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It is esteemed a great beauty in an Hexameter verse, when by the use of dactyles and spondees, the sound is adapted to the sense;
Quadrupedante putrem fonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg.
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. Id. But what deserves particular attention in scanning Hexameter verse is the CÆSURA.
Cefura is, when after a foot is completed, there remains a fyllable at the end of a word to begin a new foot; as,
At ré-gină gră-vi jām-dudum, &c. The Cafura is variously named, according to the different parts of the hexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek name, Triemiměris : When on the fifth half-foot, or the syllable after the second foot, it is called Pentbemiměris : When it happens on the firft fyllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hepbihemiměris ; and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first fyllable of the fifth foot, it is called Ennëemiměris.
All these different species of the Cafura sometimes occur in the same verse ; 2s,
Illē lă-tūs növě-úm mõl-li fül-tūs býă-cintbo. Virg. But the most common and beautiful Cafura is the penthemim; on which some lay a particular accent or stress of the voice in reading an hexameter perse thus composed, whence they call it the Gæfural pause ; as,
Tityre dum rede-0, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg. When the Cafura falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it long; as the last syllable of fultus in the foregoing example.
The chief melody of an hexameter verfe in a great measure depends on the proper disposition of the Cæfura. Without this a line consisting of the number of feet requifite will be little else than mere prose; as,
Romą mænió tērržit impigər Hannibal ärmis. Ennius. The ancient Romans in pronouncing verse paid a particular attention to its melody. They not only observed the quantity and accent of the several fyllables, but also the different stops and paules which the particular turn of the verse required. In modern times we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin verse, because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the
people of every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their
In reading Latin verse, therefore, we are directed by the lame rules which take place with respect to English verse.
The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words should be pronouuced fully; and the cadence of
2he verse ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds with the natural expression of the words. At the end of each line there should be no fall of the voice, unless the sense requires it; but a Imall pause, half of that which we usually make at a comma.
2. PENTAMETER. The Pentaměter verse consists of five feet. Of these the two firft are either dactyles or fpondees; the third always a spondee ; and the fourth and fifth, an anapæstus; as,
Nātü- | ræ sěqui- 1 tūr se- 1 mină quis. I quě sūæ. Propert.
Cármini- | būs vi- | vēs tēm- | půs in õm- | ně mčís. Ovid. But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks or halves ; the former of which consists of two feet, either dactyles or fpondees, and a Cæfura; the latter, always of two dactyles and another Cæfura : thus,
Nātů- | ræ sèqui- | tūr / sēmînă | quisquě sů- 1 a.
Carmini. | būs vi- | vēs | tēmpus in | omně mě- 1 18. The Pentameter usually ends with a diffyllable, but sometimes also with a polysyllable.
3. ASCLEPIADEAN. The Asclepiadēan verse consists of four feet; namely, a spondee, twice a choriambus, and a pyrrhichius; as,
Mæcē- | nās ätăvis | ēditě re- 1 gibús. Hor. But this verse may be more properly measured thus : In the first place, a spondee; in the second, a dactyle;. then a cæsura; and after that two dactyles ; thus, Mæce- | nas ata- | vis / edite | regibus.
4. GLYCONIAN. The Glyconian verse has three feet, a fpondee, choriambus, and pyrrhichius ; as,
Nāvis ) quæ tìbi crē- 1 dîtům. Hor. Or it may be divided into a spondee and two dactyles; thus,
Navis 1 quæ tibi | creditum.
S. SAPPHIC and ADONIAN. The Sapphic verse has five feet, viz. a trochee, fpondee, dactyle, and two trochees; thus,
Intě- 1 gēr vi- | tæ, feělě. I risquě | pūrůs. Hor.
Jūpitěr | urgei. Hor.
6. PHERECRATIAN. The Pherecratian verse conlists of three feet, a spondee, dactyles and spondee; thus,
Nigris / æquoră / vēntis. Hor.
The Phaleucian verse consists of five fcet, namely, a fpondee, a dactyle, and three trochees ; as,
Sõmmām | nēc mětů- | as dï- ēm, nèc lõptěs. Mart.
8. The GREATER ALCAIC.
The greater Alcaic, called likewise Dactylic, consists of four feef, a spondee or jambus, iambus and cæsura, then two dactyles ; as,
Virtus répul- fæ nefcik | sordida. Hor.
The Archilochian iambic verfe conGsts of four fect. In the first and third place, it has either a spondee or iambus ; in the fecond and fourth, always an iambus; and in the end, a Cæsura; as,
Nēc sū- | mit, aūt | põnit | sěcũ. | rēs. Hor.
IQ The LESSER ALCAIC.
The lesser Dactylic Alcaic conGsts of four feet, namely, two dać, tyles and two trochees; as,
Arbitrị- 1 o popů- | lāršs , aūræ. Hor.
Of the above kinds of verse, the first two take their names from the number of feet of which they consist. All the rest derive their names from those by whom they were either first invented, or frequently ufed.
There are several other kinds of verse, which are named from the feet by which they are most commonly measured ; such as the dactylic, trochaic, anapastic, and iambic. The last of these is moft frequently used.
Of lambic verfe there are two kinds. The one consists of four feet, and is called by a Greek name Dimeter; the other consists of fir feet, and is called Trimăter. The reason of these names is, that among the Grecks two feet were confidered only as one measure in iambic verse; whereas the Latins measured it by single feet, and therefore called the dimeter quaternarius, and the trimeter senarius.
Originally this kind of verse was purely iambic, i. e. admitted of no other feet but the iambus ; thus,
Dimeter, Inār- / słt ze. I stůö | siūs. Hor.
Trimeter, Sšīs / ět i- | psă Ro- | mă vi- | rìbūs "rūit. IJ. But afterwards, both for the sake of ease and varicty, different feet were admitted into the uneven or odd places; that is, in the first, third, and fifth places, instead of an iambus, they used a spondee, a dactyle, or an anapæstus, and sometimes a tribrachys. We also find a tribrachys in the even places, i. e. in the second place, and in the fourth; for the last foot must always be an iambus ; thus, Dimeter, Cānidi- \ å trā. 1 ctāvit | dăpēs. Hor.
Video | rě propě | rantės | domūm. Id. Trimeter, Quoquo | scěle- ! si rời- / tis aūt | cũr dēx. 1 tēris. Id.
Påvidūm- | quě lépo- | raūt ād / věnām låquěő |
&torem. In comic writers we sometimes find an iambic verse conGsting of eight feet, therefore called Tetrameter, or Oetonarius.
FIGURES in SCANNING.
The several changes made upon words to adapt them to the verse, are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are the Synalæpha, Eablipfis, Synærēsis, Diarēsis ; Syftõk, and Diallole.
1. SYNALOEPHA is the cutting off of a vowel or dipli. thong, when the next word begins with a vowel ; as;
Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. to be scanned thus,
Contịců- | ēr' om- | nės in- i tênti- | qu'oră te- | nebānt. The Synalapha is sometimes neglected ; and seldom takes place in the interjections, 6, beu, cih, prib, va, vah, hei; as,
O pater, ô hominum, Divůmque æterna potcstas. Virg. Long vowels and diphthongs, when not cut off, are fonetimes shortened ; as,
Insulæ lonio in magno, quas dira Celæno. Virg.
2. ECTHLIPSIS is, when m is cut off, with the vowel be. fore it, in the end of a word, because the following word begins with a vowel; as,
O curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus inane? Perl. thus,
O cù. I rás hóm. I n, o quan- 1 t'ēlt in rebus in- 1 änē. Sometimes the Synalæpha and E&hlipfis are found at The end of the verse; as,
Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, cælumque
Ardua cernebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id.
3. SYNÆRESIS is the contraction of two fyllables into one, which is likewise called Crasis ; as, Phathon, for Pbaethon. So äi in Thefei, Orphei, deinde, Pompei; üi in huic, cui ; öi in proinde ; ëâ in aureâ ; thus,
Notus amor Phædræ, nota cft injuria Thesei. Ovid.
Aureâ percuffum virgâ, versumque venenis. Id. So in antehac, eadem, alvearia, deeft, deerit, vebemens, ankeit, eodem, alveo, graveolentis, omnia, femianimis, femihomo, fiuviorum, totius, promontorium, &c. as,
Unâ eâdemque viâ fanguisque animusque ferunter. Virg.