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ent articles, to some of which I found it difficult to give a satisfactory answer.
The next day, the tenth of June, we reached Pisania, where I was hailed by my countrymen. Our journey from Kamalia to this place had occupied fifty-two days, thirty-one of which had been days of travelling, and twenty-one, days of rest. A schooner, which was lying at anchor before the place, afforded Karfa a subject of deep meditation. He could not easily comprehend the uses of the mast, sails, and rigging ; nor could he conceive that it was possible, by any sort of contrivance, to make so large a body move forwards by the common force of the wind.
Here I recompenced Karfa by giving him double the sum I had promised, and his gratitude was unbounded. But, observing the superiority of our manufactures, and the arts of civilized life, he exclaimed with a sigh, “ Black men are nothing !"
Having taken leave of this worthy and hospitable man, I went on board my sloop; and, after a tedious passage, in hot, moist, and unhealthy weather, I arrived at the mouth of the Gambia.
Thus ended my long and perilous expedition ; an expedition of about eleven hundred English miles, in a direct line from west to east, in which I was frequently reduced to the energy of my own mind, and the strength of my own constitution : it is probable that both would have sunk under fatigue, and accumulated hardships, had it not been for the timely aid of Karfa Taura.
PASSING by the kingdom of Barra, which I had visited before, I sailed up one of the branches of the river of Salum. The mouth of this river is in 13° 44' north latitude. The navigation was so obstructed by sand-banks, that we could only proceed at high water; we were therefore four days in reaching Cahola, which is three miles distant from Cahone the royal residence.
At Cahola I fired five guns, as a salute to the King of Salum, and, in about half an hour, we perceived a multitude of lances and muskets glittering in the sun. As they advanced, we distinguished about four hundred horsemen, in the midst of whom was the king. The warriors and great men wore caps like a helmet, a short frock of a yellowish red cotton with very wide sleeves, full drawers of white cotton, reaching half way
down the thigh, and half-boots of red Morocco leather. The king was mounted on a beautiful horse, richly caparisoned; on each side of him walked a slave, carrying a large umbrella, and around him galloped some detached horsemen in grotesque habits, using extravagant gestures, and shaking long lances, at the ends of which were suspended pieces of red cloth.
I went on shore and shook hands with this black sovereign ; and after some compliments,
two mats were spread under a large tree. On these we seated ourselves, the principal officers of the king sitting on his right hand, and two of my attendants on my left. Sixty men, armed with lances, formed a circle round us. The monarch having made a signal with his hand, a number of men sounded the trumpets, which hung from their necks, to command silence. I then informed the King of Salum, that it being my desire to visit the different kings in Africa, I had come to pay my respects to him. He took my hand, and pressing it to his breast, showed me the setting sun, and said he must be gone ; but that he should expect me the next day at Cahone, and would send horses for me and my attendants.
attendants. He then mounted his horse; his people did the same, and they set off on a full gallop.
Sandene was the name of this king. He was tall and well made, his physiognomy was dignified and prepossessing, and his dress was striking. He wore a blue cap, with bands and plates of gold so arranged, as to give it greatly the appearance of a crown. His frock, which was of white cotton striped with red, was very wide, and reached to his knees; it was fastened round the waist with a sash. Round his neck was a cord of crimson silk, from which was suspended a golden globe inclosing the end of an elephant's tail, the black hairs of which floated in the wind. This was the gree-gree of the king. His arms were encircled with rings of gold, and a large scymitar, with a gold hilt, in a sheath of Morocco leather, with gold plates, hung at his right side.
On the following morning, Sandene's horses appeared on the bank of the river, and at eight
o'clock I arrived at the gate of his residence in Cahone. We passed through three large courts, filled with houses occupied by the servants of the king; at the gate of each court was stationed a guard of twenty men, armed with hassagays and bows and arrows. The king's apartment stood alone; but it was surrounded by more than sixty houses, inhabited by his women, children, and confidential slaves. It was of a circular form, thirty feet in diameter, and forty-five in height, with a conical roof thatched with straw. The interior of the dome was covered with matting, of different patterns, and the sides were ornamented with muskets, swords, pistols, bows, quivers with arrows, lances, hassagays, saddles, bridles, and horses' furniture. The floor was a composition of fine sand, red earth, and gum water, and was covered with mats. Two seats, raised ten inches above the floor, and covered with blue cloth, were opposite the entrance; on one of these the king was sitting; and seeing me, he rose, took me by the hand, and placed me on the other. He then said, “I see you in my house, in the presence of the great people of my country, and I see you with pleasure. Tell me what you wish, and I will hear you with attention, for I regard you as my brother."
I was pleased with Sandene, king of Salum, and much pleased with his brotherly affection. If the great ('reator of all things has thought fit to colour some men white, others black, and others of every different shade between the two, are they not all brothers ? and who shall take upon him to say which tinge should claim superiority over the rest?
The country of Salum is fertile and populous; its inhabitants, who are Jalofs, are of a pure, shining black, and a noble figure. They are humane and courageous, and entertain a high opinion of the remote antiquity of their origin. Their general mode of asseveration is swearing by their nose. When they meet, they take each other by the right hand, saying, “good morning, good day, or good evening; how do you do? your father, your mother, and your children, are they all well?” The Jalofs call the head of their nation Boor by Jalofs, and the king of Salum, Boor Salum. Boor equally denotes a sovereign, a chief, or a master.
Passing the small kingdom of Baol, or Sin, which is governed by Boor Sin, I went on shore on the island of Goree in 14° 17' north latitude. It is a fortified rock belonging to the French, containing a native population of fifteen or sixteen hundred persons; seventy or eighty officers, soldiers and clerks, and about two hundred slaves, who are circulated as so many articles of commerce. About sixteen miles to the west of Goree are two small uninhabited islands called the isles of Madeleine.
From Goree, I crossed a channel of 3,000 yards in breadth, and arrived at Dakar, a village on the southern shore of the peninsula of Cape Verd. This cape is the most western point of Africa; and from thence to Cape Gardafui, the most eastern, is said to be a distance of 2,526 miles. The length from Cape Arguillas, which is to the eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, to Cape Bona, which is to the east of Tunis, is 5,700 miles.
The soil of Cape Verd is a hard, dry sand; the verdure from which it received its name being only