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dicam. Antiquum obtines, scil. morem vel institutum, Plaut. Hodie in ludum occæpi ire literarium, ternas jam fcio, fcil. literas, i. e. AMO, Id. Triduo abs te mullas acceperam, scil. literas, i.e. epistoJam, Cic. Brevi dicam, scil. sermone : So Complecti, refpondere, &c. brevi. Dii mcliora, fc. faciant : Rhodum volo, inde Athenas, fc. irc, Id. Bellicum, vel clasicum canere, sc. fignum, Liv. Civica donatus, sc. coronâ; So obsidionalem, muralem adeptus, &c. Id. Epistola librarii manų eft fe. fcripta, Cic. So in English, “ The twelve,” i. e. apostles ; “ The elect," i. e. persons.
When a conjunction is to be fupplied, it is called ASYNDETON; as, Deus optimus maximus, scil. et ; Sartum tectum conservare, ii e. fartum et tectum; So Abiit, exceflit, evafit, erupit, Cic. Ferte citi Nammas, date vela, impellite remos, Virg. Velis nolis, fcil. seu.
To this figure may be reduced most of those irregularities in Sya. tax, as they are called, which are variously claffed by grammarians, under the names of ENNALAGE, i. e. the changing of words and and thcir accidents, or the putting of one word for another ; AN. TIPTõsis, i. e. the putting of one case for another; HELLENISM or Græcism, i. e. imitating the construction of the Greeks ; SYNESIS, i. e. referring the construction, not to the gender or number of the word, but to the sense, &c. thus, Samnitium duo millia cæli, is Duo millia ( bominum, Samnitium (fuerunt homines) cæli, Liv. So Monstrum quæ, sc. mulier, Hor. Scelus qui, sc. homo, Ter. Omnia Mercurio fimilis, sc. fecundum, Virg. Misli magais de rebus uterque, leg?ti; i. e. Misli legati (et) uterque (legntus missus) de magnis rebus, Horat. Servitia repudiabat, cujus, sc. servitii, Sall. Cat. 31. Familia noftra, quorum, &c. sc. hominum, Sall. Concursus populi, inirantium, Liv. Illum ut vivat, optant, for ut ille vivat, Ter. Populum late regem, for regnantem, Virg. Expediti militum, for mil. ites; Classis Atabat Rhegii, for ad Rhegium, Liv. Latium Capuaque agro multati, sc. homines, Id. Utraque formofæ, fc, mulieres, Ovid. Aperite aliquis oftium, Ter. Senfit delapsus, for delapsum, sc. se esse, Virg.
When a writer frequently uses the Ellipsis, his style is said to be clliptical or concise.
PLEONASM is when a word more is added than is absolutely neceffary to express the sense; as, Video 'oculis, I see with my eyes ; Sic ore locuta eft: adest præsens : Nusquam gentium ; vivere vitam : servire fervitutem ; Quid mihi Celsus agit? Fac me ut fciam, &c. Suo ibi gladio hunc jugulo, Ter. Suo fibi fucco vivunt, Plaut.
When a conjunction is used apparently redundant, it is called POLYSYNDETON; as, Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, Virg.
When that which is in reality one, is so expressed as if there were two, it is called HENDIADYs; as, Pateris libamus et auro, for aureis pateris, Virg.
When several words are used to express one thing, it is called PeriPHRASIS; as, Urbs Troja, for Troja, Virg. Res voluptatum, for voluptates, Plaut. Usus purpurarum, for purpura ; Genus pis. cium, for pisces, Hor.
HYPERBATON is the transgression of that order or arrangement of words which is commonly used in any language. It is chiefly to be met with among the poets. The various forts into which it is divided, are, Anastrophe, Hysteron protěron, Hypallăge, Synchěfis, Tmefis, and Parenthesis.
1. ANASTRÕphe is the inversion of words, or the placing of that word last which should be first; as, Italiam contra; His accenfa super ; Spemque metumque inter dubii ; for contra Italiam, super his, inter fpem, &c. Virg. Terram fol facit are, for arefacit, Lucret.
2. HYSTERON PROTERON is when that is put in the former part of the fentence, which, according to the sense, should be in the late ter; as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet, Ter.
3. HYPALLAGE is the exchanging of cases; as, Dare claffibus aus. tros, for dare classes austris, Virg.
4. SYNCHESIS is a confused and intricate arrangement of words ; 35, Saxa vocant Itali mediis quæ in Auctibus aras; for Quæ saxa in mediis fluctibus Itali vocant aras, Virg.
5. Tmesis is the divison of a compound word, and the interpof. ing of other words betwixt its parts; as, Septem subjecta trioni gens, for Septentrioni, Virg. Quæ meo cunque animo libitum eft facere, for quæcunque, Ter.
6. PARENTHESIS is the inserting of a member into the body of a sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the construction; as, Tityre, dum redeo, (brevis eft via) pasce capel las, Virg.
III. ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION.
The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, or from Latin into English, arises in a great measure from the different arrangement of words which takes place in the two languages
In Latin the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of adjectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to anothcr, in whatever order they are placed. But in English the agreement and government of words can only be determined from the particular part of the sentence in which they stand. Thus, iu Lat. in, we can either fay, Alexander vicit Darium, or Darium vicit Alexander, or Alexander Darium vicit, or Darium Alexander vicit; and in each of these the fense is equally obvious: but in Englih we can only say, Alexander conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin gives it a great advantage over the English, not only in point of energy and vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmony. We sometimes indeed, for the sake variety and force, imitate in Englifh the inversion of words which takes place in Latin; as, Him the Eternal hurl'd, Milton. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But this is chiefly to be used in poetry.
With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in tranNating from English into Latin, the only certain rule which can be given, is to imitate the CLASSICS.
The order of words in sentences is said to be either foraple or ar tificial; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural or oratorial.
The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence are placed one after another, according to the natural order of Syntax
Artificial or Oratorial order is when words are so arranged, as to render them most striking, or molt agreeable to the car.
All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which appears to us more or less artificial, because different from our own, although to them it was as natural as ours is to us. In order therefore to render any Latin author into English, we must first reduce the words in Latin to the order of English, which is called the Analyses or Resolution of sentences. It is only practice that can teach one to do this with readiness. However to a beginner the observation of the following rule may be of advantage.
Take forf the words, which serve to introduce the sentence, or show its dependence on what went before ; next, the nominative, together with the words which it agrees with or governs; then, the verb and adverbs joined with it; and laftly, the cases which the verb governs, together with the circumstances fubjoined, to the end of the sentence : supplying through the whole the words which are understood.
If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several fentences of which it is made up; as,
Vale igitur, mi Cicero, tibique persuade effe te quidem mihi ca. -riffiinum; fed multo fore cariorem, & talibus monumentis præceptisque lætaběre, Cic. Off. lib. 3.
Farewell then, my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed very dear unto me; but shall be much dearer, if
shall take delight in fuch writings and instructions.
This' compound sentence may be resolved into these five fimple fentences : I. Igitur; mi (fili) Cicero, (tu) vale, 2. et (tu) persuade tibi (ipfi) te effe quidem (filium) cariffimum mibi : 3. fed (tu persuade tibi ipfi te) fore (filium) cariorem (mihi in) multo (negotio) 4. fi (tu) lætabere talibus monumentis, 5. et (si tu lætabere talibus) præceptis
1. Fare (you) well then, my (fun) Cicero, 2. and affure (you) yourself that you are indeed (a fon) very dear to me; 3. but (afure you yourself tbat you) shall be (a fon) much dearer (to me) 4. if you Thall take delight in such writings, 5. and (if you fall take delight in fucb) instructions.
When a learner first hegins to translate from the Latin, he should keep as frictly to the literal meaning of the words as the different idioms of the two languages will permit. But after he has made farther progress, something more will be requisite. He should then be accustomed, as much as pollible, to transfuse the beauties of an author, from the one language into the other. For this purpose it will be necessary that he be acquainted, not only with the idioms of the two languages, but also with the different kinds of style adapted to different forts of compofition, and to different subjects; together with the various turns of thought and expreslion wbich writers employ, or what are called the figures of words and of sbought ; or the Figures of Rbetoric.
The QUANTITY of SYLLABLES.
The quantity of a syllable is the space of time taken up in pronouncing it.
That part of grammar which' treats of the quantity and accent of Syllables, and of the measures of Verse, is called PROSODY.
Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long or fourt.
A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time of a Mort; as, tēndërē.
Some syllables are common : that is, sometimes long, and sometimes short; as the second syllable in volucris.
A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is always fo by custom, or by the use of the poets.
In polysyllables or long words, the lali syllable except one is called the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult, and the last fyllable except two, the Antepenultima.
When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular rule, it is said to be long or short by autbority, that is, according to the usage of the poets. Thus le in lēgo is said to be short by au. thority, because it is always made short by the Latin poets.
In most Latin words of one or two fyllables, according to our minner or pronouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable from a short. Thus le in lēgo and lēgi seem to be founded equally long; but when we pronounce them in composition, the difference is obvious ; thus, perlēgo, perlēgi; relēgo, -ěre; relēgo, āre, Gʻs.
The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The former apply to all syllables, the latter only to fome certain syllables.
1. A vowel before another vowel is thort ; as, Mčus, alius : so nibil : b in verse being considered only as a breathe ing. In like manner in English, crčate, běhave.
Exc. 1. I is long in fio, fiebam, &c. unless when followed byr; as, fičii, fierem; thus,
Omnia jam fient, fieri quæ poffe negabam, Ovid.
Exc. 2. E having an i before and after it, in the fifth declension, is long; as, fpeciei. So is the firft fyllable in aer, dius, ëbeu, and the penultima in aulãi, terrãi, 6. in Pompei, Cai, and such like words ; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables, Hor. II. Od. 7.
Exc. 3. The first fyllable in obe and Diana is common; so like. wise is the penult of genitives in ius ; as, illius, unius, &c. to be read long in profe. Alius, in the genitive is always long; clterius short. In Greek words when a vowel comes before another, no
certain rule concerning its quantity can be given.
Sometimes it is fort; as, Danăe, Idea, Sopliya, Symphonia, Simois, Hỹades, Phảon, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thcbăis, &c.
Often it is long; as, Lycāon, Machãon, Didymāon; Amphion, Arion, lsion, Pandion ; Náis, Lāis, Achāï; Briseis, Cadmēis; Latõa us, & Latois, Myrtóus, Nereïus, Priamëïus ; Achelöïus, Minoius; Archelaus, Menelaus, Amphiaraus; Æneas, Pencus, Epēus, Acrifionēus, Adamantēus, Phæbeus, Giganteus; Darius, Bafilius, Eugerius, Bacchius; Cassiopēa, Cæsarēa, Chæronča, Cytherea, Galatea, Laodicēa, Medēą, Panthea, Penelopea ; Clio, Enjo, Elcgia, Iphigenia, Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochia, idololatria, litania, politia, &c. Lā. ertes, Deïphobus, Dežjanıra, Trões, heroes, &c.
Sometimes it is common; as, Choréa, platea, Malea, Nereïdes, canopeum, Orion, Geryon, Eos, eāus, &c. So in foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, Abraham, &ç
The accusative of nouns in cus is usually short; as, Orphěa, Salmonea, Capharea, &c. but sometimes long; as, Idomenea, ilionē.., Virg. Instead of Elegia, Cytherēa, we find Elegēia, Cythěrēja, Ovid. But