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The Police.

ritively with our neighbours on the continent of Europe, that all the tranfactions of our whole body of magiftracy put together, for preferving the peace, and for establishing decency, order, and public decorum, fall fhort of the idea of a complete Police.

For be it remembered, that it is the duty of the Police, not only to prevent as far as poffible the commiffion of crimes, which are violations of the eftablished laws of civil fociety, and to bring offenders to juftice, but to remove all annoyances, all nuifances, every thing that infringes on decency and decorum, every thing that is fhocking to humanity, or affronting to modefty, every thing that may endanger the health of the inhabitants, or fubject them to fatal accidents; and that the barely keeping the peace, in the limited fenfe to which it is ufually confined, forms but a small part of the necellary cares of a good officer of the Police. Shall I render this more familiar to your worship, by informing you, that it ought to be an object of as much concern to the Police to prevent the throwing a peafcod or an orangepeel in the way of a porter bending beneath a heavy burthen, who may thereby break a limb, and become useless to fociety, and to his family, as to fend a man and horse, upon the firft information given at the Bow-ftreet Office, in pursuit of a highwayman: this may be fufficient to explain my meaning, as in future effays the feveral enormities which daily pass unnoticed, under the very eye of our famous Bow-ftreet Police, fhall be pointed out, and the reafons why they are not corrected fhall be fully explained.

Occafional hints for the improvement of our Police shall be given with all due deference and fubmiffion to Sir J-n, and his brethren in the commiffion of the peace, founded on a course of obfervations made during a refidence at fundry periods in almost all the principle cities of Europe, particularly in thofe from which we import every folly and every foible, while we fcornfully reject, proud of our own fuperior wiídóm, every wholesome regulation for the welfare and convenience of polished focieties.

It is apprehended that advice to the magiftracy of the city and liberties of Weftminster, and of the county of Middlefex, could not poffibly be introduced with greater propriety than at the prefent juncture, when the freeholders of the county of Middlefex, and the worthy livery of the city of London, have made it a capital article of the public grievances in their petitions to the King-That the civil magiftracy has been made contemptible by the appointment of improper and incapable perfons.-The author of thefe effays is no ftranger to the perfons and characters of this newly inlifted corps in the minifterial regiment of court fpies and informers; and in due courfe of time will delineate them in proper colours. One fqueaking, powdered, perfumed coxcomb, he particularly wishes to reform, who never entered into a felect fociety, or body of men, without a view to his own private intereft: this man he would wish to convert to a patriotic magiftrate, by much the fame kind of procefs as edulcorating train oil; and he hopes he shall receive from fome patriotic fociety a recompence fufficient to lay the foundation of his future fortune, and to put him in the road of becoming a Middletex juftice, inftead of a poor author, if he fhould accomplish this miraculous operation.

He hopes alfo to convince your worfhip, that every man having his peculiar province affigned him by Providence and the laws of fociety, it is the duty of each individual, but more particularly fo of a magiftrate, to confine himself affiduously to the duties of his station, and not to launch out into a variety of capricious idle projects, when his time would be much better employed in acquiring a greater degree of kill and perfection in the vocation to which it has pleafed God to call him. On this principle he thinks Sir J-n might employ his leisure hours in examining the equity, expediency, and public utility of the regulations eftablished in the department of the Police in foreign countries, or in reviewing the laws, ftatutes, and cuftoms of his own, in order to procure the revival and enforcement of fome that are obfolete,

The Police.

folete, and the repeal of others, which time and change of manners have rendered ufelefs. Leaving the idle parade of prefiding at public charitable inftitutions to fuch as Lord Hd or his grace of G―n, who, after a courfe of many years wallowing in obfccnity, gluttony and riot, may fix a name, and think to immortalize their memory on the entablatures of hospitals, by taking this hackneyed penitential

road to heaven.

If to check the spur to industry, if to weaken the ftrong tie of parental affection, and the pleafing anxiety of providing for an infant offspring, if to loofen the matrimonial band, by facilitating the means of enjoying idlenefs and indolence be politic, then all thefe inftitutions are equally fo; otherwife, on a ftrict fcrutiny, it is to be feared many of them will be found to be detrimental to the true intereft of a commercial state, an obftruction to the establishment of a true Police, and an expence which might be converted into a better channel. The regular difcuffion of a maxim apparently fo unpopular fhall follow in due order, upon fome future occafion; in the mean time it is to be hoped you will leave to the ma ine fociety, the care of cloathing and fending to fea fuch friendlefs boys as they fhall think objects of their patriotic fcheme. And that you will not by fresh advertifments and fubfcriptions unneceffarily increase the public expences, and drain the country of plough-boys, fhepherds, and cow-herds, nor the town of boys for tradefinen's fhops, and other domeftic employments. What your popularity gains on this fubject, it more than lofes on another. Muft it not give umbrage to every lover of his country, to obferve the amafing increase of impiety, profigacy, and debauchery extending their baleful influence to all ranks throughout the kingdom, but more particularly in the city and liberties of Weiminster, fcarce a day paffing without intelligence of fome fkilful manoeuvre of dignified gamblers ftripping young heirs of their fortunes, and reducing men of family and


abilities to poverty, to ruin, and mifery, and totally incapacitating them for the fervice of their country in the rank of life which their birth and finished education might have entitled them to have filled honourably.-Of the moft fhameful breaches of hofpitality and violations of private truft and confidence.-Of men fo infamous as to repay the obligations of friendfhip, by the worst of robberies, the feduction of the wives and daughters of their most intimate acquaintance, and often of their greatest benefactors.-Of fuch a libidinous disposition circulating amongst our women as muft render them objects of deteftation and abhorence both at home and abroad, and muft in the end defeat the grand object of every civilized fociety, population. And all this notwithstanding, the Lieutenant de Police, is conftantly giving his friendly admonition in the front of the Public Advertifer, the fale of which he pro- . motes for his own intereft, being a proprietor, that few robberies will efcape detection, efpecially if all perfons robbed make use of that paper to advertife their luffes in.

Were half the pains taken to fupprefs gambling, to enforce the execution of the laws against all transgreffors, in all times, and at all places, however highly diftinguifhed by rank or title; and had the Lieutenant de Police, the fpirit to visit A——r`s Charlotte Hy's, and fome other polite places of private refort for the practice of public vices, and to infift, that the makers of the laws fhould be the first on whom they fhould be obligatory and binding,that are bestowed on promoting the fuccefs of the Public Advertiser by informations, and advertisements of petty larcenies, Sir J-n might be enabled to acquaint the public that feu robberies, very few adulteries, and only a very finall number of fashionable, honourable, or political murders, will be committed.

But this cannot be expected, if the civil magiftrate is penfioned by bawds, pimps, whores, vintners, and gamblers, and under this confideration grants his countenance, or private connivance,

The Police.

nivance, to the most humiliating, the moft abandoned fcenes of vice, thereby fuperfeding every regard to public virtue, and the rules of decorum. It is to be hoped this is never the cafe in Britain.

But to return to your worship, it should seem by your advertisements at your chief merit confifts in the fpeedy detection of unhappy culpits, and in fecuring them properly, that they may receive the punishments due to their crimes. This is not fufficient; if you would really wish to have the uninformed foreigner when he arrives in London, and takes up your news-papers, fedfaftly believe, that the Police is in Bow-ftreet, and that Sir J-n Fg is the officer appointed by the government to comprife within himself all the important duties of that office, you must be more affiduous in preventing the commiffion of crimes; and you must alfo defcend to the minutiae of this extenfive department. For the fenfible foreigner will be as ready to exclaim that there is no police in this country, if a fifh-woman wilfully and maliciously flings the entrails of a mackrel on his white filk ftocking, as he is ftepping into a coach to go to Ranelagh, as if he had his pocket picked at church. Such is his idea of the police, and if I point out a number of annoyances of a fimilar nature, I hope in time I fhall find a general notice from the police, that natives and ftrangers, men, women, and young girls, may walk the streets without the danger of receiving infults, or being liable to accidents which are far more injurious than the lofs of a handkerchief, a watch, or even a Bedford fnuff-box.

I am aware that you have fome obftructions in your department, which arife from the unhappy fituation of public affairs. Many measures might be taken to fupprefs vice, and prevent the commiffion of crimes, the operation of which is prevented by the created neceffities of the state. The grand object in the prefent fyftem of government is to increase the revenue; and if that cannot be compaffed, at leaft to prevent its decreafe. Every

poffible encouragement therefore must be given to the confumption of all articles on which high duties or excifes are payable. And hence the vast number of houses of public entertainment that have been licenfed within thefe few years, in oppofition to the plan of reformation that was fet on foot refpecting thefe places in the twenty-first year of the late reign. And hence the protection of the most expenfive brothels, where the wines of France are chiefly confumed. Thus the channels of profligacy and difoluteness of manners are enlarged, extravagance is the forerunner of indigence, and the latter, in debauched characters, commonly leads to wrong and robbery, to theft and murders; and then the boafted police of Covent Garden steps in, and takes care that few robberies, adulteries, criminal elopements, rapes, or affaffinations efcape detection, elpecially if the offenders are of no note or quality.

But there are unhappy criminals of another caft, who perhaps have been fober, frugal and induftrious; and yet by various misfortunes, the lot of humanity, have been reduced to want, and have invaded their neighbour's property.

The total neglect of every beneficial regulation already made, and of animadverting to those which are eftablished in neighbourhood ftates, with refpect to the fuperintendency of public markets, the detection of frauds in weights and meafures, the fubverting the fchemes of monopolizers and foreftallers, and the preventing a variety of impofitions which arife from the want of a true police, the value of the neceffaries of life being illegally enhanced, becomes a public calamity, and under thefe circumftances it occafionally happens that even the most fober and frugal are driven to distress, and unhappily to dishonesty.

But if Bow-ftreet were actually the the Police, few of the great villains, on whofe account little ones muft fubmit to fate, would efcape detection, nor would they be fuffered to rob the public,

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The public, and to grind the face of the poor with impunity.

The means of redreffing the grievances, with refpect to the London markets, fhall be fhewn in a future effay; for the present permit me to close my addrefs to you with a hint or two relative to that dreadful calamity, Fire. Fires have of late been very frequent, and however paradoxical it may appear, this is, in a great meafure, owing to the infurance offices; thefe inftitutions are perhaps another effect of our mistaken notions about internal polity. Whatever relieves the mind of care and attention naturally makes men carelefs; and by the indolence arifing from affured fecurity, the public often fuffers. Propofals therefore for preventing fires have always been treated with indifference and neglect, because most house-keepers have infured their property to its full value. The confequence is, that the poorer fort, who are not in a fituation to enable them to take this precaution, are often totally ruined by the dreadful calamity of fire; and that, because their wealthy neighbours, being infured, are indifferent about what paffes in their houses, and pay little or no attention to the conduct of their fervants. So that upon the whole, it may reasonably be concluded, that if there were no infurance-offices, there would be very few fires; the very anxious concern of moft people for their property, would keep up their affiduity, and they would be extremely cautious with refpect to the fobriety and regularity of lodgers and fervants. The curfeu bell, in the time of William the Conqueror, was an excellent regulation; and though from the diffipation of the present times it would be impoffible to make people retire to their habitations, or extinguish their fire and candles at a certain hour, yet I can fee no reason why the watchmen fhould not be enjoined to add to the anouncing the hours, the following fhort admoni



tion, from eleven at night to three in the morning, in an audible voice,--Take care of your Fire and Candle. Or if this fhould be liable to objections, I would propofe that the fame method be taken in London as in Flanders, Holland, and fome parts of Germany. Let a convenient little watch-room be constructed in the tower or steeple of every parish church, fufficiently fecured from the inclemencies of the weather, and, if neceffary, warmed with a stove; in this room let hearty middle-aged men watch by rotation every night, and be obliged to found a trumpet every half hour, to affure the parishioners, or the watchmen in the treet, that they are awake. By this means, the earliest discoveries would be made of all fires, and their fpreading be prevented. As the cafe ftands at prefent, houses are often almoft burnt down before the watchmen discover fires, owing to their age, infirmities, and inattention, and fometimes while they are gone their rounds; but the alarm must be inftantaneous, from perfons placed in a fituation where they might easily overlook every parish; and if the churches were not thought fufficient, they might likewife be placed at the top of halls, and other public buildings.

In addition to this measure, an act of parliament fhould be procured by the civil magiftrate to remove all hazardous trades to fome convenient place detached from the city, as is practifed at Paris. As fires became less frequent through these regulations, people would be lefs folicitous about infuring, and their affiduity and vigilance being at the fame time awakened, by the fear of lofing their property through negligence. Univerfal regularity would prevail, and the poorer fort, who cannot afford to infure, would not be afraid of lofing their lives and properties, by the misconduct of their neighbours, in the hours of midnight jollity.

[To be continued.]



( 8 )

Hoffman's Treatife on the Regimen prefcribed in the facred Scriptures, concluded.

age. Amongst the causes of the longevity of the Egyptians, their drinking from the Nile is one. Very different from one another are the fpecies of waters: thofe are the beft which are clear, light, without heterogeneous gravelly particles; which, when drank, produce not a fwimming in the ftomach, and pass well by urine and perfpiration, keeping the body open.

§ XX. After water, we muft next in turn confider the qualities of wine, of which Noah is mentioned, Gen. xix. as the inventor and improver; whence it appears to have been of very ancient date. The fon of Sirach ftrongly recommends the moderate use of it, ch. xxxi. 27. Wine is as good as life to man, if drank moderately. In Pfalm civ. 15. the power is given it of gladdening the heart of man. It is prefcribed under the stroke of adverfity by the first mentioned writer in the fubfequent verfes of the fame chapter, whence the firft paffage was drawn: Wine, measurably drank, and in feafon, bringeth gladness of the heart, and chearfulness of the mind. And in ch. xi. Wine and mufic bring joy to the heart. To these we may add the words of Solomon, Prov. xxxi. 6, 7. Give ftrong drink unto him who is ready to perish, and wine to thofe who be of heavy heart; let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his mifery no more. Wine, indeed, if it be not four, or full of vapours, obtains the principal place among those remedies which ftrengthen the whole frame, as promoting the circulation of the blood, giving a free perfpiration to the body, and wonderfully raising the decayed vigour. For this reafon Paul prefcribes to his friend Timothy, labouring under a weakness of appetite, the ufe of wine, in ch. v. 23. of his firft epiftle to him: Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy ftomach's foke, and thy frequent infirmities. The excellency of good wine in a weakness of appetite, or want of digestion, which is teftified by daily experience, can hardly be fufficiently extolled. It is particularly falutary for fuch as are of a cold and moift conftitution, leading a fedentary life, and seldom using


WE will next confider drinks, of which there are various forts; but I fhall here only speak of fuch as are agreeable to our frame, and are mentioned in the facred writings.

Of these, water is the moft obvious; which we may prove to have been drank by the Ifraelites, from Numb. xx. where they befought God, by Mofes, for water, and obtained their request, when their leader fmote the rock with his rod. To this may be added the paffage in Kings xvii. which fays, that Elijah drank water from the brook; as alfo the verfe in Ecclefiafticus before cited in § XVII.---That the liquor of the firft inhabitants of the earth was water, and of the patriarchs till the time of Noah, is an opinion far from being uncertain; fince there is mention made of drinking water in a variety of places, but of wine no where. From whence it is evident, that before the deluge water was valued as a drink. ---It is, indeed, the most common to all animals, and best accommodated to the preservation of health. For this element is very neceffary to the formation of the blood, and vital fluids. It is excellently well calculated for the digeftion and extraction of the juices of our food; paffing, as it does, moft expeditiously through the very fmall pores of the body, by which means it is the vehicle of nourishment to the internal parts it likewife carries away from the body all faline, fulphureous excrements; for which reasons it fhould obtain the name of an univerfal medicine, and moft noble prefervative.---Thofe who drink water only, are much more robuft and lively than they who prefer to it beer, or other liquors. It moreover ftrengthens and whitens the teeth, and preferves the gums. There is a remarkable inftance in Mifcell. Natur. Curiofi. dec. ii. aiii. obf. 15. of a man, one hundred and twenty years old, with his whole fet of teeth entire; for whofe long life no other reafon could be given, than that he had from his cradle drank water. Authors report of Andrea Tiraquello, a celebrated counfellor, that, by the affiftance of this fluid alone, he lived to a good old

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