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ness this earth would be without them. know that to be in love glorifies all beauty? Mary Howitt expresses our own thoughts, In Eastern lands, where love is said to as true poets ever do, when she says: be most intense, there flowers abound

and fruits are most luxuriant. Flowers God might have made the earth bring forth

in the fields and meadows feast the eye Enough for great and small, The oak tree and the cedar tree,

of the traveler and inspire the pen of the Without a flower at all;

poet, but flowers in and about the home He might have made enough-enough

are indications of beauty in life and For every want of ours,

character. Their influence is always For luxury, medicine and toil,

good and brightening. The lowliest cotAnd yet have made no flowers."

tage is handsomely adorned when flow

ers are blooming round it, and graceful From time immemorial flowers have

vines trail o'er its doorways or its been associated with love and tender- portico. Even those who pass by respect ness, indeed, tenderness is a part of love, its inmates more, and to the indwellers for whatever we love most we are most

these simple adornments are often of tender of. Whatever appeals to the

more value in adding to their happiness heart fosters and strengthens the affections. It is perhaps because the Spring splendor of the rich.

and enjoyment than the elegancies and is the season when flowers are freshest,

Nature herself is rich in embellishand birds sing sweetest, and skies are

ment, if we will but dispose her varied bluest, that love is strongest. And one's gifts becomingly. At all seasons of the own heart is so full of the tender passion year the poet may find himself in harthat one wonders what the birds say to

mony with nature, but the Spring has each other, and what the flowers think,

many advantages, many charms to beand the poet sings of their secrets in

guile the poet into musical, mazy rhythm. strains like these:

Therefore we should be lenient with even "I wonder what the Clover thinks,

the humblest aspirant who sips at the Intimate friend of Bob-o-links,

perennial fount of poesy, remembering Lover of Daisies slim and white,

that all are weak compared to the great Waltzer with Buttercups at night,

Author of that nature to which we are

indebted for our subjects. Undoubtedly Oh, who knows what the Clover thinks?

Spring is the poet's season, for it is then No one unless the Bob-o-links!'

God's goodness strikes us most forcibly, Who would sing such a song except and the poet must drink freely from the one in love, yes, in love with nature? pure fount of knowledge, and all intelliAnd who that has felt the divine senti gence comes from Him, and He is love. ment in its purity and intensity does not

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BODY AND SPIRIT, That man existed in a spiritual condi- | reached by special creative energy, by tion, prior to his advent upon the earth, the voluntary cohesion of intelligent spiris universally believed by the Latter-day itual atoms, or whether some, to mortals, Saints; they have been taught that that unapprehended power of parentage procondition was not only rudimentary or

duced this organization, passing, as in elementary, as it may be expressed, but earth-life, from conception to birth, and that this spiritual element had so far pro- from birth through infancy to childhood, gressed or been advanced, that it was youth and maturity, as to stature, could adjudged worthy of such combination as only be determined by revelation. This made individual spiritual organization. the Latter-day Saints have, and the expeWhether, as some think, this form was rience of man upon earth readily sugo

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gests that the same law of procreation | cle upon the earth; whether spiritual orwhich prevails in this lise prevails in the ganizations as individuals have to poslife whence we came.

This idea is well sess certain qualifications as to length of expressed by the gifted inspirational au existence before they come here, we are thoress of that deep and thoughtful song not informed; but that there is method of Zion:

and order in their coming may easily be In the Heavens, are parents single?

concluded from analogy; while each inNo; the thought makes reason stare. dividual probably understands the necesTruth is reason, truth eternal,

sity for new probation, it cannot be a Tells me I've a mother there!

change undertaken at random; there That this conception seems to find must be provision made by procreation sympathy in experience,every heart bears on the earth, before the spirit can leave witness by response. The love of a mo- its home; and as there can be no aimless ther is the most precious thing of earth; wandering in search of bodies, so that nothing so unfaltering, so unselfish, so they cannot go anywhere at will, would angelic as a mother's love; no wayward also seem to be self-evident. action, no unappreciative disposition, no Spirits tabernacle in heathendom as studied indifference, no long separation, in Christendom, among the meanest and no wearying sickness, ever seems to poorest, as among the most noble and blunt or extinguish a mother's love; all wealthy of the earth; they tabernacle else in life may fail-friendship, position with the red races, the black, yellow morality, wealth-loneliness and neglect and white races, and in every conceivmay settle as the sables of night on Na able condition of mental, moral and spirture's landscape, but the mother's heart itual growth and development among turns ever in affection to her children, those several races; they become subject and her hopes fail not, as to their ultimate to these diverse conditions, not so much, redemption from even the most fearful probably, as a matter of personal choice fall.

as because of parentage, or in some way Now, if amid the changes and perplex- as the penalty or reward of agency or ities of this life, we see so much devo-worthiness, or of lineage in some phase tion, what must have been the childhood of their pre-existence. There appears to and motherhood of the world behind ? be a degree of humiliation in the path of First thought in regard to this would sug- progressive beings, nevertheless, to comgest that, as the ills of mortality are press, within the tiny form of babyhood, there unexperienced and unknown, the that spiritual form which has lived and barriers which exist and bar the way to enjoyed the plenitude of spiritual growth maturity here are there unknown also; and power for periods uncomprehended no such thing as early or infantile disso in earth experience, and must, except lution comes into spiritual experience; under vivid sense of blessing and power, while agency may be there eternal, there to be secured only in this direction, be is such an eternity of accumulated expe an apparent degradation; so it was said rience that no chance, or accident, or of Jesus, that, “in his humiliation his disease, prevents the full development of judgment was taken away,” and no doubt spiritual manhood or womanhood, so far this fact enables the spirit to pass oras stature is concerned; food, clothing, deals, in which, could its functions and climate, schools, associations, homes, powers be actively exercised, might proare all surely so based and formed as duce utter loathing and disgust. to insure maturity to all of spirit born. At what time the spirit enters the puny

In the designs of the Almighty Father tabernacle, we may not closely say; of the vast host of spirits who have peo some have thought this occurred at conpled this planet, it was provided, that ception, others at what is known as those who in the righteous exercise of “quickening,” but with more propriety their agency honored their first estate, may we not suppose that the entrance of should at some period receive a taberna- | the spirit is at or about the moment of

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birth, when that life ceases which sprang | friendships, loves and family groupings from connexion with the mother? A lit- prior to the life that now is, as from the tle imagination might further suggest comparatively meagre and limited opthat the first universal cry of infant portunities of the present? being is the last realizing sense of en It is not an uncommon thing to hear trance upon the period of its humiliation. inquiries as to the subsistence of the Philosophers and scientists, and nurses spirit when identified with the body; is the and parents have taken pride in marking spirit needed food and sustenance prior and explaining the wonderful expansion to this connection, the conclusion appears and growth of infancy, through child inevitable that it will need it under such hood and youth, to manhood, and much connection. Some have thought that inof this has been attributed to food, care, asmuch as spirit is the life of all creasurroundings and to many other causes; tions-animal, vegetable and mineralbut that these will not induce continuous that therefore in the processes of approexpansion and growth is apparent to all priation for the physical system, the spirit observation; after men and women attain of these elements sustained the spiritual their full stature, no generous diet or ex man organization, while the more crude tra condition will enlarge, save in rotun elements of food went to the sustenance dity, the form; probably in the fact of of the physical; others have said that condensed spiritual form, and its inher- "the night of the body was the day of the ent elasticity, aided by food, we have the spirit,” and that when the body in sleep key to the average stature of humankind. is recuperating, the spirit is enjoying its

Under this thought some might ask: own life, food, associations, and gatherWhat then is the condition of the spirit- ing strength for the succeeding daily ual form of those who die in infancy? union with the body. It has been sugFrom remarks made by the Prophet Jo- gested that restless nights, unsound seph, it is understood that those who sleep and the lassitude consequent there. thus die will be raised as infants; and on are because of incomplete conditions some have inferred that were it other in one or both; whatever there may be of wise, the mother who laid her love and truth in these conjectures, we need not her life beneath the sod when the babe now inquire. We know that the body is, "went on,” would be unable to enjoy re we know that the spirit is, we understand cognition of the loved, unless received that it is “the spirit which quickeneth”— as she laid it down. This implies (what which giveth life;" and we are pretty may be an error) that the recognition of well assured, by observation and experi. family, and friends, and loved, depends ence, that when the spirit makes its final upon the short and limited association of exit from the tabernacle, no food, no apthis life only, yet as the premises would plication of science, no medical skill or be destroyed by other conditions, they human experience, possesses the secret therefore cannot exist as a general solu of restoration, or can renew the vital tion of the question; for instance, a mo spark, when once "the weary wheels of ther dies, as is often the case, during the life stand still." childhood of all her children; they con The peculiarities of that severance tinue to live and mature, then have fam of body and spirit which ilies of their own, finally yielding up the death is almost as inexplicable as the betabernacle at a ripe old age. Now if re ginning. As to how the spirit "shufiles cognition, if continuous love can only off this mortal coil,” there may be many exist or find satisfaction in receiving the thoughts, but knowledge is very limited loved as last beheld, surely a vast vol in the matter; some have thought it to ume of love by relentless fate is doomed be a very painful process; others, that to utter annihilation. Is it not more rea being a natural order, it was without sonable to suppose thåt recognition in agony and without sorrow. Much might the spirit world will come quite as forci be said on both sides, and yet the truth bly and as naturally from associations, remain unreached. It has been claimed

we call

whether written or oral, oaths and or-
LAWS OF THE HINDOOS.

237 by seers that the spirit is withdrawn through chastened, purified and enlarged gradually upward, cognizant of all sur agency, for the development of creative roundings until dissolution is complete; power and Godhead from the bravest and and some have passed through trance the best of men; then through and by conditions, have tasted partial separa- | that Priesthood which is bestowed, rention, and returned with very unpleasant dering unto Him all glory as unto "the feelings to take for a longer period the King, immortal, eternal, invisible, the tabernacle which had been so faithfully only wise God, by Jesus Christ, forever used. How long the spirit remains with and ever." or around the body after death has also Thus the fringe of life and death is been the subject of conjecture; what the touched with trembling hand, if half preinterest in regard to the old body, and sumptuous each will have his thought, whether, in view of the resurrection, and the problem is an absorbing and an there is not an expectant lingering until interesting one. “But there is a spirit in the old shell is committed to mother man, and the the inspiration of the AlEarth, when the spirit returns to God nighty giveth them understanding." who gave it!”

Whether the past or future is ours to These reflections are but meant as a rightly scan in this life, at all events we stimulus to thought, to comprehension of can realize that all the dispensations of the facts and opportunities of individual Providence are just, and in reflection as life. There are responsibilities con- to many of the loved who have gone, we nected therewith, covenants to be hon. say: ored, some made, no doubt, prior to Angels of life or death alike are His. probation. This coming was decreed, Without his leave they pass no threshold o'er. exit was anticipated and foreseen; pro

Who then would wish, or dare, believing this, bation there, probation here, probation

Against His messengers to shut the door? yet to come, all working harmoniously

H. W. Naisbitt. LAWS OF THE HINDOOS. After the form of government estab

deal. Laws of Menu, chapter viii, arlishing the political condition of a peo range the law into eighteen divisions, in ple, comes the body of laws setting forth the following order: 1. Debt on loans for the rights and protection of individuals. consumption; 2. Deposits and loans for I intend to refer briefly to such portions use; Sale without ownership; 4. Conof the Hindoo law as may appear some

cerns among partners; 5. Subtraction of what peculiar to my readers. Their law what has been given; 6. Non-payment is comprised under three principal divi

of wages or hire; 7. Non-performance sions—A’chara, which, in the language of agreement; 8. Rescission of sale and of the country means ceremonial and purchase; 9. Disputes between master

a name for juris and servant; 10. Contest on boundries; prudence; and Prayas-chitta, religious

I and 12. Assault and slander; 13. Larlaw, expiation or punishment for crime.

ceny; 14. Robbery and other violence; The Hindoo jurists, after separating re

15. Adultery; 16. Altercation between ligious and moral or ethical subjects man and wife, and their several duties; from the body of law, bring it under two

17. The law of inheritance; 18. Gaming heads, namely, private contracts and for with dice and with living creatures. ensic practice. The first includes law,

In measuring the foregoing classificaprivate and criminal; the second incor

tion, with the legal acumen of the present porates the forms of judicial procedure,

day, it appears crude—the civil and crimrules of pleading, the law of evidence,

inal law blended and mixed together. It must, however, be borne in mind that

moral law; Vyavahara,

238

LAWS OF THE HINDOOS.

Menu lived at a very remote period, or among children, who ofttimes rue their if he only lived in fable, the Hindoo bargains and have them annulled: a probooks setting forth the foregoing rude vision being incorporated in their law, codification, have been in existence for that the buying and selling of property ages, which proves that the author was not perishable may be revoked within not so far behind at that period in legal ten days, at the whims of either party, attainment. It appears that the ancients The fixed price of commodities is not were more intent on devising than classi- governed by the law of competition, fying. Classification is an attainment “But let the king,” says the ordinance that belongs to the highest order of cul- of Menu, “establish rules for the sale tivated intellect. Prior to the introduc and purchase of all marketable things, tion of Blackstone's Commentaries and once in every five nights, or at the close Wood's Institutes, the body of English of every half month, let him make a law lay strewn over an ambiguous mass regulation for market prices.” of authorities, from which the jurist had In relation to that part of the law to extract as well as he could.

classed under the title of bailments, or a Property with the Hindoos, as among delivery of goods in trust, it has freall peoples, is the great subject of law, quently occurred in the history of India, whether acquired by occupancy, descent, that the rich were necessitated to condonation, or by contract and labor. ceal, or place in trust, much of their Property, no doubt, in the first stage of valuables, to keep them out of the hands its existence, was measured by possess of the spoiler. When the owner would sion; and the system was early acquired call upon the temporary custodian for the of selling for a certain consideration, or deposited wealth, the bailee, in many intransferring by buying and selling. stances, would disclaim all knowledge of When any species of property changes any such deposit, and daring the bailor hands through purchase, among the or plaintiff to prove what he alleges, and Hindoos, the transaction must be done by this system of trickery defraud the in public to be valid. “He,” says the plaintiff out of his deposited wealth, law of Menu, “who has received chattel | This principle of cunning deception must by purchase in open market, before a have existed from a very early period, number of men, justly acquires the abso. for Menu has a provision covering such lute property, by having paid the price nefarious acts, which says: “On failure for it.” This must have been an ancient of witnesses to prove a deposit, let the custom, for we learn from the book of judge actually deposit gold or precious Genesis, chapter xxxiii, that when Abra-things with the defendant by the artful ham bought a field to bury Sarah, the contrivance of spies. Should he restore bargain was made in the presence of the the deposit, he is to be held innocent; if people. The ancient Saxons prohibited | he deny it, he is to be apprehended and the sale of every commodity above the compelled to pay the value of both." value of twenty pence, except in open In the line of personal services, and market. It sometimes occurred, under the disputes between master and servant the head of “Sale without ownership,” occupy a very abridged place in their that the vender was not the owner of the laws. Hindoo servants are divided into goods sold; in such cases, to make the three distinct classes. First, a student purchase valid, the vendee had to pro who is preparing himself for the priestly duce the vender. “If,” says the law of order, who, while studying the Vedas, Menu, “the vender be not produced and must do all the menial services of his the vendee prove the public sale, the lat preceptor, and for his hire receives inter must be dismissed by the king with struction. Second, artificers, who receive out punishment, and the former owner, a stipulated amount for their services, who lost the chattel, may take it back on and where no agreement is made in relapaying the vendee half its value.” It is tion to hire, receive one-tenth of what also common among the Hindoos, as has accrued from their labor. The third

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