. If we Mr Isaacfon, a student of media judge by lis language, the only way cine, had been seized with a fever, he had to sew his difpofition, his which in its progrels exhibited the countryman Kaux could scarcely moft alarming symptoms. Dr Dunhave exceeded him in ferocity. Thus, can was first called in, and afterwards having remarked that the doctrine Dr Monro. Dr Robert Jones, a new of spasm, fuggested by Van Hel. graduate, and a friend to Mr Isaac. mont, and clumsily wrought up into lon, tampered with the nurse to ina system by Hoffman, was banished duce her fecretly to adminifter strong by Boerhaave from the country ftimulant med.cines : they were givwhich give it birth, "it found at en, as he asserts in his · Enquiry,' for last,' he adds, ' amidit a new perse. about twenty-four hours, with such cution raised against it by the pupils effect, that, on their next visit, the of Boerhaave, then in the posiffion phyfcians declared the patient free of the medical chairs at Edinburgh, from fever,' though before he had a friend and protector in Dr Cullen, all the fymptoms of approaching who had lately become one of the death. In the afternoon, however, number of those professors. This of the same day, he was seized with brat,' he proceeds, the feeble, half- a raging delirium, Jones, in his alarm, vital, femi-production of frenzy, the applied to his preceptor; the pricepfarveling of strained lystematic dul- tor, being told that the nurse defired ness, the forlorn outcast of the fotter to see him, ordered her to be brought ing care to which it owed its insect before him. When the was brought vitality, was now to be pampered by before him, he complimented her by a crude and indigeftible nutriture, a folemn appeal to her undertanding collected from all the materials which concerning the great principles of had composed the several fabrications his system. «* He endeavoured te of former erroneous fyllems, was to assure her, that there was either no be decorated with every foreign inflammation in the case at all, or plumage, and in this its totally bor. that it was a very different affection rowed and heterogeneous form, in- from the inflammation that phyfifiead of the hideous caricatura which cians were acquainted with ; that init was contrived to excite the deri- ftead of requiring bleeding, and other fion of mankind, it was to be otten. evacuant antiphlogistic means, it retatiously obtruded upon the world quired the very same treatment which

new and respectable doctrine, had been lait employed ; and he as. and held up, forthwith, as the for- serted with confidence, that the in. midable rival of a splendid fyftem *.' termission of the stimulant powers Such is the torrent of metaphors through the day was the cause of all that rushes upon his imagination, that had happened ; that, in short,

the *«Obscrvations on the Old Systems of Phyfic,” 1787, p. 31.

† Jones's “ Enquiry:"p. 136.

as a

the present affection was a disease of The body was opened ; several perdebility of the whole system, predo- fons were prefent. During the examinant in the brain, in consequence mination of the appearances, Brown, of the great finking of ftrength which with an air of great sagacity, remark. conftantly follows a total ciflition of ed that the body was unutually freth. the use of such highly stimulating The diffecting surgeon, whom per. powers. He begged, therefore, as haps kindred devotion to Bacchus the life of a fellow-creature was at had inspired with tenderness for the Atake, and as the had been fo late a Doctor, replied, that, considering the witness of the good effects resulting circumitances, he had scarce seen an from the method of cure, the conti- instance where putrefa&tion had made nuance of which he Atill recommend- such little progress. • Then, Gen. ed, that she would not allow preju. tlemen,' rejoined the Doctor, 'I apdice and impressions from the false peal to you, whether we may not theories of physicians, among whom consider this as a clear proof of the fhe had been converlant, to prevail propriety of our practice.' over the high probability of success Brown was elected President of from this mode of cure. He di'mil. the Medical society in 1976, and a. fed her, after obtaining a promise that gain iu 1780. The would continue the plan of cure Observing the students of medi. in question.'

cine frequently to seek initiation into Brown, for a comic figure, was the myfteries of free masonry, our not inferior to Sancho Panza, or in- author thought their youthful curiodeed much unlike that entertaining lily afforded him a chance of prosepersonage ; and this clandestine con- lytes. In 1784 he instituted a meet. ference, if it had been delineated by ing of that fraternity, and entitled Cervantes, would have made a good it 'The Lodge of the Roman Eagle. companion for the nocturnal inter- The business was conducted in the view between Don Quixotte and the Latin language, which he spoke venera le Duenna Donna Rodriguez. with the same fluency and animatioa

The patient, however, thanks as he spoke Scotch. "I was much di. be to fortune, skill, or virtue, reco. verted,' adds Dr Macdonald, .by vered. The Brunonians placed the his ingenuity in turning into Latin cure to the credit of their practice, all the terms used in masonry? which they reported to have been In unfolding his system, it was successful after Dr Duncan and Dr his practice first to transate the text Monro had given the patient over ; book, sentence by fentence, and then they published the case; they affert. to expatiate upon the passage. For ed, that the cure gave great vexa- most of his pupils a translation was tion to the attendant physicians, and highly necessary, and he must have all their partizans;' and, with the confidered it as politic to combine lipolicy usual among aggreffors, they terary with scientific instruction. . complained that Dr Brown was ill. The prospect of this double advan. treated, because he was blamed in tage might perhaps, from time to • the numerous circles of the phyfi. time, bring him a few additional cians' friends, and his enemies, while hearers; but whatever was the absono opportunity was offered him lute or comparative merit of the the. of vindicating himself from these ory he taught, his feats were seldom charges.'

crowded. Altudent of medicine died of a The introductory lecture was in. low fever, in spite of the full and a- tended to impress upon his audience vowed use of diffufible stimulants. a sense of the importance of the lec

turer's

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