« ZurückWeiter »
Te femper antcit dira neceffitas. Alcaic. Hor.
To this figure may be referred the changing of i and w into į and v, or pronouncing them in the same fyllable with the following vowel ; as in genva, tenvis ; arjetat, tenvia, abjete, pitvita ; parjetibus, Nafidjenus ; for genua, tenuis, &c. as,
Propterea qui corpus aquæ naturaque tenvis. Lucr.
4. DiÆRESIS divides one syllable into two; as, aulai, for aulæ ; Tröiæ, for Troja ; Persëus, for Perseus; milü. us, for milvus ; folüit, for folvit ; volüit, for volvit ; aquæ, süetus, süasit, Süevos, relangüit, reliquas, for aquæ, fuetus, &c. as,
Aula in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg.
5. Systole is when a long syllable is made fhort; as the penult in tulerunt ; thus,
Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses. Virg.
6. Diastole is when a fyllable usually short is made long; as the last syllable in amor, in the following verse :
Confidant, & tantus amor, et mænia condant.
To these may be subjoined the Figures of Dixin, as they are called, which are chiefly used by the poets, tho' fome of them likewise frequently occur in profe.
1. When a letter or fyllable is added to the beginning of a word, it is called Prosthesis : as, gnavus,
for navus; tetüli, for tuli. When a letter or fyllable is inter posed in che middle of a word, it is called EPENTHESIS ; as, relligio, for religio ; induperator, for imperator. When a letter or fyllable is added to the end, it is called PARAGOGE ; as, dicier, for dici.
2. If a letter or fyllable be taken from the beginning of a word, it is called APHÆRESIS ; as, natus, for gnatus ; tenderant, for tetenderant. If from the middle of a word, it is called Syncope ; as, dixti, for dixisti ; deüm, for deo
If from the end, Apocõpe; as, viden', for videfne ; Antoni, for Antonii.
3. When a letter or fyllable is transposed, it is called METATHËSIS; as, piftris, for priftis ; Lybia, for Libya. When one letter is put for another, it is called ANTITHESIS; as, faciundum, for faciendum ; clli, for illi ; voltis, for vultis.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS.
Any work composed in verse is called a Poem, (Poema or Carmen.)
Poems are called by various names, from their subject, their form, the manner of treating the subject, and their style.
1. A poem on the celebration of a marriage is called an EpituaLamium; on a mournful subject, an Elegy or LAMENTATION; in praise of the supreme Being, a Hymn; in praise of any person or thing, a PANEGYRIC OF ENCOMIUM; on the vices of any one, ai SATIRE O INVECTIVE; a poem to be inscribed on a tomb, an EpiTAPA, &c.
2. A short poem adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an Ode, whence fuch compofitions are called Lyric Poems ; A poem in the form of a letter is called an EPISTLE; a fhort witty poem, playing on the fancies or conceits, which arise from any subject, is called an EPIGRAM ; as those of Catullus and Martial. A sharp, unes. pected, lively turn of wit in the end of an epigram, is called its Point. A poem expresling the moral of any device or picture, is called an EMBLEM. A poem containing an obscure question to be explained, is called an ENIGMA or RIDDLE.
When a character is described fo that the first letters of each verse, and sometimes the middle and final letters, express the name of the person or thing described, it is called an ACROSTIC; as the following on our Saviour ;
Inter cuncta micans I gniti fidera cæl 1,
3. From the manner of treating a subject, a poem is either Exe getic, Dramatic; or Mixt.
The Exegetic, where the poet always speaks himself, is of three kinds, Historical, Didactic or Instructive, (as the Satire or Epistle ;) and Descriptive.
Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the actions of ordinary life, generally with a happy issue; and TRAGEDY, representing the actions and distreffes of illustrious personages, commonly with an unhappy issue. To which may be added Paftoral Poems or Bucolics, representing the actions and conversations of thepherds; 18 most of the eclogues of Virgil.
The Mixt kind is where the poet fometimes speaks in his own person, and sometimes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC or HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction of some great illustrious person, with its various circumstances ; as, the wrath of Achilles in the Iliad of Homer; the settlement of Æneas in Italy in the Æneid of Virgil ; the fall of man in the Paradife Loft of Milton, &c.
4. The style of poetry, as of profe, is of three kinds, the limple, ornate, and sublime.
COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS.
In long poems there is commonly but one kind of verfe used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satyres and Epistles, Ovid in his Metamorphosis, Lucan, Silius Italicus, Valerius Flaccus, Juvenal, &c. always use Hexameter verse: Plautus, Terence, and other writers of Come. dy, generally use the lambic, and sometimes the Trocha. ic. It is chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those which are called Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Pfalms of Buchanan, that various kinds of verse are combined.
A Poem which has only one kind of verse, is called by a Greek name, MonocÕLON, fc. poema v. carmen ; or Monocolos, fc. ode : that which has iwo kinds, DicoLON; and that which has three kinds of verse, Trico.
If the fame sort of verse return after the second line it is called Dicolon DISTRÕPHON; as when "a Angle Pentameter is alternately placed after an Hexameter, which is named Elegiac verse (carmen Elegiacum,) because it was first applied to mournful subjects; thus,
Flebilis indignos, Elegëia, solvc capillos ;
This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works except the Metamorphoses; and also for the most part by Tibullus, Propertius, &c.
When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after three linesreturns to the first, it is called Dicolon Tristrophon; when after four lines, Dicolon Tetrastrophon; as,
Auream quisquis mediocritatem
When a poem consists of three kinds of verse, and af: ter three lines always returns to the first, it is called Tri
colon Tristrophon; but if it returns after four lines, it is called Tricolon Tetraftrophon; as when after two greater dactylic alcaic verses are subjoined an archilochian iam. bic and a lesser dactylic alcaic, which is named the Car. men Horatianum, or Horatian verse, because frequently used by Horace; thus,
Virtus recludens immeritis mori
Sperait humum fugiente penna.
Any one of these parts of a poem, in which the differ. ent kinds of verse are comprehended, when taken by itself, is called a Strophe, Stanza, or Staff.
DIFFERENT kinds of Verse in Horace and BUCHANAN.
I. Opes and PSALMS of one kind of Verse. 1. Asclepiadean, See No 3, page 272. Hor. I. 1. IV. 8.
-Buch. Pf. 28, 40, 80. 2. Choriambic Alcaic Pentameter, consisting of a spondee, three choriambuses, and a pyrrychius or iambus : Hor. 1. 11. 18. IV. 10.
3. lambic trimeter, No 11.-Hor. Epod. 17.-Buch. Pf. 25, 94, 106.
4. Hexameter, No 1. Hor. Satyres and Epistles.Buch. Pf. 1, 18, 45, 78, 85, 89, 104, 107, 132, 135.
5. Iambic Dimèter, No 12.-Buch. Pf. 13, 31, 37, 47, 52, 54, 59, 86, 96, 98, 117, 148, 149, 150.
6. The Greater Dažylic Alcaic, No 8.- Buch. PL. 26, 29, 32, 49, 61, 71, 73, 143.
7. Trochaic, çonfisting of seven trochees and a syllable; admitting also a tribrachys in the uneven places, i. e. in the first, third, fifth, and feventh foot; and in the even places, a tribrachys, fpondee, dactyle, and anapestus, Buch. Pr. 105, 119, 124, 129:
8. Anapestic, consisting of four anapestuses, admitting also a fpondee or dactyle ; and in the last place, sometimes a tribrachys, amphimăcer, or trochec.-PC 113.