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Both authors then state how Geraint said to the the conditious to be observed, and the earl answered queen that he would go to the next town for arms, him, sayingwhich he would either borrow or buy, and would Mabinogion.-" In the midst of a meadow...two forks then demand an apology from the knight for the will be set up, and upon the two forks a silver rod, and currish behaviour of the dwarf. When the prince upon the..,, rod a sparrow-hawk, and for the sparrow-hawk

there will be a tournament...and no man can joust... got to the town he found it full, and every man

except the lady he loves best be with him...but thou hast was busy preparing for a tournament to be held neither dame nor maiden...for whom thou canst joust." on the morrow. Some were polishing armour, Tennyson.-" In this tournament can no man tilt others sharpening swords or shoeing horses, so that Except the lady he loves best be there. it was impossible to get attended to, and as for Two forks are fixt into the meadow ground, buying or borrowing arms, it was quite out of the

And over these is placed a silver wand,

And over that a golden sparrow-hawk, question.

The prize of beauty... Mabinogion.-At a little distance from the town the But thou that hast no lady canst not fight.” prince saw an old...castle falling to decay...and a bridge ...leading to it. Upon the bridge he observed a boary: wilt permit me to challenge for yonder maiden...I will

Mabinogion.—“Ah, sir," said he [Geraint), “if...thou headed man sitting, clad in tattered garments..."Young man,”, said he, “why art thou so thoughtful?" "Be engage if I escape... to love her as long as I live ; and if cause," said he, “I know not where to go to-night.”..

I do not escape, she will remain unsullied as before.”... At "Come then this way,” said the old man, "and thou night, lo! they went to sleep, and before the dawn they shalt have the best I can provide." 80 Geraint followed arose...and by the time that it was day they were... in him.

the meadow. Tennyson.—Then rode Geraint...and

Tennyson.-- To whom Geraint: Beheld...in a long valley...a castle in decay,

“Let me lay lance in rest...for this dear child... Beyond a bridge that spanned a dry ravine.

And if I fall, her name will yet remain There musing sat the hoary-headed earl

Untarnished as before; but if I live... (His dress a suit of frayed magnificence).

I will make her truly my true wife."

[Then all retired for the night, ] “ Whither, fair son ?" he said. Geraint replied, “O friend, I seek a harbourage for the night."

And when the pale and bloodless east began ["Come then, the old man said,] " and partake

To quicken to the sun, arose...and moved My slender entertainment."...

Down to the meadow where the jousts were held. Then rode Geraint into the castle court.

Then follows the battle, in which the two comMabinogion.—[Having come to the castle] in a cham- batants were matched, till Yniol wentber he beheld a decrepit old woman, sitting on a cushion, Mabinogion.-And said, “ Remember the insult to clad in an old tattered garment of satin...and beside her Gwenhwyvar, the wife of Arthur.” Then Geraint called a maiden, upon whom were a vest and a veil that were... up all his strength, and lifted up his sword and struck beginning to be worn out... The hoary-headed man said the knight upon the crown of his head, so that he broke to the maiden, "There is no attendant for the stranger's all his head-armour, and cut thro' the flesh and skin... horse but thyself." "I will render the best service I am until he wounded the bone. able," said she...and when she returned the old man said

Tennyson.— And either force was matched, till to her, “Go now to the town and bring hither the best

Yniol's cry, that thou canst find, both of meat and drink"...and she

“Remember that great insult done the queen," went to the town to do her [his] bidding.

Increased Geraint's, who heaved his blade aloft
Tennyson.-[When the prince entered the castle] And cracked the helmet thro' and bit the bone.
He found an ancient dame in dim brocade,
And near her...

Geraint then granted the vanquished man his Moved the fair Enid, all in faded silk,

life on the usual conditions. Her daughter... Then (said) the hoary earl,

Mabinogion.-" Thou shalt go to Gwenliwyvar, the “Enid, the good knight's horse stands in the court, wife of Arthur, and offer satisfaction for the insult which Take him to stall and give him corn, and then the maiden received from thy dwarf.”... And (the knight Go to the town and buy us flesh and wine."

made answer], " This will I do gladly."...And he went Mabinogion.- To the town went the maiden. And forward to Arthur's court. the old man with his guest conversed together till her Tennyson.—“Thou shalt ride to Arthur's court, and return. She came back, and a youth with her, bearing

coming there on bis back a costrel full of meat and wine. The maiden Crave pardon for that insult done the queen.' carried in her hand a store of white bread, and some And Edyrn answered, “ These things will I do."... manchet bread in her veil...and they caused the meat to And rising up he rode to Arthur's court. be boiled...and when all was ready they sat down...and

E. COBHAM BREWER. the maiden served them.

Lavant. Tennyson.-8. Enid...reached the town, and while

(To be continued.)
the prince and earl
Yet spoke together, came again with one,
A youth, that following with a costrel, bore

THE RUTHERFURD PEERAGE.
The means of goodly welcome, filesh and wine,
And Enid brought sweet cakes to make them cheer,

In an article in the Gentleman's Magazine for And in her veil enfolded manchet bread.

January, 1867 (new series, vol. iii.), I find a question And then...she boiled the flesh, and spread the board, incidentally raised respecting a once famous ScotAnd stood behind and waited on the three.

tish peerage case, which produced a decidedly Geraint then asked about the tournament and acrimonious controversy, and enlivened more than one election of "the Sixteen” at Holyrood House from the Return, as printed in Nisbet, vol. ii. after a fashion not altogether unknown even in these pt. iv. (Fleming's edition, 1804) : decorous days. The writer of the article to which “ After the practice of creating peerages by patent the I refer describes the curious way in which the records, till of late, have been so carelessly kept that they supporters of the Lords Rutherfurd have been cannot be absolutely depended upon; patents of honour made the shuttlecocks of fortune, granted, it would have passed the Great Seal, and yet copies of the patents appear, by a Lyon King (of days anterior to his so passed are not to be met with in the Register of that

besides that of vol. 57 of the Register of the present Leonine majesty) to an English baronet Great Seal, in the keeping of the Lord Keeper, twelve without a drop of Rutherfurd blood in his veins, leaves are lost, by some accident now unknown; and it but who had purchased the estate of Rutherfurd; appears from the minute book that the patent of Barand assumed, it would appear (we should imagine geny and several others were passed at such time ; that without the Lyon's authority), by a Fifeshire they probably may have been entered in some of those

leaves that are lost....... family of good repute as heirs of line of the old

“ The practice of Scotland went still farther; and it Lords Rutherfurd, whose peerage they are under- was usual to obtain grants of honours not only to the stood to claim."

grantee and his heirs male, and of tailzie, referring to I have recently had the good fortune to come tailzie whom he might thereafter appoint to succeed

the particular entail then made, but also to bis heirs of across a very rare old pamphlet setting forth the him in his estate, and even to any person whom he doughty deeds of“ that Renowned General Andrew, should name to succeed him in his honours at any time Earl of Teviot, Lord Rutherfurd,” Governor of in his life, or upon death-bed: Now as it is impossible to Tangier, which was published “in Commemora- trace through the records such nominations and appointtion of his Fredecessor” by one of the rival ment, which in some cases may be valid, though not claimants, George Durie of Grange, styling himself Lords of Session are not

able to give your Lordships any George, Lord Rutherfurd,” who takes the oppor- reasonable satisfaction touching the limitations of the tunity to fulminate dire anathemas upon one peerages that are still continuing; and your Lordships John Rutherford, a reduc'd subaltern officer," who will further perceive the reason why, in the foregoing “of late arrogantly pretends to represent” the noble observations, they speak so doubtfully of the continuance family of Hunthill. The pamphlet is entitled :

of peerages which, were they to judge only on what

appears from the examination they have had of the re“The Moors Baffled, being a Discourse concerning cords, they should not doubt to report to be extinct or so Tangier....... In a Letter from a learned Person (long Re-conjoined with other titles of honour as not to be again sident in that Place) wrote at the Desire of a Person of separable." Quality, and now published.......With an Abbreviate of

In order that it may clearly be seen what were the Genealogy of the Family of Rutherford, there to the various questions to which the Rutherfurd annexed. Edinburgh, Printed by T. and W. Ruddimans, patent might give rise, I now cite the words of 1738."

limitation in the grant, which I give from Nisbet, This date is highly significant when read in con- who prints (vol. ii. app. ii.) the relative clauses of nexion with the election of a representative peer all the patents referred to in the Return of the for Scotland in that year, at which, as will be seen Court of Session :by the Return of the Court of Session, presently

“Andreas Rutherfurd, Legatus Generalis. to be cited, the two rival claimants renewed their

“ Carolus, &c. Fecisse, nominasse, constituisse, et protestations against each other. If we could be

creasse, Dominum Rutherfurd de -viz. ipsum Andream certain that the publication took place before the ejusque Hæredes masculos ex corpore suo legitime proelection we should incline to call the dedicatory creatos seu procreandos; quibus deficientibus, quam, letter to the king, which prefaces the whole work, cumque aliam Personam seu Personas quas sibi, quoad and is immediately followed by the genealogical vixerit

, quinetiam, in Articulo mortis ad ei succedendum; “Abbreviate,” a daring attempt to make His nitate, nominare et designare placuerit secundum NomiMajesty appear to the world as allowing the supe- nationem. et Designationem Manu ejus subscribendam, riority of George Durie's claim, which is explicitly subsque Provisionibus, Restrictionibus, et Conditionibus, asserted in the body of the Dedication, and a dice[o] Andrea pro ejus Arbitrio in dicta Designatione re-asserted by the signature “Rutherfurd” at its exprimendis: Ac dedisse et concessisse Tenoreque

Præsentium dare, &c., ei ejusque antedict[is] dictum close. It says much for the judicial calmness of Titulum, Honorem, Dignitatem, et Gradum Domini the Court of Session that their Return, made two Parliamenti, ut ita tempore futuro vocitentur et denomi. years after this publication issued from the Edin- nentur, cum Potestate sibi suisque antedict[is] denoburgh press, should be couched in such severely minandi et designandi semetipsos Dominos Rutherfurd

de ac gaudendi et fruendi eadem dignitate," &c. impartial language. The following passages from the “ Return of the Lords of Session to an Order From the clause beginning" quibus deficientibus" of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament down to that ending “in dicta Designatione exassembled June 12, 1739,” and submitted in their primendis,” the words of limitation as given in name Feb. 27, 1740, by Duncan Forbes, Lord Pre- Burke's E.ctinct and Dormant Peerage (1866), s.v. sident, have such a forcible application to the entire Rutherford, Earl of Teviot and Lord Rutherford, subject of Scottish peerage law that I extract them are identical with the same clauses as I have taken

them from Nisbet, save as to the use of capital

“ Lord Westmorland his ancyent rais'd,

The dun bull he rais'd on hie." letters, the substitution of “subque" for Nisbet's

The Rising in the North. "subsque," and the printing of " dicto " without

“Master, Master, see you yon faire ancyent, indication of the contracted form in which it

Yonder is the serpent and the serpent's head." appears in the earlier text, and which I represent

Percy's Rel. (ed. 1867), i. 303. by placing the omitted letter within square brackets.

The servant recognized by this device that the I am thus minute in pointing out these very slight ship which bore it belonged to Duke John of differences, not as in any way reflecting on the Austria. The word was, however, used to denote accuracy of Sir Bernard Burke's reprint- which, one who was connected with some blazon of this indeed, so far as it goes, I prove to be substantially kind, whether as an attendant to a standard or to identical with my own-but in order to show that

some gentleman who had armorial bearings. In in working out the present subject I have gone to the English edition of the Janua Linguarum Trithe older sources of information, the same, in fact, as linguis, by J. Comenius, published by Roger were no doubt used by Ulster himself in preparing Daniel'in 1662, it is said that “the standardhis account of this peerage.

bearers carrie the standards in the midst of the The exact state of the question regarding the troops, whom the ancients march before with Rutherfurd peerage in 1740 is best explained by hangers”; the Latin is “ quos præcedunt antethe Court of Session, in language as remarkable signani cum romphæis” (p. 245). "The word antefor its caution as for its succinctness :

signanus is explained by Ducange as one “ qui “Rutherford. That in the Records of the Great Seal, præibat vexillo ad illius custodiam.” In Anchoran's in the keeping of the Lord Register, anno 1661, there Gate of Tongues Unlocked (ed. 1639), which is appears a patent granting the dignity of Lord Rutherford based on the work of Comenius, the passage runs to Andrew Rutherford and the heirs male of his body; thus: “whom the lieutenants precede or go before, which failing, to whatsoever person or persons he should, by any writing under his hand, even on death-bed, with long two-handed swords ” (p. 143). appoint to succeed him. The Lord Rutherford appears by From these instances it is easy to see how the the rolls of Parliament to have sat or voted in the 1698, word came to mean a personal attendant or bodyand Robert, Lord Rutherford, appears to have voted at squire, who, says Fosbroke (Ant., ii. 752),“ had the election of sixteen peers anno 1715; and in the year the care of the things relating to the person of the 1733, at the election of a peer in room of the Earl of Sutherland, then deceased, George Durie of Grange knight, carried his master's standard, and gave appeared and voted as Lord Rutherford without any the catchword in battle," an office often borne by objection. At the general election the year following, men of honourable descent. This is the meaning 1734, the same person claimed his vote, but he was pro- of the word in Othello. Iago was the personal tested against by Captain John Rutherford, who laid claim to the honours of Rutherford, and gave in to the attendant of the Moor in a military capacity, in clerks his list in virtue thereof; against which the said modern language his aide-de-camp: receiving George Dury in his turn protested, and in the election, orders from his superior, especially, but not exanno 1738, of a peer to serve in Parliament in the room clusively, about military movements. Hence of the late Earl of Morton, these two claimants renewed Othello calls him “my ancient,” and says to him: their protestations against each other, and tendered severally their votes; but whether any, or which of them,

“ These letters give, Iago, to the pilot, has a sufficient right to that peerage they cannot say.”

And by him do my duties to the senate;
C. H. E. CARMICHAEL.

That done, I will be walking on the works,

Repair there to me. New University Club.

lago.

Well, my good lord, I'll do 't.” (To be continued.)

iii. 2. It was in accordance with his duties that he

received through Cassio, Othello's lieutenant, SHAKSPEARIANA.

directions about the watch that guarded the camp < ANCIENT."

(ii. 3). “ Ten times more dishonourably ragged than an old-faced

We can thus understand why Bailey and ancient."

1 Hen. IV., iv. 2. others should explain the word ancient to mean “And I, sir (bless the mark !), his Moorship's ancient.

"a flag or streamer set in the stern of a ship.”

Othello, i. 1. This was the flag that usually bore the heraldic The common interpretation of this word is that sign belonging to the ship or its captain. it means an ensign, in the double sense of standard

“ SCAMELS.”— and standard-bearer. So our older dictionaries ex

“I'll bring thee plain it, and Cotgrave has, “ Enseigne, an ensigne, To clust'ring filberds, and sometimes I 'll get thee auncient, standard-bearer.” The explanation is Young scamels from the rock." Tempest, ii. 2. correct, as far as it goes, but is not sufficiently This word has presented a difficulty which precise. The ancient was a banner bearing an hitherto has been found insuperable. Some editors heraldic device, the token of ancient or noble suppose that it is a misprint for sea-mells, which descent, borne by a gentleman or a leader in war :' has been assumed as an original form of sea-mews.

But the word is a mere invention, and, moreover, self that she was destined to have the care of the the breeding places of the sea-mew or sea-gull are expected child. Disregarding all ridicule or reso few that it would always be a difficult task monstrance from her less romantic neighbours, she to obtain the young birds. Mr. Dyce proposes presented herself, in plain cotton dress, at the staniel, a kind of hawk, and Theobald, with whom time appointed for elective competition, at the Mr. Knight agrees, has suggested stannel, a name great physician's house in London, and was at last of the kestrel, as emendations of the text, but admitted after many more pretentious candidates. without much probability in either case. A mean- Her tale to Dr. Locock was the same that she had ing may be found for the word as it stands which told her neighbours : "She knew that it was her presents no difficulty, and is quite in harmony lot to nurse the coming child.” Her manner and with the other parts of Caliban's address. The fitness for the office prevailed, and she was sent root appears to be the O.N. and Dan. skal, which to Paris. Some years elapsed, and my lady bears the various meanings of shell, scale, pod, informant was in Paris, with a niece, and called at vessel, and skull. The primary meaning is that of the Tuileries to see her Gilling acquaintance. covering or enclosing, as in the Sans. kūl, to cover, She was received by the good woman in like to defend. Hence we have 0.N. skali, a house ; peasant dress to what she had worn at Gilling. skalkr, a helmet ; and skalma, a sheath. This last The imperial child was exhibited amongst his toys, form becomes in Sweden skåma (pron. skauma), and the offer was made them of a drive in the which represents an older skamma or skama, the carriage that was always at her disposal for the being either assimilated or lost, as in the 0. Fries. recreation of her charge. She was as simple and scemma and schema, for scel-ma, in Dutch zal men unspoilt as when she left her English home. On (shall or ought we ?). This skama means a pod or the night of Orsini's attempt to destroy the emhusk (in Lancashire a shull), but primarily a shell, peror and empress as they were about to enter and scamel will mean a little shell. It might be the theatre, this good nurse was awoke, about applied to any of the smaller molluscs, but as refer- midnight, by some one opening the door of the ence is made especially to the rock as the habitat nursery, where she slept with the young prince. of the scamel, we shall not be far wrong if we Perceiving that it was his father, she lay still, and identify it with the limpet, which clings to the saw the emperor go and kneel for a few seconds at rock with so much force that it is not always easy the child's cot, and then quietly depart. More is to separate it. I propose, therefore, to interpret probably known of this "faithful English nurse,” the passage thus :--

but what I have stated of her original interview “I'll bring thee

with Sir Charles Locock marks her strength of To clust'ring filberts, and sometimes I 'll get thee character.

ALFRED GATTY, D.D. Young limpets from the rock."

Ecclesfield Vicarage. There may seem to be a difficulty in proposing a Scandinavian origin for a Warwickshire word, The DURATION OF PARLIAMENTS.- At a time but the root or stem was skal or skäl in North when so much is being said upon this subject, the Friesic, and we have retained the tenuis in scull following figures may perhaps be deemed apropos. and scalp, which are cognate words. In the fifth The present Parliament is the thirty-fourth since and sixth centuries the Angles, who peopled the passing of the Septennial Act in 1716. Of Mercia, appear to have been very nearly related in these no less than ten had each a duration of six speech to the Danes, who had formerly been their years and upwards, while nine others sat for more neighbours. The word was probably provincial than five years. During the 163 years that have and of limited area, being hemmed in by words elapsed since the Septennial Act there has been similar in sound but of different meaning, such as

no single instance in which a Parliament has died skam, shame, and skamel or schamel, a foot-stool.

of old age, although that in which the Act was

J. D. Belsize Square.

passed came very near to it. It was called (under the old triennial system) for March 17, 1715, and

dissolved March 10, 1721-2, thus wanting but one THE PRINCE IMPERIAL'S NURSE.—In Dean week to completing the full term of seven years. Stanley's recent sermon, which alluded to the The longest Parliament since then was the second Prince Imperial's sad death, these words were Parliament of George II. It met June 13, 1734, used : “ We heard of his faithful English nurse, and was dissolved April 28, 1741, an existence of and of her good counsels to him.” The story of six years, ten months, and fifteen days. In the this nurse, as I heard it at the time of the prince's present century the longest Parliament was the birth, is very remarkable. She lived at Gilling, first of George IV., which met April 23, 1820, near Richmond, in Yorkshire, and having seen and was dissolved June 2, 1826, thus lasting six that Dr. Locock was inviting respectable women years, one month, and nine days; but in the preto offer themselves for the situation, either through sent reign the Parliament called by Lord Derby a dream or mental conviction she persuaded her in 1859

was within three days of the same length.

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It met May 31, 1859, and was dissolved July 6, mark what follows. In Oliver Twist, chap. 1., I 1865-a period of six years, one month, and six read: “The Sessions are on,' said Kags ; 'if they days. The shortest Parliament since the Sept-get the inquest over, and Bolter turns king's ennial Act was the ninth Parliament of George III. evidence-as of course he will do from what he's It was called for Dec. 18, 1806, and lasted until said already—they can prove Fagin an accessory April 9, 1807—a period of four months and before the fact, and get the trial on on Friday, fifteen days. But the first Parliament of Wil- and he'll swing in six days from this.'” An liam IV. was not much longer, sitting from Oct. 26, accessory before the fact in a case of wilful murder, 1830, to April 22, 1831, or five months and twenty- so far fronı having committed no" definite" offence, seven days. The average duration of Parliaments is regarded by the law of England as a very defisince 1715 is about four years and nine months. nite offender indeed, and even in these comparaThe present Parliament, which met March 5, tively mild days he would be liable to be executed, 1874, will not die a natural death until March 5, although he would probably get off with penal 1881.

W. D. Pink. servitude for life. At the date of Oliver Twist, Leigh, Lancashire,

which is, I suppose, from forty to fifty years ago, Pore and his QUARRELS. I have lately had he would undoubtedly, in Mr. Kags's expressive my attention drawn to two or three of the curious vernacular, have “swung” for it.

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. pamphlets issued during the war between Pope

Bexley Heath, Kent. and the Dunces, and desiring to know something about them and their authors, I have consulted LATIMER.- The late Rev, R. Demaus in his bio. the General Indexes of “N. & Q.” Remembering graphy of this Reformer thus speaks of Latimer's the many interesting articles on Pope which ap- first « little cure":"West Kington, the new field peared in the first and second series, and which of labour to which Latimer had removed, is a little are admirably indexed, I fully expected to find village on the confines of Wiltshire and Gloucesterthe information of which I was in search ; but I shire, some fourteen miles from Bristol,” &c. The was disappointed. In vol. xi. of the first series, living to which Latimer, weary of his royal chapp. 485, there is a capital suggestion by a frequent laincy, was presented by the king, at the recomand well-read correspondent, B. H. C., viz. for the mendation of his friend and patron Dr. Butts, was publication, in a supplemental volume to Pope's not fourteen, but upwards of fifty, miles from works, of the various pieces written in praise Bristol-not West Keynton, near that city, but or blame of the poet and his writings. This has West Kington (or Knighton), a little south-west never been carried out, nor, from the extent to of Salisbury, and about forty miles (as the crow which the collection would run, is it likely it ever flies) south-east of the former place, as well as in will be. But cannot “N. & Q.” do for such a a different diocese. Aubrey, who was a Wiltshire collection what it did for The Dunciad-give us a man, and lived for some years at Broad Chalk in bibliography of such Popiana ? It would be very that county, and two or three miles distant from acceptable, I am sure, to many readers, and might West Knighton, says: “In the walke at the Parbe helpful to the completion of Mr. Murray's sonage-house is yet the oake, a little scrubbed valuable edition of Pope's works. P. A. H. oake, and hollow, where he did use to sitt, called

‘Latimer's Oake.'” Ch. ELKIN MATHEWS. DICKENS ON ENGLISH CRIMINAL LAW.-The

7, Hamilton Road, N. Saturday Review of June 21 brings a charge against Dickens which, if there were any founda

NEW

ALTERED

SCRIPTURE PROPER tion for it, would prove the great novelist to have TAMES.- In the forthcoming revised edition of been guilty of a piece of gross ignorance ; but the Bible we may expect certain alterations in happily there is no foundation for it, and as I do names. Assuming that the readings of the oldest not think such an imputation on Dickens's com- three manuscripts (the Sinaitic, the Vatican, and mon sense should be allowed to go forth to the the Alexandrian) are adopted, we shall find the world supported by the high authority of the following alterations :Saturday Review, I come forward, in the absence Pyrrhus will become a new Scripture name, as of a better champion, not only to defend, but I Acts xx. 4 should read "Sopater the son of trust entirely to clear, Dickens from this stigma. Pyrrhus of Berea." It is dreadful to think what The Saturday, in the course of a review of Mr. the diminutive of Pyrrhus might be. Browning's Dramatic Idyls, says : " It was bad The names Persis, Rom. xvi. 12, and Epaphroenough in Dickens, who was wonderfully ignorant ditus, Phil. iv. 18, which only occur once each, of many common things, to hang the Jew Fagin should be omitted, as they are not found in the for no definite offence except that he was one of manuscripts, and will cease to be Scripture names. the villains of the novel ; but Fagin was tried in The altered names are :- Ampliatus for Amplias, due form, though for some unknown crime, at the Rom. xvi. 8; Prisca for Priscilla, Rom. xvi. 3 Old Bailey.” So far the Saturday reviewer. Now and 1 Cor. xvi. 19; Phygelus for Phygellus, 2 Tim.

AND

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