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CHRONOLOGY OF THE HINDOOS.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE HINDOOS. MANY of the educated of the present dan conquests, and of the events which day, who are inclined to infidelity, are to preceed the passage to India by the Cape a certain extent bewildered in regard to of Good Hope. The Hindoo system of the chronology of the world. They are history, chronology and geography is willing to lend themselves to the vague simply ridiculous and absurd. For speculations of rude nations, on account instance, they believe the earth is five of their assumed antiquity, and discard hundred million yojanas, or two billion, the record of Moses, setting forth the four hundred and fifty-six million English history of early times. They assume miles in circumference, and they imagine that the Hindoos were the most intellec some of the mountains of the earth are tual and advanced nation of antiquity, one hundred yojanas, or four hundred and that Moses pharaphrased the law and ninety-one English miles high. It given to the children of Israel from the is stated in the Puranas, that the mounwritten Institutes of Menu.
tains lying south of the holy city of Modern oriental scholars who have Benares, in the beginning, were so high, visited India, and become familiar with that their sombre shadows obscured the the Sanscrit, discovered from the laws of city, and kept it in darkness, until MahaMenu a ritual, similar to that, in every deva, another of the many names for the particular, given to Moses, and dated god Siva, who is also the third person in back hundreds of thousands of years. the Hindoo trinity, became enraged at In fact, long before "the morning stars their contempt, and they were obliged to sang together,” when “the foundations humble themselves to the ground; so of the earth were laid.” They assert their highest peak now is only about that a Hindoo legislator gave political
five hundred feet high.” and religious institutions to India, and is When the Mohammedans overran called Menu. A certain character per India, they ransacked, on their expediforms the same role in Egypt, and is de tion, every Hindoo temple, robbing nominated Manes. The Greeks have them of their accumulated treasures their Minos, and the Hebrews, Moses. which were deposited there. It was also They state that Menu in Sanscrit, means a characteristic of the Moslem conquerthe man par excellence, the Legislator; ors to be on the lookout for records That the four characters referred to, com- elucidating the sciences then extant. It pletely overshadowed the entire ancient was a general practice with them to world; they came forth at the infancy take all books and records, together with of four different peoples to perform the the professors, who were capable of same part, all four being legislators giving instructions in the sciences, to and high priests to their respective com- Bagdad and other Mohammedan centers munities; hence, many are inclined to to have the knowledge the books conbelieve that Moses borrowed the law tained, with the assistance of the teachfrom Menu, and made it applicable to ers, disseminated among the people; for his brethren. The facts are just the re they, in their day, had learned that
knowledge was power. The Hindoo histories written From what the writer could learn, in poetry, which abound with tales, and while a sojourner in India, from their asextravagant fables. Major Rennel says: sumed extravagant notions, in relation to “There is no known history of Hin their antiquity, the Hindoo period of dostan, nor any record of the historical writing works on religion and other kinevents of that country, prior to the dred subjects, was not more remote than Mohammedan conquests, and since the middle ages. The Bible contains the that period, it is not to Hindoo, but most primitive of our historical records, Mohammedan pens that we are indebted and nothing can be gleaned from that book for all our knowledge of the Mohamme to convey the fact, that Moses and the
CHRONOLOGY OF THE HINDOOS.
Jewish people had any knowledge what An Avatar, in this connection, means the ev er of India. In fact, the Euphrates, descent of Vishnu, who is the second perand the country lying to the eastward, son in the Hindoo trinity, being born were viewed by the Hebrews as the of the virgin Devanaguy; also the "ends of the earth.” It was long after child's life, while an infant, sought by Moses' day, when very imperfect cara the tyrant of Medura, whose every act of van routes were opened to eastern Asia, cruelty corresponds with that of Herod; across the highest ridge of mountains in hence, when the Christian missionaries the world, also encountering dreary would hold forth to a Hindoo audience, deserts. By this route, the fine fabrics setting forth the noble self-sacrificing of India, such as the "rich apparel bound acts of Bible worthies, the Brahmans with cords,” referred to by the Prophet would look wise, and reply that they had Ezekiel, were brought into Western records representing the same class of Asia. During this intercourse, no doubt, benefactors, only “ours existed long beideas were exchanged, and the dealings | fore yours.” of God with Israel, etc., were brought In order that our readers may become to their notice. Again, during the first
familiar with the claims of the oriental century of the Christian era, the Apostle nations to a remote antiquity, I will state Nathaniel was fayed alive and crucified that the Chinese nation makes pretenin Great Armenia; Saint Matthew was sions of its duration to the most remote martyred at Nabadar; Saint Simeon was ages. A scrap of Chaldaic history sets crucified in Persia, and Thomas pene forth that writings were preserved at trated as far as the Coromandel coast, on Babylon, comprising a period of one this side of the Ganges, where he suffered hundred and fifty thousand years. The martyrdom. No doubt, these Apostles Egyptians claim that one of their scattered their sacred information all kings, individually reigned ten thousand along their tracks. Also, the Sanscrit years. But the Burmese, inhabitants of writers had access to the same inspired the farther peninsula of India, make the manuscripts, that the compilers of the most audacious inroads into the realms Bible bad.
of past ages. The Burmese, accordThe minds of the Orientals are in- | ing to Dr. Buchanan, believe that clined to childish stories, superstitious the lives of the first inhabitants of and extravagant notions in regard to their country, lasted one Assenchii, a their ancestors. They localized the in- period of time, of which they thus spired manuscripts that may have come communicate an idea: “If for three within their reach, assigning the actors years it should rain incessantly over to India as their residence, and painting the whole surface of the earth, which the whole with the sanctity of antiquity, is one million, two hundred and reaching back into a period that seems three thousand, four hundred juzana in mythical. The Hindoos have their idea diameter, the number of drops of rain of the creation; the war in heaven; the falling in such a space and time, although fall of Adam; whose name in Sanscrit is far exceeding human conception, would "Adima,” which means the first man. only equal the number of years conAnd Eve is called “Heva,” that which tained in one Assenchii.” completes life. The Garden of Eden, According to the Hindoo system, the with the Hindoos, was situated on the duration of the world is divided into island of Ceylon. They have their story four grand periods, called Yugs. The of the deluge, the Ark eventually resting Satya Yug is the first division of time, on the tops of the Himilaya Mountains; and comprehends one million, seven their legends of Adjigarta, which hundred and twenty-eight thousand
accord exactly with the history of the years. The second is denominated the .: Patriarch Abraham as given in the Bible; Treata Yug, and comprehends one mil
the birth and mission of the Savior, lion, two hundred and ninety-six thouwhich was one of the Avatars of Vishnu. sand years. The third is designated the
THOUGHTS ON GENESIS.
Dwapara Yug, which includes eight, Devanaguy, he assumed the role of a hundred and sixty-four thousand years. prophet and pastor, and when his work The fourth is known as the Cali Yug, was accomplished, he died an ignominious consisting of a period of four hundred death on the banks of the Ganges. and thirty-two thousand years. The At the end of the Cali Yug, he will first three divisions of time have expired, appear in all his glory, in the form of and the present year of the Christian a horse, and have a fierce struggle with era, four thousand, nine hundred and the prince of the powers of darkness, or seventy-five years of the Cali Yug has Rackchasas (the Hindoo appellation for passed, leaving four hundred and twen- devil), and chase him back to hell. They ty-seven thousand and twenty-five years assert that the world commenced by a before the return of the Mah-Pralaya contest between the Spirit of Good and (decomposition of all that exists), which the Spirit of Evil, and it must so end. takes place at the end of the Cali Yug. | The day of Brahma continues twelve At this period, the tenth Avatar takes thousand divine years, which is only a place, which, according to Hindoo cycle of a countless succession of them. mythology, is the tenth time that Vishnu The divine year is equal to three hundred has assumed a body of one shape or and sixty solar years, hence twelve thouanother. When the children of Brahma sand multiplied by three hundred and stray from him, it is requisite for Vishnu sixty, equals the period of the four to perform his part, to bring the rebel- | Yugs, namely, four million, three hundred lious children back to their ancient and twenty thousand solar years, or purity, after which, he returns to Brahma.
Brahma's day. When he came as the son of the Virgin
THOUGHTS ON GENESIS. SOME scientists take an honest pride of Genesis. And as to the argument that in the idea that they have descended Eve could not have been formed of a rib from the ape: they consider it shows taken out of Adam's side, because a man progress and development. We have has the same number of ribs as a woman, no such feelings. Even if it were true, we regard it of but little value either for we should feel disposed to say but little or against the Biblical statement to that regarding such a pedigree. But being effect. If the individual skeleton of untrue, we take pleasure in the thought Adam were under inspection, the question that we have sprung from Adam, who might be pertinent; but as no one claims “was the son of God.” It may be ar that women are taken out of men's sides, gued that there is little sonship in being in that way, now-a-days, men ought in formed from the dust of the ground; but this generation to have the proper numman has an eternal spirit as well as a ber of ribs. mortal body, and that spirit was given of Modern thinkers, especially of the God, begotten of God, and to its Hea- skeptical school, have many doubts with venly Father will return.
regard to the authorship of the first five We do not believe that the Bible books of the Bible, attributed to Moses; statement that Adam's body was formed especially of the Book of Genesis which of "the dust of the ground” implies gives an account of the creation of the more than that it was organized from the earth. It is also urged that Moses could common elements or materials employed | not write the account of his own death in the formation or organization of other as found at the conclusion of the Book living beings. The details of the method of Deuteronomy. But common by which man was formed is not stated would say that those few verses could be with precision by the writer of the Book | added as an addenda by a later scribe
SIEGE OF YORKTOWN.
(by Ezra, for instance, when he re-wrote For this is my work and my glory, to these books) without invalidating the bring to pass the immortality and eterrest of the record.
nal life of man. And now, Moses, my Some writers have maintained that son, I will speak unto you concerning throughout Genesis and in the first this earth upon which you stand; and you chapters of Exodus there are traces of shall write the things which I shall speak. two original documents at least, some And in a day when the children of men claim more. These two documents are shall esteem my words as naught, and characterized by giving different names take many of them from the Book which to God. In the one he is called Eloheim you shall write, behold, I will raise up and in the other Jehovah. It appears another like unto you, and they shall be never to have entered into the thoughts had again among the children of men; of these writers that possibly two differ- | among even as many as shall believe. ent heavenly personages were intended. These words were spoken unto Moses One simple passage from the mouth of in the Mount, the name of which shall our late beloved President, Brigham not be known among the children of Young, throws a flood of light on this And now they are spoken unto subject. It is as follows: “It is true that the earth was organized by three And it came
to pass that the Lord distinct characters, namely, Eloheim, spake unto Moses, saying, Behold I reJahovah, and Michael, these three form veal unto you concerning this heaven, ing a quorum as in all heavenly bodies.” and this earth; write the words which I
Modern revelation has also decided speak. I am the Beginning and the the disputed question of the authorship End, the Almighty God; by mine Only of the Book of Genesis. We read in a Begotten I created these things; yea, in revelation given to the Prophet Joseph the beginning I created the heaven, and Smith in 1830, the following particulars the earth upon which thou standest. as to where the details of the Creation And the earth was without form, and of the heavens and the earth were made void; and I caused darkness to come up known to Moses, setting at rest for ever, upon the face of the deep; and my Spirit in the minds of believers, the authorship moved upon the face of the water; for I of that sublime recital. It is revealed: am God, etc.”—Pearl of Great Price.
“The words of God, which he spake How blessed are we in having this unto Moses at a time when Moses was more sure word of revelation for our caught up into an exceeding high moun infallible guide, which can, and does, in tain, and he saw God face to face, and a few moments, decide the controversies be talked with him, and the glory of God of centuries, and with truth, "diamond was upon Moses; therefore Moses could truth,” makes known all that is necesendure his presence.”
sary for our salvation.
SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. The triumphant victory of our nation scenes and events which transpired at over the British forces at Yorktown, one that period. hundred years ago, is an important event The year 1780 had developed a series in American history.
The centennial of disasters to the Americans in the of the anniversary of that victory will South. Charleston had been captured be celebrated, on the nineteenth of Octo- | by Sir Henry Clinton, commander-in ber. And as it is creating a great deal chief of the British forces in America, of interest in France as well as in this who garrisoned it with a strong force country, it would not be amiss to give a and then returned to New York; leaving brief description of the most important | Lord Cornwallis in command of the
SIEGE OF YORKTOWN.
troops in that district of country. This destroying many towns and villages and general succeeded in totally defeating putting the defenseless inhabitants to the General Gates, the conqueror of Bur sword. When Cornwallis arrived at goyne, at Camden, on the sixteenth of Portsmouth he joined these troops to his August. In this engagement the Amer own, thus swelling his army to about icans lost two thousand men in killed, eight thousand effective men. To opwounded and prisoners. These reverses pose this formidable array Lafayette, in connection with the treason of Bene who had been entrusted with the comdict Arnold, depressed the spirits of the mand of this state, had only twelve army and cast a gloom over the whole hundred infantry. Cornwallis pursued people.
him for many miles, but failed to overThe year 1781, however, opened with take him. The British general, after better prospects for the struggling Amer- destroying a vast amount of property icans. France had acknowledged the both public and private, along the James independence of the colonies and had | River, took post at Yorktown. LaFaydispatched several thousand men and a ette, on the alert, having relarge fleet to their assistance. In the ceived a reinforcement of one thousand early part of January Colonel Tarleton, men under General Wayne, stationed who had been devastating a portion of himself about eight miles from CornSouth Carolina, with one thousand men wallis' position. He then sent a disencountered Colonel Morgan's brigade patch to Washington, who was at the Cowpens. The action that fol- camped on the Hudson, urging him to lowed was short but decisive. Tarleton gather together all his available men and retreating from the field with a loss of march to his assistance. seven hundred and eighty-four men. Washington, who had formed a conGeneral Greene who had succeeded junction with the French troops under Gates in South Carolina, had been watch Count de Rochambeau, had been making the movements of Cornwallis for ing some preparations to lay siege to some time, but on receiving reinforce- New York. But when he received this ments from Virginia, he resolved to ven news from La Fayette, and also further ture a battle, Cornwallis, previous to this information in regard to the expected had retired into North Carolina. Greene appearance of a French fleet in the followed him, and the two armies met at Chesapeake Bay on the first of SeptemGuilford Court House. A desperate ber, he decided to change his plans. battle at once ensued. If the militia had | Washington thought that with the co-opstood firm, the Americans would have eration of this fleet, he couiž by a single gained the day, for they were superior in blow reduce the British forces in the point of numbers. But the greater por- South, which would be equal in importtion of the militia, never having been ance to the capture of New York. With under fire before, threw down their arms this determination, to avoid arousing the and fled. Greene with great presence suspicions of Clinton, he allowed a letter, of mind, immediately covered his rear describing the operations, by which he with a regiment of regulars, and then intended to conduct the siege of New quietly withdrew his whole army, thus | York, to fall into the latters' hands. saving it from receiving a crushing de- Clinton really believing that Washington feat. Although Cornwallis claimed the was making preparations to besiege him, victory he did not follow up his advan- put forth his whole strength in building tage, but crossed over into the province works to defend his position. While he of Virginia, which he determined to re was thus engaged the combined forces duce at all hazards. Previous to this, of the Americans and French crossed Arnold and General Phillips with three the North River, without exciting any thousand six hundred men had landed suspicion or receiving opposition, and by at Portsmouth, in Virginia, and com forced marches reached Williamsburg, menced to lay waste the lower districts, where LaFayette was encamped, on the