The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America: Or, The Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Garden and Orchard, of Fruit Trees Generally

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J. Wiley & sons, 1859 - 760 Seiten
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Seite 6 - All fine fruits are artificial products ; the aim of nature, in a wild state, being only a healthy, vigorous state of the tree, and perfect seeds for continuing the species. It is the object of culture, therefore, to subdue, or enfeeble this excess of vegetation ; to lessen the coarseness of the tree ; to diminish the size of the seeds ; and to refine the quality and increase the size of the flesh or pulp. There is always a tendency in our varieties of fruit trees to return by their seeds towards...
Seite 39 - The following season each shoot at the extremities of the leading branches should produce, besides the leading shoot, one on the upper and two on the under part, more or less, according to the vigour of the tree; whilst each of the secondary branches should produce, besides the leading shoot, one other, placed near to the bottom ; for the grand art of pruning, in all systems to which this class of trees are subjected, consists in preserving a sufficient quantity of young wood at the bottom...
Seite 52 - They are found upon almost all parts of plants, the roots, stems, young shoots, buds, and leaves, and there is scarcely a plant which does not harbor one or two kinds peculiar to itself. They are, moreover, exceedingly prolific, for Reaumur has proved that one individual, in five generations, may become the progenitor of nearly six thousand millions of descendants.
Seite 706 - ... the finest of all old pears, whose duration we had hoped, but in vain, to perpetuate. For except in certain sections of the city, and some very few solitary and highly favored situations in the country around, they have become either so uncertain in their bearing — so barren — so unproductive — or so miserably blighted — so mortally diseased — that they are no longer to be trusted ; — they are no longer what they were once with us, and what many of them are still described to be by...
Seite v - I must add a counterpart to this. lie who"bwns a rood of proper land in this country, and, in the face of all the pomonal riches of the day, only raises crabs and choke-pears, deserves to lose the respect of all sensible men.
Seite 241 - Fruit large, roundish, about two inches and a quarter in diameter each way, on a standard tree ; ratber larger on one side of the suture than the other. Skin orange in the shade, but deep orange or brownish red in the sun, marked with numerous dark specks and dots. Flesh quite firm, bright orange, parting free from the stone, quite juicy, with a rich and luscious flavor. Stone peculiarly perforated along the back, where a pin may be pushed through nearly from one end to the other.
Seite 30 - ... (which it must be remembered are the principal channels for the passage of the ascending supply of food) renders the upward and downward circulation tardy, and the growth is small. By heading back or pruning judiciously, all the force of the nourishing fluid is thrown into a smaller number of buds, which make new and luxuriant shoots, larger sapvessels, and which afford a ready passage to the fluids, and the tree with these renewed energies will continue in vigor for a long time.
Seite 40 - Whatever system of training is pursued, the leading branches should be laid in in the exact position they are to remain ; for, wherever a large branch is brought down to fill the lower part of the wall, the free ascent of the sap is obstructed by the extension of the upper and contraction of the lower parts of the branch. It is thus robbed of part of its former vigour, whilst it seldom fails to throw out immediately behind the part most bent one or more vigorous shoots.
Seite 89 - The Yellow is handsomer, and has a higher perfume than the Green, and its flesh is rather firmer and equally high flavored ; while the Green is more juicy, crisp, and tender. The Yellow is rather flatter, measuring only about two inches deep, and it is always quite oblique — projecting more on one side of the stalk than the other. When fully ripe, it is yellow, with a rather lively red cheek and a smooth skin, few or none of the spots on the Green variety, but the same russet marks at the stalk.
Seite 9 - The compounding or mixture of kinds in plants is not found out ; which nevertheless, if it be possible, is more at command than that of living creatures ; wherefore it were one of the most notable experiments touching plants to find it out, for so you may have great variety of new fruits, and flowers yet unknown.

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