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property afterwards, it is subject to the full amount of the debt.
The Moors rigidly observe the Muhamedan fast. If a man take food during the day, he receives the bastinado according to the sentence of the judge; if water, he receives twenty or thirty blows upon the head; if tobacco, he is sometimes punished with death.
With the governors of towns, authority supplies the place of law. The judgments they pronounce are always arbitrary, and frequently consist in awarding the bastinado with equal liberality to the innocent and the guilty. Money, however, which often constitutes the crime, obtains the pardon of the accused. The acuteness of some of these governors is remarkable; of this, the two following instances are given.
A young married woman of Fas was unfaithful to her husband, and often contrived to meet her lover. At length, the lover, having reason to believe that her guilt extended to another, murdered her, and cast her body into the river. It floated down the stream till it reached a mill, when the hair became entangled in the wheel, and it stopped. The miller instantly gave information to the governor, who ordered him to cut off the head, and bring it to him in a sack, and keep the affair secret.
The governor placed the head in his chamber, and sending for the women who attended at the public baths, he demanded to whom it had belonged. They recognised the head; and after having also enjoined them to secresy, he went to the husband, and asked where was his wife. “She has been at the house of her father ever since yes
terday,” replied the husband.' “That must be inquired into,” said the governor; and, taking the husband with him, he went to the father, and repeated his question respecting his daughter. The father answered that she had, indeed, been with him, but that she did not remain a moment in his house.
The governor took the husband with him, and shewed him the head of his wife; he then accompanied him to his house, and desired to see all her clothes, and having examined them, piece by piece, he asked the husband whether they had all been given by him. All were recollected to have been 80, except a rich sash, worked with silk and gold, of the manufacture of Fas. This the governor took with him; and, sending for the makers of sashes, and pretending that he wanted one of the same, it was acknowledged by the manufacturer, who said that he had made only three of that pattern, and named the persons to whom he had sold them.
The murderer was now discovered, and sent for. He confessed the crime, and offered three thousand ducats, one thousand for the governor, one for the father, and one for the husband, for its expiation. The governor received the
gave father the sum allowed by the law, as a compensation for the loss of his daughter; but he kept the whole of that intended for the husband; telling him that he was sufficiently recompensed by escaping the punishment due to him for not having properly watched the conduct of his wife.
The other instance of sagacity was shewn in the case of a thief who had stolen some pigeons.
Three young men, who were suspected, were summoned to appear before the governor, who said, “ those who steal pigeons should take care not to leave the feathers about their heads.” One of the three instantly raised his hand to his cap, to brush off the feathers; and when he had thus discovered himself to be the thief, he confessed the fact.
The latter of these anecdotes will probably bring to the mind of the reader that story of the Arabian Tales in which a vizir discovers the thief among the princes by his estimating the forbearance of the robber, who spared the lady's jewels, above that of the husband and the lover, who spared her person. It is not, perhaps, that Arabian vizirs or Moorish governors possess more acuteness than European judges; but that the former trust to their own discernment, while the last rely upon written laws.
The empire of Marocco is about 650 miles in length, from north to south, and about 200 in breadth from east to west. The Moors have no idea of making roads; or of repairing those that have been made by the ancient possessors of the country, or by the track of passengers.
There is a regular company of couriers in every town, who constitute the only mode of conveyance for public and private dispatches, and who are always ready to set out at a moment's notice. These men travel, on foot, journeys of three or four hundred miles, at the rate of from thirty to forty miles a day, without any other nourishment than a little bread, a few figs, and some water; and they have frequently no better shelter at night than a tree. There have been repeated
instances of a courier proceeding from Marocco to Tangier, a distance of about 330 miles, in six days.
In the months of June, July, and August, the heat in Marocco is excessive. About the beginning of September the country is visited by the shume or hot wind from the Sahara. This blows with great violence during three, seven, fourteen, or twenty-one days, and at this time it is scarcely possible to walk out: the ground burns the feet, and the air resembles that from the mouth of an oven. The inhabitants of the towns live upon fruit; for meat cannot be eaten warm with life, and it becomes putrid before it is cold. They pass the day in their cellars, and at night they have the stone walls of their bed-rooms deluged with water, which makes a hissing noise, as if poured on hot iron.
FAS TO OUSCHDA, L'ARAICH, TANGIER, TETUAN.
Of the Shelluhs and Berebbers who inhabit the mountains of Marocco, and of the Arabs who cultivate the plains, enough has been said ; it remains to speak of the Moors and Jews who inhabit the towns.
Moors are of a middle stature, and are less muscular than Europeans; their complexion is sallow in the northern, and darker in the southern, parts of their empire; their eyes are black and full, their nose is aquiline, and their teeth are, in general, good. Lame people are seldom seen ; blind are more numerous than in Europe. The toes take their natural growth, and are nearly as useful to mechanics as their fingers.
The Moors are naturally of a grave and pensive disposition ; they frequently smile, but are seldom heard to laugh : the most infallible mark of internal tranquillity is their stroking or playing with their beard. They speak loud, and often two or three at a time, as they are not very exact in waiting for a reply. Though they live in a state of ignorance and abject slavery, they consider themselves as the first people in the world, and contemptuously term all others barbarians. Some